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T Takeda, S Iwatsuki, T Hamakawa, K Mizuno, H Kamiya, Y Umemoto, H Kubota, Y Kubota, S Sasaki, T Yasui
Some preoperative factors affecting the outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have been previously evaluated. However, other than Klinefelter syndrome (KS), no other chromosomal anomalies have been discussed in the context of sperm retrieval outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe chromosomal anomalies and their relationship with sperm retrieval outcomes in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Of the 197 NOA patients whose clinical records were retrospectively reviewed, 144 (73...
February 24, 2017: Andrology
Christina Carlander, Gaetano Marrone, Johanna Brännström, Aylin Yilmaz, Kristina Elfgren, Pär Sparén, Anders Sönnerborg
OBJECTIVES: To analyze if the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV among (1) all women in Sweden and (2) migrant women, diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) reaches the threshold of 0.1%, which has been suggested cost-effective for HIV-testing. DESIGN: Population-based register study. SETTING: Counties of Stockholm and Gothenburg, Sweden, 1990-2014. POPULATION: All women, born between 1940 and 1990, with at least one cervical cytology or histology registered in the Swedish National Cervical Screening Register (NKCx)...
February 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Stefan Wirz, Steffen T Simon, Thomas Frieling, Claudia Bausewein, Raymond Voltz, Anne Pralong, Stefan Mönig, Markus Follmann, Martin Holtmann, Gerhild Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Vionnie W C Yu, Rushdia Z Yusuf, Toshihiko Oki, Juwell Wu, Borja Saez, Xin Wang, Colleen Cook, Ninib Baryawno, Michael J Ziller, Eunjung Lee, Hongcang Gu, Alexander Meissner, Charles P Lin, Peter V Kharchenko, David T Scadden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Cell
Alisa Glukhova, David M Thal, Anh T Nguyen, Elizabeth A Vecchio, Manuela Jörg, Peter J Scammells, Lauren T May, Patrick M Sexton, Arthur Christopoulos
The adenosine A1 receptor (A1-AR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that plays a vital role in cardiac, renal, and neuronal processes but remains poorly targeted by current drugs. We determined a 3.2 Å crystal structure of the A1-AR bound to the selective covalent antagonist, DU172, and identified striking differences to the previously solved adenosine A2A receptor (A2A-AR) structure. Mutational and computational analysis of A1-AR revealed a distinct conformation of the second extracellular loop and a wider extracellular cavity with a secondary binding pocket that can accommodate orthosteric and allosteric ligands...
February 23, 2017: Cell
Cory J Windorff, Guo P Chen, Justin N Cross, William J Evans, Filipp Furche, Andrew J Gaunt, Michael T Janicke, Stosh A Kozimor, Brian L Scott
Over seventy years of chemical investigations have shown that plutonium exhibits some of the most complicated chemical behavior in the periodic table. Six plutonium oxidation states have been unambiguously confirmed (0, +3 to +7), and five different oxidation states can exist simultaneously in solution. Herein, we report a new formal oxidation state for plutonium, namely Pu2+ in [K(crypt)][PuIICp''3]. (Cp" = C5H3(SiMe3)2). The synthetic precursor, Pu(III)Cp"3 is also reported here, comprising the first structural characterization of a Pu-C bond...
February 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Geetanjali T Chilkoti, Medha Mohta, Sai Janani
Laryngospasm is a potential complication encountered during anesthesia using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). We report a case in which laryngospasm resulted in unsuccessful placement of an LMA ProSeal Airway (Teleflex Inc), and we discuss the various causes of unsuccessful placement of this type of airway device. Laryngospasm causes increased resistance to gas flow by inducing closure of vocal cords, aryepiglottic fold, and periglottic tissue. In this case report, the laryngospasm-induced increased resistance to gas flow was manifested by exaggerated outward movement of the LMA ProSeal following its connection to gas flows and thus resulted in failed airway placement...
December 2016: AANA Journal
Thomas Gaass, Moritz Jörg Schneider, Olaf Dietrich, Michael Ingrisch, Julien Dinkel
PURPOSE: Variability across devices, patients and time still hinders widespread recognition of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as quantitative biomarker. The purpose of this work is to introduce and characterize a dedicated microchannel phantom as a model for quantitative DCE-MRI measurements. METHODS: A perfusable, MR-compatible microchannel network was constructed on the basis of sacrificial melt-spun sugar fibers embedded in a block of epoxy resin...
February 24, 2017: Medical Physics
John J Christoforetti, Jeff Delong, Bryan T Hanypsiak, Misty Suri, Benjamin G Domb, Jason C Snibbe, Michael B Gerhardt
We conducted a study to assess 30 expert hip arthroscopists' ability to identify common surface landmarks used during hip arthroscopy. Thirty hip arthroscopists independently performed a blinded examination of an awake supine human volunteer for identification of 5 surface landmarks: anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), tip of greater trochanter (GT), rectus origin (RO), superficial inguinal ring (SIR), and psoas tendon (PT). The examiners applied the labels ASIS, GT, RO, SIR, and PT to the landmarks. An ultrasonographer performed a musculoskeletal ultrasound examination and applied labels as well, and a photographer documented the examiner labels after obtaining overhead and lateral digital images with use of fixed camera mounts...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
Joseph T O'Neil, Mark L Wang, Nayoung Kim, Mitchell Maltenfort, Asif M Ilyas
Pain management and opioid consumption after distal radius fracture (DRF) open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) are highly variable and poorly understood. To optimize postoperative opioid dosage and better understand opioid consumption patterns after DRF-ORIF, we conducted a prospective study with the hypothesis that opioid consumption would increase with worsening fracture classification and various patient demographics. All patients who underwent DRF-ORIF were consecutively enrolled over a 6-month period...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
Chris A Anthony, Andrew J Pugely, Yubo Gao, Robert R Westermann, Christopher T Martin, Brian R Wolf, Annunziato Amendola
We conducted a study of elective hip arthroscopy patients to determine type and incidence of complications and rates of and risk factors for minor and major morbidity. Retrospectively searching the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we identified 1325 patients who underwent elective hip arthroscopy between 2006 and 2013. Univariate and subsequent multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for complications. Of the 1325 patients identified, 16 (1.21%) had at least 1 complication, and 6 (0...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
Nicole Friel, Gift Ukwuani, Shane J Nho
Management of the hip capsule has evolved with increased awareness that capsular closure during hip arthroscopy restores the normal anatomy of the ilio-femoral ligament and therefore restores the biomechanical characteristics of the hip joint. Both anatomical and clinical studies have found that capsular closure or plication after hip arthroscopy restores normal motion and allows patients to return to activity more quickly. Capsular closure is technically challenging and increases operative time, but gross instability and microinstability can be avoided with meticulous closure/plication...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
David P Trofa, Sophie E Mayeux, Robert L Parisien, Christopher S Ahmad, T Sean Lynch
In this review, we describe precise methods for evaluating the athlete's hip or groin with an emphasis on recognizing the most common extra-articular and intra-articular pathologies, including adductor strains, athletic pubalgia, osteitis pubis, and femoroacetabular impingement with labral tears.
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
Mitsuhiko Ishikawa, Yun-Hee Park, Michiteru Kitazaki, Shoji Itakura
The sense of fairness has been observed in early infancy. Because many studies of fairness in adults have used economic games such as the Ultimatum Game, it has been difficult to compare fairness between adults and infants. Further, recent studies have suggested that social information about actors who behave fairly or unfairly may influence the judgement of fairness in infants. Therefore, to compare the sense of fairness between infants and adults, the study using paradigm in infant research is required. We examined how social information about two characters, either prosocial or antisocial, affects the event-related potential response (ERP) to fair or unfair resource distributions in adults...
2017: PloS One
Gamal M K Mehaisen, Mariam G Eshak, Ahmed M Elkaiaty, Abdel-Rahman M M Atta, Magdi M Mashaly, Ahmed O Abass
The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection...
2017: PloS One
Francesco Gianfagna, Claudio Grippi, Wolfgang Ahrens, Mark E S Bailey, Claudia Börnhorst, Stefan De Henauw, Ronja Foraita, Anna C Koni, Vittorio Krogh, Staffan Mårild, Dénes Molnár, Luis Moreno, Yannis Pitsiladis, Paola Russo, Alfonso Siani, Michael Tornaritis, Toomas Veidebaum, Licia Iacoviello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neuromedin U (NMU) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide with important roles in several metabolic processes, recently suggested as potential therapeutic target for obesity. We analysed the associations between NMU gene variants and haplotypes and body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of European children. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a large European multi-center study on childhood obesity, 4,528 children (2.0-9.9 years, mean age 6.0±1.8 SD; boys 52...
2017: PloS One
Nirjal Bhattarai, James H McLinden, Jinhua Xiang, M Meleah Mathahs, Warren N Schmidt, Thomas M Kaufman, Jack T Stapleton
Among human RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unusual in that it causes persistent infection in the majority of infected people. To establish persistence, HCV evades host innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple mechanisms. Recent studies identified virus genome-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in HCV-infected cells; however, their biological significance during human HCV infection is unknown. One such vsRNA arising from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 coding region impairs T cell receptor (TCR) signaling by reducing expression of a Src-kinase regulatory phosphatase (PTPRE) in vitro...
February 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Varpu Elenius, Oscar Palomares, Matti Waris, Riitta Turunen, Tuomo Puhakka, Beate Rückert, Tytti Vuorinen, Tobias Allander, Tero Vahlberg, Mübeccel Akdis, Carlos A Camargo, Cezmi A Akdis, Tuomas Jartti
BACKGROUND: Tonsils have an active role in immune defence and inducing and maintaining tolerance to allergens. Vitamins A, D, and E, and antimicrobial peptide LL-37 may have immunomodulatory effects. We studied how their serum levels were associated with allergy status, intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detection and intratonsillar expression of T cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors and type I/II/III interferons in patients undergoing tonsillectomy...
2017: PloS One
Maureen J Kimulwo, Javan Okendo, Rashid A Aman, Bernhards R Ogutu, Gilbert O Kokwaro, Dorothy J Ochieng, Anne W T Muigai, Florence A Oloo, Washingtone Ochieng
Treatment failure is a key challenge in the management of HIV-1 infection. We conducted a mixed-model survey of plasma nevirapine (NVP) concentrations (cNVP) and viral load in order to examine associations with treatment and adherence outcomes among Kenyan patients on prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood plasma was collected at 1, 4 and 24 hours post-ART dosing from 58 subjects receiving NVP-containing ART and used to determine cNVP and viral load (VL). Median duration of treatment was 42 (range, 12-156) months, and 25 (43...
2017: PloS One
Miho Mizuno, Daisuke Noto, Naoko Kaga, Asako Chiba, Sachiko Miyake
Autoimmune diseases are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The gut environment has attracted much attention as an essential component that modulates immune responses, and therefore immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases. Growing evidence suggests that microbiota and their metabolites are critical factors for immune modulation. Recently, we reported that the microbiome in patients with multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease targeting the myelin sheath of the central nervous system, is characterized by a reduction of bacteria belonging to Clostridia clusters IV and XIVa, which are potent producers of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates...
2017: PloS One
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