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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214432/degree-of-target-utilization-influences-the-location-of-movement-endpoint-distributions
#1
Andrew B Slifkin, Jeffrey R Eder
According to dominant theories of motor control, speed and accuracy are optimized when, on the average, movement endpoints are located at the target center and when the variability of the movement endpoint distributions is matched to the width of the target (viz., Meyer, Abrams, Kornblum, Wright & Smith, 1988). The current study tested those predictions. According to the speed-accuracy trade-off, expanding the range of variability to the amount permitted by the limits of the target boundaries allows for maximization of movement speed while centering the distribution on the target center prevents movement errors that would have occurred had the distribution been off center...
February 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214132/language-evolution-a-changing-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Michael C Corballis
From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198837/radially-dependent-angular-acceleration-of-twisted-light
#3
Jason Webster, Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán, Andrew Forbes
While photons travel in a straight line at constant velocity in free space, the intensity profile of structured light may be tailored for acceleration in any degree of freedom. Here we propose a simple approach to control the angular acceleration of light. Using Laguerre-Gaussian modes as our twisted beams carrying orbital angular momentum, we show that superpositions of opposite handedness result in a radially dependent angular acceleration as they pass through a focus (waist plane). Due to conservation of orbital angular momentum, we find that propagation dynamics are complex despite the free-space medium: the outer part of the beam (rings) rotates in an opposite direction to the inner part (petals), and while the outer part accelerates, the inner part decelerates...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187874/falling-while-walking-a-hidden-contributor-to-pedestrian-injury
#4
Jennifer Oxley, Steve O'Hern, Duane Burtt, Ben Rossiter
Walking is a sustainable mode of transportation which is beneficial to both individuals and to the broader community, however, there are risks and it is essential that road design and operation provides safe conditions for walking. In Victoria, pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road user groups, accounting for approximately 12% of all road fatalities and serious injuries. These figures largely represent injuries where the pedestrian has been struck by a vehicle with the extent of pedestrian-only injuries largely un-reported...
February 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176829/multistable-states-in-a-system-of-coupled-phase-oscillators-with-inertia
#5
Di Yuan, Fang Lin, Limei Wang, Danyang Liu, Junzhong Yang, Yi Xiao
We investigate the generalized Kuramoto model of globally coupled oscillators with inertia, in which oscillators with positive coupling strength are conformists and oscillators with negative coupling strength are contrarians. We consider the correlation between the coupling strengths of oscillators and the distributions of natural frequencies. Two different types of correlations are studied. It is shown that the model supports multistable synchronized states such as different types of travelling wave states, π state and another type of nonstationary state: an oscillating π state...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161726/medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-medial-septum-contribute-to-self-motion-based-linear-distance-estimation
#6
Pierre-Yves Jacob, Marta Gordillo-Salas, Justine Facchini, Bruno Poucet, Etienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
Path integration is a navigation strategy that requires animals to integrate self-movements during exploration to determine their position in space. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in this process. Grid cells, head-direction cells, border cells as well as speed cells within the MEC collectively provide a dynamic representation of the animal position in space based on the integration of self-movements. All these cells are strongly modulated by theta oscillations, thus suggesting that theta rhythmicity in the MEC may be essential for integrating and coordinating self-movement information during navigation...
February 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157917/measurement-of-straightness-without-abbe-error-using-an-enhanced-differential-plane-mirror-interferometer
#7
Tao Jin, Hudong Ji, Wenmei Hou, Yanfen Le, Lu Shen
This paper presents an enhanced differential plane mirror interferometer with high resolution for measuring straightness. Two sets of space symmetrical beams are used to travel through the measurement and reference arms of the straightness interferometer, which contains three specific optical devices: a Koster prism, a wedge prism assembly, and a wedge mirror assembly. Changes in the optical path in the interferometer arms caused by straightness are differential and converted into phase shift through a particular interferometer system...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157557/elimination-of-spiral-waves-in-a-locally-connected-chaotic-neural-network-by-a-dynamic-phase-space-constraint
#8
Yang Li, Makito Oku, Guoguang He, Kazuyuki Aihara
In this study, a method is proposed that eliminates spiral waves in a locally connected chaotic neural network (CNN) under some simplified conditions, using a dynamic phase space constraint (DPSC) as a control method. In this method, a control signal is constructed from the feedback internal states of the neurons to detect phase singularities based on their amplitude reduction, before modulating a threshold value to truncate the refractory internal states of the neurons and terminate the spirals. Simulations showed that with appropriate parameter settings, the network was directed from a spiral wave state into either a plane wave (PW) state or a synchronized oscillation (SO) state, where the control vanished automatically and left the original CNN model unaltered...
January 16, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151696/survival-dna-integrity-and-ultrastructural-damage-in-antarctic-cryptoendolithic-eukaryotic-microorganisms-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#9
Claudia Pacelli, Laura Selbmann, Laura Zucconi, Marina Raguse, Ralf Moeller, Igor Shuryak, Silvano Onofri
Life dispersal between planets, planetary protection, and the search for biosignatures are main topics in astrobiology. Under the umbrella of the STARLIFE project, three Antarctic endolithic microorganisms, the melanized fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515, a hyaline strain of Umbilicaria sp. (CCFEE 6113, lichenized fungus), and a Stichococcus sp. strain (C45A, green alga), were exposed to high doses of space-relevant gamma radiation ((60)Co), up to 117.07 kGy. After irradiation survival, DNA integrity and ultrastructural damage were tested...
February 2, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149087/motor-cognitive-processing-speed-estimation-among-the-primary-schoolchildren-by-deriving-prediction-formula-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Vencita Priyanka Aranha, Monika Moitra, Shikha Saxena, Kanimozhi Narkeesh, Narkeesh Arumugam, Asir John Samuel
OBJECTIVES: Motor cognitive processing speed (MCPS) is often reported in terms of reaction time. In spite of being a significant indicator of function, behavior, and performance, MCPS is rarely used in clinics and schools to identify kids with slowed motor cognitive processing. The reason behind this is the lack of availability of convenient formula to estimate MCPS. Thereby, the aim of this study is to estimate the MCPS in the primary schoolchildren. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and four primary schoolchildren, aged 6-12 years, were recruited by the cluster sampling method for this cross-sectional study...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147589/numerical-study-of-rayleigh-wave-propagation-along-a-horizontal-semi-infinite-crack-buried-in-half-space
#11
Sunil Kishore Chakrapani
The present article investigates the propagation of Rayleigh waves along a horizontal semi-infinite crack, and its interaction with the crack tip. Finite element analysis was used to simulate wave propagation and study the interaction. An incident Rayleigh wave diffracts as bulk waves into the half-space upon interaction with the crack tip. It was observed that the diffracted bulk modes can interact with the half-space boundary, and mode converts into a Rayleigh wave traveling along the boundary. A qualitative analysis was performed to determine the effect of crack depth using transmission, reflection, and scattering coefficients...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147503/spatiotemporal-chaos-involving-wave-instability
#12
Igal Berenstein, Jorge Carballido-Landeira
In this paper, we investigate pattern formation in a model of a reaction confined in a microemulsion, in a regime where both Turing and wave instability occur. In one-dimensional systems, the pattern corresponds to spatiotemporal intermittency where the behavior of the systems alternates in both time and space between stationary Turing patterns and traveling waves. In two-dimensional systems, the behavior initially may correspond to Turing patterns, which then turn into wave patterns. The resulting pattern also corresponds to a chaotic state, where the system alternates in both space and time between standing wave patterns and traveling waves, and the local dynamics may show vanishing amplitude of the variables...
January 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128778/the-contributions-of-occupational-science-to%C3%A2-the-readiness-of-long-duration-deep-space-exploration
#13
Janis Davis, Macy Burr, Maria Absi, Rochelle Telles, Howard Koh
BACKGROUND: This study introduces the contributions of occupational science (OS) to the preparation and support of astronauts during long duration space exploration. Given the hostile environment of space, it is not surprising that there is grave deterioration of both physical and mental health when off Earth. However, OS, through occupational therapy (OT), can identify strategies that maintain health and minimize disruptions in task performance for mission success. OBJECTIVE: To determine the gaps in NASA's preparation of astronauts for long duration space exploration and the viable contributions of OT...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119160/evaluation-of-prepulse-inhibition-and-memory-impairments-at-early-stage-of-cirrhosis-may-be-considered-as-a-diagnostic-index-for-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#14
Iraj Aghaei, Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, Samaneh Ghotbi Ravandi, Masoumeh Nozari, Ali Roudbari, Afshin Dalili, Mohammad Shabani, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), which represents the early stage of this condition, is not clinically apparent and is prevalent in up to 80% of patients. The poor outcomes of MHE encouraged us to identify more simple methods for early diagnosis of MHE. To this purpose, we evaluated the contemporary manifestations of motor, cognitive and sensorimotor gaiting deficits following bile duct-ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats were undergone BDL to induce cirrhosis and locomotor, spatial learning and memory and sensorimotor gating were assessed 2, 3, and 4weeks after the operation by rotarod, Morris water-maze and prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests...
January 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111319/the-impact-of-competition-on-elephant-musth-strategies-a-game-theoretic-model
#15
J Max Wyse, Ian C W Hardy, Lisa Yon, Mike Mesterton-Gibbons
Mature male African Savannah elephants are known to periodically enter a temporary state of heightened aggression called "musth", often linked with increased androgens, particularly testosterone. Sexually mature males are capable of entering musth at any time of year, and will often travel long distances to find estrous females. When two musth bulls or two non-musth bulls encounter one another, the agonistic interaction is usually won by the larger male. However, when a smaller musth bull encounters a larger non-musth bull, the smaller musth male can win...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111173/cardiac-expression-of-ryanodine-receptor-subtype-3-a-strategic-component-in-the-intracellular-ca-2-release-system-of-purkinje-fibers-in-large-mammalian-heart
#16
Rebecca E Daniels, Kazi T Haq, Lawson S Miller, Elizabeth W Chia, Masahito Miura, Vincenzo Sorrentino, John J McGuire, Bruno D Stuyvers
BACKGROUND: Three distinct Ca(2+) release channels were identified in dog P-cells: the ryanodine receptor subtype 2 (RyR2) was detected throughout the cell, while the ryanodine receptor subtype 3 (RyR3) and inositol phosphate sensitive Ca(2+) release channel (InsP3R) were found in the cell periphery. How each of these channels contributes to the Ca(2+) cycling of P-cells is unclear. Recent modeling of Ca(2+) mobilization in P-cells suggested that Ca(2+) sensitivity of Ca(2+)induced Ca(2+)release (CICR) was larger at the P-cell periphery...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105489/whisker-touch-guides-canopy-exploration-in-a-nocturnal-arboreal-rodent-the-hazel-dormouse-muscardinus-avellanarius
#17
Kendra Arkley, Guuske P Tiktak, Vicki Breakell, Tony J Prescott, Robyn A Grant
Dormouse numbers are declining in the UK due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We know that dormice are nocturnal, arboreal, and avoid crossing open spaces between habitats, yet how they navigate around their canopy is unknown. As other rodents use whisker touch sensing to navigate and explore their environment, this study investigates whether Hazel dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius) employ their whiskers to cross between habitats. We analysed high-speed video footage of dormice exploring freely in flat and climbing arenas in near darkness and using infrared light illumination...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099288/assessing-the-agreement-between-radiologic-and-clinical-measurements-of-lumbar-and-cervical-epidural-depths-in-patients-undergoing-prone-interlaminar-epidural-steroid-injection
#18
James Harvey Jones, Naileshni Singh, Anna Nidecker, Chin-Shang Li, Scott Fishman
BACKGROUND: Fluoroscopy-guided epidural steroid injection (ESI) commonly is performed to treat radicular pain yet can lead to adverse events if the needle is not advanced with precision. Accurate preoperative assessment of the distance from the skin to the epidural space holds the potential for reducing the risks of adverse effects from ESI. It was hypothesized that the distance from the skin to the epidural space as measured on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would agree with the distance traveled by a Tuohy needle to reach the epidural space during midline, interlaminar ESI...
January 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088539/the-dna-damage-response-of-c-elegans-affected-by-gravity-sensing-and-radiosensitivity-during-the-shenzhou-8-spaceflight
#19
Ying Gao, Dan Xu, Lei Zhao, Yeqing Sun
Space radiation and microgravity are recognized as primary and inevitable risk factors for humans traveling in space, but the reports regarding their synergistic effects remain inconclusive and vary across studies due to differences in the environmental conditions and intrinsic biological sensitivity. Thus, we studied the synergistic effects on transcriptional changes in the global genome and DNA damage response (DDR) by using dys-1 mutant and ced-1 mutant of C. elegans, which respectively presented microgravity-insensitivity and radiosensitivity when exposure to spaceflight condition (SF) and space radiation (SR)...
January 7, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060293/automated-high-resolution-mobile-collection-system-for-the-nitrogen-isotopic-analysis-of-nox
#20
Paul K Wojtal, David J Miller, Mary O'Conner, Sydney C Clark, Meredith G Hastings
Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are a family of atmospheric trace gases that have great impact on the environment. NOx concentrations directly influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere through interactions with ozone and hydroxyl radicals. The main sink of NOx is the formation and deposition of nitric acid, a component of acid rain and a bioavailable nutrient. NOx is emitted from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources, which vary in space and time. The collocation of multiple sources and the short lifetime of NOx make it challenging to quantitatively constrain the influence of different emission sources and their impacts on the environment...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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