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space travel

Matthew R Ponte, Alexander D Hudson, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu
Many of the extraordinary three-dimensional architectures that pattern our physical world emerge from complex nonlinear systems or dynamic populations whose individual constituents are only weakly correlated to each other. Shoals of fish, murmuration behaviours in birds, congestion patterns in traffic and even networks of social conventions are examples of spontaneous pattern formation, which cannot be predicted from the properties of individual elements alone. Pattern formation at a different scale has been observed or predicted in weakly correlated systems including superconductors, atomic gases near Bose Einstein condensation and incoherent optical fields...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jon Paul Janet, Lydia Chan, Heather J Kulik
Machine learning (ML) has emerged as a powerful complement to simulation for materials discovery by reducing time for evaluation of energies and properties at accuracy competitive with first-principles methods. We use genetic algorithm (GA) optimization to discover unconventional spin-crossover complexes in combination with efficient scoring from an artificial neural network (ANN) that predicts spin-state splitting of inorganic complexes. We explore a compound space of over 5,600 candidate materials derived from eight metal/oxidation state combinations and a 32-ligand pool...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
O Vassal, P Del Carmine, F-P Desgranges, L Bouvet, M Lilot, N Gadot, Q Timour-Chah, D Chassard
Objective: Epidural blood patch is the procedure of choice to relieve postdural puncture headache. Hydroxyethyl-starch (HES) has been proposed as a patch in some circumstances such as in the case of hematological disease due to the theoretical risk of neoplastic seeding to the central nervous system. Acute neurological HES toxicity has been excluded by a previous animal study, but the long-term neurological toxicity has not been evaluated. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: no intrathecal injection, 20 μL of intrathecal saline, or a 20-μL intrathecal HES (6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0...
February 6, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
A Fredon, H M Cuppen
Molecules in space are synthesized via a large variety of gas-phase reactions, and reactions on dust-grain surfaces, where the surface acts as a catalyst. Especially, saturated, hydrogen-rich molecules are formed through surface chemistry where the interstellar grains act as a meeting place and absorbing energy. Here we present the results of thousands of molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the outcome of an energy dissipation process. Admolecules on top of an amorphous solid water surface have been given translational energy between 0...
February 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Rahul Jandial, Reid Hoshide, J Dawn Waters, Charles L Limoli
Journey to Mars will be a large milestone for all humankind. Throughout history, we have learned lessons about the health dangers associated with exploratory voyages to expand our frontiers. Travelling through deep space, the final frontier, is planned for the 2030s by NASA. The lessons learned from the adverse health effects of space exposure have been encountered from previous, less-lengthy missions. Prolonged multiyear deep space travel to Mars could be encumbered by significant adverse health effects, which could critically affect the safety of the mission and its voyagers...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Hee Jun Shin, Jaesu Kim, Sungho Kim, Homin Choi, Sahnghyub Lee, Young Hee Lee, Joo-Hiuk Son, Seong Chu Lim
We observe that carriers in graphene can be accelerated to the Fermi velocity without heating the lattice. At large Fermi energy |E_F |> 110 meV, electrons excited by a high power terahertz pulse E_THz relax by emitting optical phonons, resulting in heating of the graphene lattice and optical-phonon generation. This is owing to enhanced electron-phonon scattering at large Fermi energy, at which the large phase space is available for hot electrons. The emitted optical phonons cause carrier scattering, reducing the drift velocity or carrier mobility...
February 7, 2018: Nano Letters
Di Che, Chuanbowen Sun, William Shieh
Direct detection is traditionally regarded as a detection method that recovers only the optical intensity. Compared with coherent detection, it owns a natural advantage-the simplicity-but lacks a crucial capability of field recovery that enables not only the multi-dimensional modulation, but also the digital compensation of the fiber impairments linear with the optical field. Full-field detection is crucial to increase the capacity-distance product of optical transmission systems. A variety of methods have been investigated to directly detect the optical field of the single polarization mode, which normally sends a carrier traveling with the signal for self-coherent detection...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Ahmad W Mohammad, Haymen Shams, Katarzyna Balakier, Chris Graham, Michele Natrella, Alwyn J Seeds, Cyril C Renaud
We report the first demonstration of a uni-traveling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) used as a 5 Gbps wireless receiver. In this experiment, a 35.1 GHz carrier was electrically modulated with 5 Gbps non-return with zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) data and transmitted wirelessly over a distance of 1.3 m. At the receiver, a UTC-PD was used as an optically pumped mixer (OPM) to down-convert the received radio frequency (RF) signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 11.7 GHz, before it was down-converted to the baseband using an electronic mixer...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Laurie N Fishman, Jennifer Kearney, Maya DeGroote, Enju Liu, Janis Arnold, Dascha C Weir
OBJECTIVES: Transition planning for children with chronic disease includes the development of independence in many self-management tasks. Conditions that depend on diet have distinct skill sets not well assessed by the traditional transition-readiness tools. There has been literature that describes age-appropriate skill acquisition for diabetes and food allergy patients. However, there are no age-appropriate benchmarks established for celiac disease (CD). METHODS: CD experts (including physician, nurse, dietician, social worker, patient and parent) created a list of celiac-related tasks, which formed the basis of the survey...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Abdul Nasser, Sourabh Bhutani
Background: Submarine crew have low physical activity by virtue of their professional requirements. Lack of space and inadequacy of regeneration capabilities render physical activity almost impossible during deployments. However, sufficient data for physical activity levels and trends are required to measure the magnitude of inactivity. Methods: Data was collected from 362 personnel belonging to six submarines and one submarine base using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Mark Lawrence, David Russell Barton, Jennifer A Dionne
Metasurfaces enable almost complete control of light through ultra-thin, subwavelength surfaces by locally and abruptly altering the scattered phase. To date, however, all metasurfaces obey time-reversal symmetry, meaning that forward and backward travelling waves will trace identical paths when being reflected, refracted, or diffracted. Here, we use full-field calculations to design a passive metasurface for nonreciprocal transmission of both direct and anomalously refracted near infrared light over nanoscale optical path lengths...
January 25, 2018: Nano Letters
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
January 18, 2018: Radiation Research
Bingtuan Li
We study an integro-difference competition model for the case that two species consecutively invade a habitat. We show that if a species spreads into a traveling wave of its rival, or if two species expand their spatial ranges in both directions, in a direction where open space is available, the species with larger invasion speed can always establish a wave moving into open space with its own speed. We demonstrate that when one species is stronger in competition, under appropriate conditions, the speeds at which the boundaries between two species move can be analytically determined...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Ami Mange, Yuqing Cao, SiYuan Zhang, Robert D Hienz, Catherine M Davis
Future long-duration space missions will involve travel outside of the Earth's magnetosphere, which will result in increased radiation exposure for astronauts. Exposure could permanently damage multiple tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), and result in deleterious effects on cognition and behavior during and beyond the mission. Here, we assessed the effects of whole-body oxygen ion (16O; 1,000 MeV/n) exposure (5 or 25 cGy) on social odor recognition memory in male Long-Evans rats at one and six months after exposure...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
M L Callisaya, J Verghese
INTRODUCTION: Gait speed is recognized as an important predictor of adverse outcomes in older people. However, it is unknown if other more complex mobility tasks are better predictors of such outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine a range of clinic-based mobility tests and determine which were most strongly associated with measures of community performance and risk (CP&R). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Central Control Mobility and Aging Study, Westchester County, New York PARTICIPANTS: Aged ≥ 65 years (n=424) METHODS: Clinic-based mobility measures included gait speed measured during normal and dual-task conditions, the Floor Maze Immediate and Delay tasks, and stair ascending and descending...
January 9, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Billie A Pivnick
This article describes the author's development of an aesthetic approach to psychoanalytic psychotherapy of patients suffering from traumatic levels of grief by describing her experiences as a patient, a therapist, and a consultant to the design firm that partnered with the National September 11 Memorial and Museum. Using Aristotle's On Poetics as an inspiration, this article explores the ways dialogical storytelling creates a therapeutic "action-plot" that transforms reversals of fortune. Attending to patients' first-person phenomenological experience (without attributing cause), therapists help them transform their losses by listening to their stories...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Shmuel Link, Xinyan Huang, Carlos Fernandez-Pello, Sandra Olson, Paul Ferkul
Fire safety is a concern in space travel, particularly with the current plans of increasing the length of the manned space missions, and of using spacecraft atmospheres different than in Earth, such as microgravity, low-velocity gas flow, low pressure and elevated oxygen concentration. In this work, the spread of flame over a thermoplastic polymer, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), was conducted in the International Space Station and on Earth. The tests consisted of determining the opposed flame spread rate over PMMA cylinders under low-flow velocities ranging from 0...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Plantinga, Benjamin D Tift, Charmayne Dunlop-Thomas, S Sam Lim, C Barrett Bowling, Cristina Drenkard
OBJECTIVE: To use multi-domain functional assessment, commonly performed in geriatric patients but novel among SLE patients, to better understand functional impairment in SLE. METHODS: We recruited 60 adult participants [aged 20-39 (26.7%), 40-59 (50.0%), and ≥60 (23.3%); 80.0% black; 90.0% female] from an existing cohort of SLE patients. During in-person visits (10/16-4/17), we evaluated physical performance (range 0-4; higher scores = better performance); cognitive performance (five fluid cognition domains; adjusted t-scores); and self-reported measures including physical functioning (t-scores), activities of daily living (ADLs), falls, and life-space mobility...
January 5, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Xinzhi Ren, Yanni Tian, Lili Liu, Xianning Liu
In this paper, a reaction-diffusion within-host HIV model is proposed. It incorporates cell mobility, spatial heterogeneity and cell-to-cell transmission, which depends on the diffusion ability of the infected cells. In the case of a bounded domain, the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is established and shown as a threshold: the virus-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text] and the virus is uniformly persistent if [Formula: see text]. The explicit formula for [Formula: see text] and the global asymptotic stability of the constant positive steady state are obtained for the case of homogeneous space...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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