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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429754/real-time-detection-of-tsunami-ionospheric-disturbances-with-a-stand-alone-gnss-receiver-a-preliminary-feasibility-demonstration
#1
Giorgio Savastano, Attila Komjathy, Olga Verkhoglyadova, Augusto Mazzoni, Mattia Crespi, Yong Wei, Anthony J Mannucci
It is well known that tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427106/lateral-ventricle-to-sylvian-fissure-shunt-for-obstructive-hydrocephalus-first-report
#2
Sushil Patkar
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway studies have revealed that the CSF secreted from the choroid plexus of the ventricles after egressing from the fourth ventricle reaches the basal suprasellar cistern and ultimately the sylvian cisterns. From the sylvian cistern, the CSF travels over the cerebral convexity subarachnoid space to reach the superior sagittal sinus and enters the bloodstream. Diverting CSF from the lateral ventricle with a shunt catheter to the sylvian cistern can be an option to treat obstructive hydrocephalus...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422999/zooming-in-from-spatially-extended-traveling-waves-to-localized-structures-the-case-of-the-sine-gordon-equation-in-1-3-dimensions
#3
Yair Zarmi
The Sine-Gordon equation in (1+3) dimensions has N-traveling front ("kink", "domain wall")- solutions for all N ≥ 1. A nonlinear functional of the solution, which vanishes on a single-front, maps multi-front solutions onto sets of infinitely long, but laterally bounded, rods, which move in space. Each rod is localized in the vicinity of the intersection of two Sine-Gordon fronts. The rod systems are solutions of the linear wave equation, driven by a term that is constructed out of Sine-Gordon fronts. An additional linear operation maps multi-rod systems onto sets of blobs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419675/melanin-for-space-travel-radioprotection
#4
Radames Jb Cordero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419527/the-rectosigmoid-brake-review-of-an-emerging-neuromodulation-target-for-colorectal-functional-disorders
#5
Anthony Y Lin, Phil G Dinning, Tony Milne, Ian P Bissett, Gregory O'Grady
The regulation of gastrointestinal motility encompasses several overlapping mechanisms including highly regulated and coordinated neurohormonal circuits. Various feedback mechanisms or 'brakes' have been proposed. While duodenal, jejunal, and ileal brakes are well described, a putative distal colonic brake is less well defined. Despite the high prevalence of colonic motility disorders, there is little knowledge of colonic motility owing to difficulties with organ access and technical difficulties in recording detailed motor patterns along its entire length...
April 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415340/development-of-kinks-in-car-following-models
#6
Douglas A Kurtze
Many car-following models of traffic flow admit the possibility of absolute stability, a situation in which uniform traffic flow at any spacing is linearly stable. Near the threshold of absolute stability, these models can often be reduced to a modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equation plus small corrections. The hyperbolic-tangent "kink" solutions of the mKdV equation are usually of particular interest, as they represent transition zones between regions of different traffic spacings. Solvability analysis is believed to show that only a single member of the one-parameter family of kink solutions is preserved by the correction terms, and this is interpreted as a kind of selection...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415249/traveling-waves-and-breathers-in-an-excitatory-inhibitory-neural-field
#7
Stefanos E Folias
We study existence and stability of traveling activity bump solutions in an excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) neural field with Heaviside firing rate functions by deriving existence conditions for traveling bumps and an Evans function to analyze their spectral stability. Subsequently, we show that these existence and stability results reduce, in the limit of wave speed c→0, to the equivalent conditions developed for the stationary bump case. Using the results for the stationary bump case, we show that drift bifurcations of stationary bumps serve as a mechanism for generating traveling bump solutions in the E-I neural field as parameters are varied...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414681/what-can-erode-through-lungs-bone-and-skin
#8
J M Manalac, D Shankaranayanan, J Paul-Olivier, L Guidry, N R Sells
CASE: A 51 year old African American Man without significant past history presented with three weeks of persistent cough productive of copious yellow sputum. He denied fevers, chills, hemoptysis, dyspnea, weight or appetite changes, sick contacts, recent travel. On physical examination, the patient was afebrile and appeared comfortable. He had decreased air entry of the left lower lobe with dullness to percussion. A 5x3 cm fluctuant mass was incidentally found on the left anterior chest wall at the level of the 11th rib with yellow expressible exudate at which time the patient reported a minor trauma sustained 3 weeks prior...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413356/propagation-of-combustion-waves-in-the-shell-core-energetic-materials-with-external-heat-losses
#9
V V Gubernov, V N Kudryumov, A V Kolobov, A A Polezhaev
In this paper, the properties and stability of combustion waves propagating in the composite solid energetic material of the shell-core type are numerically investigated within the one-dimensional diffusive-thermal model with heat losses to the surroundings. The flame speed is calculated as a function of the parameters of the model. The boundaries of stability are determined in the space of parameters by solving the linear stability problem and direct integration of the governing non-stationary equations. The results are compared with the characteristics of the combustion waves in pure solid fuel...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397809/second-harmonic-generation-imaging-of-corneal-stroma-after-infection-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Danielle M Robertson, Nathan A Rogers, W Matthew Petroll, Meifang Zhu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic gram-negative organism that has the ability to cause blinding corneal infections following trauma and during contact lens wear. In this study, we investigated the directional movement and orientation of an invasive corneal isolate of P. aeruginosa in the corneal stroma during infection of ex vivo and in vivo rabbit corneas using multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Ex vivo, rabbit corneas were subject to three partial thickness wounds prior to inoculation...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386434/repeatability-of-circadian-behavioural-variation-revealed-in-free-ranging-marine-fish
#11
Josep Alós, Martina Martorell-Barceló, Andrea Campos-Candela
Repeatable between-individual differences in the behavioural manifestation of underlying circadian rhythms determine chronotypes in humans and terrestrial animals. Here, we have repeatedly measured three circadian behaviours, awakening time, rest onset and rest duration, in the free-ranging pearly razorfish, Xyrithchys novacula, facilitated by acoustic tracking technology and hidden Markov models. In addition, daily travelled distance, a standard measure of daily activity as fish personality trait, was repeatedly assessed using a State-Space Model...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374740/human-seizures-couple-across-spatial-scales-through-travelling-wave-dynamics
#12
L-E Martinet, G Fiddyment, J R Madsen, E N Eskandar, W Truccolo, U T Eden, S S Cash, M A Kramer
Epilepsy-the propensity toward recurrent, unprovoked seizures-is a devastating disease affecting 65 million people worldwide. Understanding and treating this disease remains a challenge, as seizures manifest through mechanisms and features that span spatial and temporal scales. Here we address this challenge through the analysis and modelling of human brain voltage activity recorded simultaneously across microscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. We show that during seizure large-scale neural populations spanning centimetres of cortex coordinate with small neural groups spanning cortical columns, and provide evidence that rapidly propagating waves of activity underlie this increased inter-scale coupling...
April 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368833/autonomous-data-collection-using-a-self-organizing-map
#13
Jan Faigl, Geoffrey A Hollinger
The self-organizing map (SOM) is an unsupervised learning technique providing a transformation of a high-dimensional input space into a lower dimensional output space. In this paper, we utilize the SOM for the traveling salesman problem (TSP) to develop a solution to autonomous data collection. Autonomous data collection requires gathering data from predeployed sensors by moving within a limited communication radius. We propose a new growing SOM that adapts the number of neurons during learning, which also allows our approach to apply in cases where some sensors can be ignored due to a lower priority...
March 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361563/what-makes-a-space-invader-passenger-perceptions-of-personal-space-invasion-in-aircraft-travel
#14
Laura Lewis, Harshada Patel, Mirabelle D'Cruz, Sue Cobb
The invasion of personal space is often a contributory factor to the experience of discomfort in aircraft passengers. This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated how air travellers are affected by invasions of personal space and how they attempt to adapt to, or counter, these invasions. In support of recent findings on the factors influencing air passenger comfort, the results of this study indicate that the invasion of personal space is not only caused by physical factors (e.g. physical contact with humans or objects), but also other sensory factors such as noise, smells or unwanted eye contact...
March 31, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344630/flexible-reaction-norms-to-environmental-variables-along-the-migration-route-and-the-significance-of-stopover-duration-for-total-speed-of-migration-in-a-songbird-migrant
#15
Heiko Schmaljohann, Simeon Lisovski, Franz Bairlein
BACKGROUND: Predicting the consequences of continuing anthropogenic changes in the environment for migratory behaviours such as phenology remains a major challenge. Predictions remain particularly difficult, because our knowledge is based on studies from single-snapshot observations at specific stopover sites along birds' migration routes. However, a general understanding on how birds react to prevailing environmental conditions, e.g. their 'phenotypic reaction norm', throughout the annual cycle and along their entire migration routes is required to fully understand how migratory birds respond to rapid environmental change...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332484/multivariate-regression-methods-for-estimating-velocity-of-ictal-discharges-from-human-microelectrode-recordings
#16
Jyun-You Liou, Elliot Smith, Lisa Bateman, Guy McKhann, Robert Goodman, Bradley Greger, Tyler Davis, Spencer Kellis, Paul House, Catherine Schevon
OBJECTIVE: Epileptiform discharges, an electrophysiological hallmark of seizures, can propagate across cortical tissue in a manner similar to traveling waves. Recent work has focused attention on the origination and propagation patterns of these discharges, yielding important clues to their source location and mechanism of travel. However, systematic studies of methods for measuring propagation are lacking. APPROACH: We analyzed epileptiform discharges in microelectrode array recordings of human seizures...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317985/hierarchical-porous-ni-boehmite-nickel-aluminum-oxide-flakes-with-enhanced-microwave-absorption-ability
#17
Biao Zhao, Junwei Liu, Xiaoqin Guo, Wanyu Zhao, Luyang Liang, Chao Ma, Rui Zhang
In this article, composites consisting of porous Ni cores coated with boehmite/nickel aluminum oxide nanoflakes were successfully prepared by a versatile method. The crystal constituents and shapes of the boehmite/nickel aluminum oxide nanoflakes were strongly influenced by reaction temperature, and their microwave absorption properties were investigated in terms of complex permittivity and permeability. The results reveal that the composites comprising porous Ni cores coated with boehmite/nickel aluminum oxide synthesized at 180 °C present superior absorption properties...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274245/identifying-barriers-to-and-facilitators-of-tuberculosis-contact-investigation-in-kampala-uganda-a-behavioral-approach
#18
Irene Ayakaka, Sara Ackerman, Joseph M Ggita, Phoebe Kajubi, David Dowdy, Jessica E Haberer, Elizabeth Fair, Philip Hopewell, Margaret A Handley, Adithya Cattamanchi, Achilles Katamba, J Lucian Davis
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends routine household tuberculosis contact investigation in high-burden countries but adoption has been limited. We sought to identify barriers to and facilitators of TB contact investigation during its introduction in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We collected cross-sectional qualitative data through focus group discussions and interviews with stakeholders, addressing three core activities of contact investigation: arranging household screening visits through index TB patients, visiting households to screen contacts and refer them to clinics, and evaluating at-risk contacts coming to clinics...
March 9, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271409/the-effect-of-spaceflight-and-microgravity-on-the-human-brain
#19
Angelique Van Ombergen, Athena Demertzi, Elena Tomilovskaya, Ben Jeurissen, Jan Sijbers, Inessa B Kozlovskaya, Paul M Parizel, Paul H Van de Heyning, Stefan Sunaert, Steven Laureys, Floris L Wuyts
Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental effects on human physiology. Although research has focused on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system in particular, the exact impact of spaceflight on the human central nervous system remains to be determined. Previous studies have reported psychological problems, cephalic fluid shifts, neurovestibular problems, and cognitive alterations, but there is paucity in the knowledge of the underlying neural substrates...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264582/a-new-shunt-for-obstructive-hydrocephalus-ventricle-sylvian-fissure-shunt-a-preliminary-report
#20
Sushil Patkar
Cerbrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway studies have revealed that after egressing from the fourth ventricle reaches the basal supra sellar cistern and ultimately the sylvian cisterns from where the CSF travels over the cerebral convexity subarachnoid space to reach the superior saggital sinus and enters the blood stream. Diverting CSF from the lateral ventricle with a shunt catheter to the sylvian cistern can be an option to treat obstructive hydrocephalus. 2 patients underwent this procedure of diverting CSF from the lateral ventricle with a shunt catheter (Chabbra, India) to the sylvian cistern successfully and had immediate relief of symptoms of raised intracranial pressure...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
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