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space travel drugs

P S Sidhu
In these days of political vagueness, to use a kinder term, although many would describe the situation as turmoil, in Europe, there are success stories to be lauded. Notwithstanding the direction individual countries choose in relation to closer or not so close co-operation in Europe and the direction the political agenda will travel over the next few years, I believe science and in particular medicine has benefited enormously form close co-operation across the European Union and with colleagues outside this political and trading block of nations...
October 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Kennedy K E Kukuia, Elvis O Ameyaw, Eric Woode, Priscilla K Mante, Donatus W Adongo
BACKGROUND: One of the major drawbacks of current depression pharmacotherapy is the delay in symptom improvement, aside from the untoward side effects and lack of efficacy against refractory depression. This work therefore investigated a possible rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant effect of Mallotus oppositifolius. METHODS: Onset of the antidepressant effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. oppositifolius was investigated using the open space swim test, a chronic depression model...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Jana Speth, Clemens Speth, Mendel Kaelen, Astrid M Schloerscheidt, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration)...
April 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Joseph X Zhou, Zerrin Isik, Caide Xiao, Irit Rubin, Stuart A Kauffman, Michael Schroeder, Sui Huang
During a cell state transition, cells travel along trajectories in a gene expression state space. This dynamical systems framework complements the traditional concept of molecular pathways that drive cell phenotype switching. To expose the structure that hinders cancer cells from exiting robust proliferative state, we assessed the perturbation capacity of a drug library and identified 16 non-cytotoxic compounds that stimulate MCF7 breast cancer cells to exit from proliferative state to differentiated state...
February 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Prasad Jaychand Kasliwal, Sapana Kasliwal
Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pathology is a common etiologic cause for 10 - 27% of cases of mechanical low back pain (LBP) below the L5 level. In the absence of definite clinical or radiologic diagnostic criteria, controlled blocks of the SIJ have become the choice assessment method for making the diagnosis of SIJ pain. The SI joint is most often characterized as a large, auricular-shaped, diarthrodial synovial joint. In reality, its synovial characteristic is limited only to the distal third and anterior third. In SIJ interventions, the lateral view has been underutilized...
February 2016: Pain Physician
Jedediah K Lewis, John C Bischof, Ido Braslavsky, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Gregory M Fahy, Barry J Fuller, Yoed Rabin, Alessandro Tocchio, Erik J Woods, Brian G Wowk, Jason P Acker, Sebastian Giwa
The first Organ Banking Summit was convened from Feb. 27 - March 1, 2015 in Palo Alto, CA, with events at Stanford University, NASA Research Park, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Experts at the summit outlined the potential public health impact of organ banking, discussed the major remaining scientific challenges that need to be overcome in order to bank organs, and identified key opportunities to accelerate progress toward this goal. Many areas of public health could be revolutionized by the banking of organs and other complex tissues, including transplantation, oncofertility, tissue engineering, trauma medicine and emergency preparedness, basic biomedical research and drug discovery - and even space travel...
April 2016: Cryobiology
Toshiki Endo, Yushi Fujii, Shin-Ichiro Sugiyama, Rong Zhang, Shogo Ogita, Kenichi Funamoto, Ryuta Saito, Teiji Tominaga
OBJECT Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a method for distributing small and large molecules locally into the interstitial space of the spinal cord. Delivering these molecules to the spinal cord is otherwise difficult due to the blood-spinal cord barrier. Previous research has proven the efficacy of CED for delivering molecules over long distances along the white matter tracts in the spinal cord. Conversely, the characteristics of CED for delivering molecules to the gray matter of the spinal cord remain unknown...
October 30, 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Anne Michel, Patrick Downey, Xavier Van Damme, Catherine De Wolf, Rainer Schwarting, Dieter Scheller
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic therapies are often associated with the development of motor complications. Attention has therefore been focused on the use of non-dopaminergic drugs. This study developed a new behavioural method capable of demonstrating the added value of combining adenosinergic and glutamatergic receptor antagonists in unilateral 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Rats were dosed orally with Tozadenant, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, and three different doses of Radiprodil, an NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonist...
2015: PloS One
M Imanishi, A E Newton, A R Vieira, G Gonzalez-Aviles, M E Kendall Scott, K Manikonda, T N Maxwell, J L Halpin, M M Freeman, F Medalla, T L Ayers, G Derado, B E Mahon, E D Mintz
Although rare, typhoid fever cases acquired in the United States continue to be reported. Detection and investigation of outbreaks in these domestically acquired cases offer opportunities to identify chronic carriers. We searched surveillance and laboratory databases for domestically acquired typhoid fever cases, used a space-time scan statistic to identify clusters, and classified clusters as outbreaks or non-outbreaks. From 1999 to 2010, domestically acquired cases accounted for 18% of 3373 reported typhoid fever cases; their isolates were less often multidrug-resistant (2% vs...
August 2015: Epidemiology and Infection
Marielle Bemelmans, Saar Baert, Eric Goemaere, Lynne Wilkinson, Martin Vandendyck, Gilles van Cutsem, Carlota Silva, Sharon Perry, Elisabeth Szumilin, Rodd Gerstenhaber, Lucien Kalenga, Marc Biot, Nathan Ford
OBJECTIVES: Further scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to those in need while supporting the growing patient cohort on ART requires continuous adaptation of healthcare delivery models. We describe several approaches to manage stable patients on ART developed by Médecins Sans Frontières together with Ministries of Health in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using routine programme data, four approaches to simplify ART delivery for stable patients on ART were assessed from a patient and health system perspective: appointment spacing for clinical and drug refill visits in Malawi, peer educator-led ART refill groups in South Africa, community ART distribution points in DRC and patient-led community ART groups in Mozambique...
August 2014: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ying-Chou Wang, En-Nan Wang, Chia-Chuan Wang, Chung-Lei Huang, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
Whether ouabain, a Na+ - and K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor, mimics cognitive impairments that can be dissociated from motor effects in the bipolar disorder-like animal model remains unclear. Ouabain and the vehicle aCSF were microinjected into the left lateral ventricle immediately, after 4h, and after 24h. The results showed that (a) locomotion responses of the Immediate group were significantly decreased compared to those of the aCSF group, particularly the first five minutes. (b) The ouabain-treated rats have longer latency and total distance traveled in the water maze task; however, the velocity was not affected for the ouabain group...
May 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Sherry A Ferguson
Spatial learning and memory of laboratory rodents is often assessed via navigational ability in mazes, most popular of which are the water and dry-land (Barnes) mazes. Improved performance over sessions or trials is thought to reflect learning and memory of the escape cage/platform location. Considered less stressful than water mazes, the Barnes maze is a relatively simple design of a circular platform top with several holes equally spaced around the perimeter edge. All but one of the holes are false-bottomed or blind-ending, while one leads to an escape cage...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alexis N Martinez, Jennifer Lorvick, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: Representations of activity spaces, defined as the local areas within which people move or travel in the course of their daily activities, are unexplored among injection drug users (IDUs). The purpose of this paper is to use an activity space framework to study place and drug user health. METHODS: Data for this analysis is from an epidemiological study of street-recruited IDUs in San Francisco (N=1084). Study participants reported geographic intersections of where they most often slept at night, hung out during the day, and used drugs during a 6 month time period...
May 2014: International Journal on Drug Policy
Bingrong Dang, Yuping Yang, Erdong Zhang, Wenjian Li, Xiangquan Mi, Yue Meng, Siqi Yan, Zhuanzi Wang, Wei Wei, Chunlin Shao, Rui Xing, Changjun Lin
AIMS: Microgravity and radiation, common in space, are the main factors influencing astronauts' health in space flight, but their combined effects on immune cells are extremely limited. Therefore, the effect of simulated microgravity on heavy ion radiation-induced apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive apoptosis signaling were investigated in human B lymphoblast HMy2.CIR cells. MAIN METHODS: Simulated microgravity was achieved using a Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor at 37°C for 30 min...
March 3, 2014: Life Sciences
Deepa K Pindolia, Andres J Garcia, Zhuojie Huang, David L Smith, Victor A Alegana, Abdisalan M Noor, Robert W Snow, Andrew J Tatem
INTRODUCTION: The quantification of parasite movements can provide valuable information for control strategy planning across all transmission intensities. Mobile parasite carrying individuals can instigate transmission in receptive areas, spread drug resistant strains and reduce the effectiveness of control strategies. The identification of mobile demographic groups, their routes of travel and how these movements connect differing transmission zones, potentially enables limited resources for interventions to be efficiently targeted over space, time and populations...
2013: Malaria Journal
Sunil K Aggarwal, Gregory T Carter, Craig Zumbrunnen, Richard Morrill, Mark Sullivan, Jonathan D Mayer
The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period...
April 2013: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Guy A Dumont, J Mark Ansermino
Feedback control is ubiquitous in nature and engineering and has revolutionized safety in fields from space travel to the automobile. In anesthesia, automated feedback control holds the promise of limiting the effects on performance of individual patient variability, optimizing the workload of the anesthesiologist, increasing the time spent in a more desirable clinical state, and ultimately improving the safety and quality of anesthesia care. The benefits of control systems will not be realized without widespread support from the health care team in close collaboration with industrial partners...
November 2013: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Andrew E Arrant, Nicole L Schramm-Sapyta, Cynthia M Kuhn
The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression...
November 1, 2013: Behavioural Brain Research
F Schmäl
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological basis, clinical picture and treatment options for motion sickness. Motion sickness is a well-known nausea and vomiting syndrome in otherwise healthy people. The physical signs of motion sickness occur in both humans and animals during travel by sea, automobile or airplane and in space. Furthermore, some other special situations, such as simulators, the cinema and video games, have been described as causing pseudomotion sickness. Children between 2 and 12 years old are most susceptible to motion sickness, and women are more frequently affected than men...
2013: Pharmacology
People visiting or living in tropical or subtropical regions are exposed to various factors, which can lead to edema. Tourists staying for only a short time in the tropics are exposed to different risks, with other disease patterns, than people living in the tropics or immigrants from tropical regions. The differential diagnosis of edema and swelling is extensive and it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish classical edema with fluid retention in the extravascular interstitial space, from lymphedema or swelling due to other aetiologies...
November 1, 2004: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
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