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space travel

Zhoujing Ye, Linbing Wang, Wen Xu, Zhifei Gao, Guannan Yan
In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
Vincent Jacob, Christelle Monsempès, Jean-Pierre Rospars, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Philippe Lucas
Long-distance olfactory search behaviors depend on odor detection dynamics. Due to turbulence, olfactory signals travel as bursts of variable concentration and spacing and are characterized by long-tail distributions of odor/no-odor events, challenging the computing capacities of olfactory systems. How animals encode complex olfactory scenes to track the plume far from the source remains unclear. Here we focus on the coding of the plume temporal dynamics in moths. We compare responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) to sequences of pheromone stimuli either with white-noise patterns or with realistic turbulent temporal structures simulating a large range of distances (8 to 64 m) from the odor source...
December 1, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Emil Rudobeck, John A Bellone, Attila Szücs, Kristine Bonnick, Shalini Mehrotra-Carter, Jerome Badaut, Gregory A Nelson, Richard E Hartman, Roman Vlkolinský
Space radiation represents a significant health risk for astronauts. Ground-based animal studies indicate that space radiation affects neuronal functions such as excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, and it may accelerate the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although protons represent the main constituent in the space radiation spectrum, their effects on AD-related pathology have not been tested. We irradiated 3 month-old APP/PSEN1 transgenic (TG) and wild type (WT) mice with protons (150 MeV; 0...
2017: PloS One
Mitsuru Kawamura
We examined patients with mental space navigation or mental time travel disorder to identify regions in the brain that may play a critical role in mental time travel in terms of clinical neuropsychology. These regions included the precneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex: the anterior and posterior medial areas were both shown to be important in this process. Further studies are required to define whether these form a network for mental time travel...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Fleur Visser, Annebelle C M Kok, Machiel G Oudejans, Lindesay A S Scott-Hayward, Stacy L DeRuiter, Ana C Alves, Ricardo N Antunes, Saana Isojunno, Graham J Pierce, Hans Slabbekoorn, Jef Huisman, Patrick J O Miller
Abstract: Vocalisations form a key component of the social interactions and foraging behaviour of toothed whales. We investigated changes in calling and echolocation behaviour of long-finned pilot whales between foraging and non-foraging periods, by combining acoustic recordings and diving depth data from tagged individuals with concurrent surface observations on social behaviour of their group. The pilot whales showed marked vocal variation, specific to foraging and social context. During periods of foraging, pilot whales showed more vocal activity than during non-foraging periods (rest, travel)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
P D Hodkinson, R A Anderton, B N Posselt, K J Fong
Space medicine is fundamental to the human exploration of space. It supports survival, function and performance in this challenging and potentially lethal environment. It is international, intercultural and interdisciplinary, operating at the boundaries of exploration, science, technology and medicine. Space medicine is also the latest UK specialty to be recognized by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the General Medical Council. This review introduces the field of space medicine and describes the different types of spaceflight, environmental challenges, associated medical and physiological effects, and operational medical considerations...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew Ono, Daryl Preece, Michelle L Duquette, Arthur Forer, Michael W Berns
Originally described in crane-fly spermatocytes, tethers physically link and transmit force between the ends of separating chromosomes. Optical tweezers and laser scissors were used to sever the tether between chromosomes, create chromosome fragments attached to the tether which move toward the opposite pole, and to trap the tethered fragments. Laser microsurgery in the intracellular space between separating telomeres reduced chromosome strain in half of tested chromosome pairs. When the telomere-containing region was severed from the rest of the chromosome body, the resultant fragment either traveled towards the proper pole (poleward), towards the sister pole (cross-polar), or movement ceased...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
J Squire, M W Kunz, E Quataert, A A Schekochihin
Using two-dimensional hybrid-kinetic simulations, we explore the nonlinear "interruption" of standing and traveling shear-Alfvén waves in collisionless plasmas. Interruption involves a self-generated pressure anisotropy removing the restoring force of a linearly polarized Alfvénic perturbation, and occurs for wave amplitudes δB_{⊥}/B_{0}≳β^{-1/2} (where β is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure). We use highly elongated domains to obtain maximal scale separation between the wave and the ion gyroscale...
October 13, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ulrike E Schlägel, Evelyn H Merrill, Mark A Lewis
Identifying behavioral mechanisms that underlie observed movement patterns is difficult when animals employ sophisticated cognitive-based strategies. Such strategies may arise when timing of return visits is important, for instance to allow for resource renewal or territorial patrolling. We fitted spatially explicit random-walk models to GPS movement data of six wolves (Canis lupus; Linnaeus, 1758) from Alberta, Canada to investigate the importance of the following: (1) territorial surveillance likely related to renewal of scent marks along territorial edges, to reduce intraspecific risk among packs, and (2) delay in return to recently hunted areas, which may be related to anti-predator responses of prey under varying prey densities...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Steven Thomas Kessel, Nasreldin Alhasan Elamin, David James Yurkowski, Tarik Chekchak, Ryan Patrick Walter, Rebecca Klaus, Graham Hill, Nigel Edward Hussey
A large reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) aggregation has been observed off the north Sudanese Red Sea coast since the 1950s. Sightings have been predominantly within the boundaries of a marine protected area (MPA), which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in July 2016. Contrasting economic development trajectories have been proposed for the area (small-scale ecotourism and large-scale island development). To examine space-use, Wildlife Computers® SPOT 5 tags were secured to three manta rays. A two-state switching Bayesian state space model (BSSM), that allowed movement parameters to switch between resident and travelling, was fit to the recorded locations, and 50% and 95% kernel utilization distributions (KUD) home ranges calculated...
2017: PloS One
Ondřej Santolík, Ivana Kolmašová
All lightning strokes generate electromagnetic pulses -atmospherics- which can travel over distances of thousands of kilometers. Night-side atmospherics show typical frequency dispersion signatures caused by sub-ionospheric propagation. Their analysis can be used to determine the distance to the source lightning, and therefore it represents a safe tool for investigation of distant thunderstorms, as well as for indirect observations of the lower ionosphere. However, such analysis has never been done on the dayside...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joseph S Alpert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Ling Ji, Jun Gao, Ai-Lin Yang, Zhen Feng, Xiao-Feng Lin, Zhong-Gen Li, Xian-Min Jin
Long-distance quantum channels capable of transferring quantum states faithfully for unconditionally secure quantum communication have been so far confirmed to be feasible in both fiber and free-space air. However, it remains unclear whether seawater, which covers more than 70% of the earth, can also be utilized, leaving global quantum communication incomplete. Here we experimentally demonstrate that polarization quantum states including general qubits of single photon and entangled states can survive well after travelling through seawater...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Andreas Steinbacher, Heiko Hildenbrand, Sebastian Schott, Johannes Buback, Marco Schmid, Patrick Nuernberger, Tobias Brixner
We present an optical setup capable of mirroring an arbitrary, potentially time-varying, polarization state of an ultrashort laser pulse. The incident beam is split up in two and the polarization of one beam is mirrored by reflection off a mirror in normal incidence. Afterwards, both beams are recombined in time and space such that two collinear ultrashort laser pulses with mutually mirrored polarization, i.e., laser-pulse enantiomers, leave the setup. We employ the Jones formalism to describe the function of the setup and analyze the influence of alignment errors before describing the experimental implementation and alignment protocol...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
F Wang, J Li, G Martinez-Piedra, O Korotkova
We introduce theoretically and realize experimentally a class of random, wide-sense stationary optical beams with uniform correlations which, on propagation in free space, produce a crescent-like intensity distribution with the maximum at an off-axis position. The crescent's position of maximum intensity accelerates transversally at intermediate distances, and then exhibits a constant lateral shift further from the axis in the far zone of the source. We also show that on propagation in the isotropic turbulent atmosphere, the crescent beam shifts away from the axis as well, but slower than in free space, with rate depending on the strength of turbulence...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
James N Dodds, Jody C May, John A McLean
Here we examine the relationship among resolving power (Rp), resolution (Rpp), and collision cross section (CCS) for compounds analyzed in previous ion mobility (IM) experiments representing a wide variety of instrument platforms and IM techniques. Our previous work indicated these three variables effectively describe and predict separation efficiency for drift tube ion mobility spectrometry experiments. In this work, we seek to determine if our previous findings are a general reflection of IM behavior that can be applied to various instrument platforms and mobility techniques...
October 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Joe Yuichiro Wakano, William Gilpin, Seiji Kadowaki, Marcus W Feldman, Kenichi Aoki
Recent archaeological records no longer support a simple dichotomous characterization of the cultures/behaviors of Neanderthals and modern humans, but indicate much cultural/behavioral variability over time and space. Thus, in modeling the replacement or assimilation of Neanderthals by modern humans, it is of interest to consider cultural dynamics and its relation to demographic change. The ecocultural framework for the competition between hominid species allows their carrying capacities to depend on some measure of the levels of culture they possess...
October 12, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
A P Riascos, José L Mateos
There is a burst of work on human mobility and encounter networks. However, the connection between these two important fields just begun recently. It is clear that both are closely related: Mobility generates encounters, and these encounters might give rise to contagion phenomena or even friendship. We model a set of random walkers that visit locations in space following a strategy akin to Lévy flights. We measure the encounters in space and time and establish a link between walkers after they coincide several times...
2017: PloS One
Reece D Pedler, Raoul F H Ribot, Andrew T D Bennett
Understanding and conserving mobile species presents complex challenges, especially for animals in stochastic or changing environments. Nomadic waterbirds must locate temporary water in arid biomes where rainfall is highly unpredictable in space and time. To achieve this they need to travel over vast spatial scales and time arrival to exploit pulses in food resources. How they achieve this is an enduring mystery.  We investigated these challenges in the colonial-nesting Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), a nomadic shorebird of conservation concern...
October 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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