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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662339/nonlinear-dynamics-of-a-dispersive-anisotropic-kuramoto-sivashinsky-equation-in-two-space-dimensions
#1
R J Tomlin, A Kalogirou, D T Papageorgiou
A Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation in two space dimensions arising in thin film flows is considered on doubly periodic domains. In the absence of dispersive effects, this anisotropic equation admits chaotic solutions for sufficiently large length scales with fully two-dimensional profiles; the one-dimensional dynamics observed for thin domains are structurally unstable as the transverse length increases. We find that, independent of the domain size, the characteristic length scale of the profiles in the streamwise direction is about 10 space units, with that in the transverse direction being approximately three times larger...
March 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661073/services-systems-and-policies-affecting-mobility-device-users-community-mobility-a-scoping-review-services-syst%C3%A3-mes-et-politiques-influen%C3%A3-ant-la-mobilit%C3%A3-dans-la-communaut%C3%A3-des-utilisateurs-d-aides-%C3%A3-la-mobilit%C3%A3-examen-de-la-port%C3%A3-e
#2
Sigrún Kristín Jónasdóttir, Jan Miller Polgar
BACKGROUND: Opportunities to travel from one place to another in the community, or community mobility, are especially important for mobility device users' ability to participate fully in society. However, contextual challenges to such mobility exist. PURPOSE: This study summarizes the literature on existing community mobility barriers and facilitators of mobility device users created by services, systems, and policies as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659159/spinal-accessory-motor-neurons-in-the-mouse-a-special-type-of-branchial-motor-neuron
#3
Charles Watson, Petr Tvrdik
The spinal accessory nerve arises from motor neurons in the upper cervical spinal cord. The axons of these motor neurons exit dorsal to the ligamentum denticulatum and form the spinal accessory nerve. The nerve ascends in the spinal subarachnoid space to enter the posterior cranial fossa through the foramen magnum. The spinal accessory nerve then turns caudally to exit through the jugular foramen alongside the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, and then travels to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles in the neck...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657774/a-mathematical-model-of-marine-bacteriophage-evolution
#4
Silvia Pagliarini, Andrei Korobeinikov
To explore how particularities of a host cell-virus system, and in particular host cell replication, affect viral evolution, in this paper we formulate a mathematical model of marine bacteriophage evolution. The intrinsic simplicity of real-life phage-bacteria systems, and in particular aquatic systems, for which the assumption of homogeneous mixing is well justified, allows for a reasonably simple model. The model constructed in this paper is based upon the Beretta-Kuang model of bacteria-phage interaction in an aquatic environment (Beretta & Kuang 1998 Math...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656536/mmr-deficiency-does-not-sensitize-or-compromise-the-function-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-low-and-high-let-radiation
#5
Rutulkumar Patel, Yulan Qing, Lucy Kennedy, Yan Yan, John Pink, Brittany Aguila, Amar Desai, Stanton L Gerson, Scott M Welford
One of the major health concerns on long-duration space missions will be radiation exposure to the astronauts. Outside the earth's magnetosphere, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events that are principally composed of protons and He, Ca, O, Ne, Si, Ca, and Fe nuclei. Protons are by far the most common species, but the higher atomic number particles are thought to be more damaging to biological systems. Evaluation and amelioration of risks from GCR exposure will be important for deep space travel...
April 14, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653179/a-distributed-computational-model-for-estimating-room-air-level-of-constituents-due-to-aerosol-emission-from-e-vapor-product-use
#6
Ali A Rostami, Samuel Agyemang, Yezdi B Pithawalla
Most indoor air quality models reported in the literature are well-mixed models. A well-mixed model estimates the room average concentration of constituents from sources. It does not provide information on (1) how far and how fast the emitted chemicals travel in the indoor space? And (2) how the concentration changes as a function of distance from the emission source? We developed a distributed model, using computational fluid dynamics and thermodynamics principles, which allows for aerosol dispersion in an indoor space and includes evaporation and condensation of constituents in a multi-compound aerosol mixture...
April 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628520/sun-to-earth-mhd-simulation-of-the-14-july-2000-bastille-day-eruption
#7
Tibor Török, Cooper Downs, Jon A Linker, R Lionello, Viacheslav S Titov, Zoran Mikić, Pete Riley, Ronald M Caplan, Janvier Wijaya
Solar eruptions are the main driver of space-weather disturbances at the Earth. Extreme events are of particular interest, not only because of the scientific challenges they pose, but also because of their possible societal consequences. Here we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the 14 July 2000 "Bastille Day" eruption, which produced a very strong geomagnetic storm. After constructing a "thermodynamic" MHD model of the corona and solar wind, we insert a magnetically stable flux rope along the polarity inversion line of the eruption's source region and initiate the eruption by boundary flows...
March 20, 2018: Astrophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626819/cyclist-exposure-to-black-carbon-ultrafine-particles-and-heavy-metals-an-experimental-study-along-two-commuting-routes-near-antwerp-belgium
#8
Jelle Hofman, Roeland Samson, Steven Joosen, Ronny Blust, Silvia Lenaerts
Urban environments typically exhibit large atmospheric pollution variation, in both space and time. In contrast to traditional monitoring networks suffering from a limited spatial coverage, mobile platforms enable personalized high-resolution monitoring, providing valuable insights into personal atmospheric pollution exposure, and the identification of potential pollution hotspots. This study evaluated personal cyclist exposure to UFPs, BC and heavy metals whilst commuting near Antwerp, Belgium, by performing mobile measurements with wearable black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particle (UFP) instruments...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616880/is-adenosine-action-common-ground-for-nrem-sleep-torpor-and-other-hypometabolic-states
#9
Alessandro Silvani, Matteo Cerri, Giovanna Zoccoli, Steven J Swoap
This review compares two states that lower energy expenditure: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and torpor. Knowledge on mechanisms common to these states, and particularly on the role of adenosine in NREM sleep, may ultimately open the possibility of inducing a synthetic torpor-like state in humans for medical applications and long-term space travel. To achieve this goal, it will be important, in perspective, to extend the study to other hypometabolic states, which, unlike torpor, can also be experienced by humans...
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615186/what-externally-presented-information-do-vrus-require-when-interacting-with-fully-automated-road-transport-systems-in-shared-space
#10
Natasha Merat, Tyron Louw, Ruth Madigan, Marc Wilbrink, Anna Schieben
As the desire for deploying automated ("driverless") vehicles increases, there is a need to understand how they might communicate with other road users in a mixed traffic, urban, setting. In the absence of an active and responsible human controller in the driving seat, who might currently communicate with other road users in uncertain/conflicting situations, in the future, understanding a driverless car's behaviour and intentions will need to be relayed via easily comprehensible, intuitive and universally intelligible means, perhaps presented externally via new vehicle interfaces...
March 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578861/alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-and-driving-in-clinically-normal-older-adults-role-of-spatial-navigation-abilities
#11
Samantha Allison, Ganesh M Babulal, Sarah H Stout, Peggy P Barco, David B Carr, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Catherine M Roe, Denise Head
PURPOSE: Older adults experience impaired driving performance, and modify their driving habits, including limiting amount and spatial extent of travel. Alzheimer disease (AD)-related pathology, as well as spatial navigation difficulties, may influence driving performance and driving behaviors in clinically normal older adults. We examined whether AD biomarkers [cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of Aβ42, tau, and ptau181] were associated with lower self-reported spatial navigation abilities, and whether navigation abilities mediated the relationship of AD biomarkers with driving performance and extent...
March 23, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577655/first-insights-into-puumala-orthohantavirus-circulation-in-a-rodent-population-in-alsace-france
#12
E Monchatre-Leroy, S Murri, G Castel, D Calavas, F Boué, V Hénaux, P Marianneau
In-depth knowledge on the mechanisms that maintain infection by a zoonotic pathogen in an animal reservoir is the key to predicting and preventing transmission to humans. The Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV), the most prevalent orthohantavirus in Western Europe, causes a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. In France, this endemic illness affects the north-eastern part of the country. We conducted a 4-year capture-mark-recapture study in a bank vole population, combined with molecular analyses, to explore the epidemiological situation of PUUV in Alsace, a French region where human cases have occurred, but for which no studies have been conducted on this reservoir host...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570333/ponderomotive-generation-and-detection-of-attosecond-free-electron-pulse-trains
#13
M Kozák, N Schönenberger, P Hommelhoff
Atomic motion dynamics during structural changes or chemical reactions have been visualized by pico- and femtosecond pulsed electron beams via ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy. Imaging the even faster dynamics of electrons in atoms, molecules, and solids requires electron pulses with subfemtosecond durations. We demonstrate here the all-optical generation of trains of attosecond free-electron pulses. The concept is based on the periodic energy modulation of a pulsed electron beam via an inelastic interaction, with the ponderomotive potential of an optical traveling wave generated by two femtosecond laser pulses at different frequencies in vacuum...
March 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568139/correlation-of-icme-magnetic-fields-at-radially-aligned-spacecraft
#14
S W Good, R J Forsyth, J P Eastwood, C Möstl
The magnetic field structures of two interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), each observed by a pair of spacecraft close to radial alignment, have been analysed. The ICMEs were observed in situ by MESSENGER and STEREO-B in November 2010 and November 2011, while the spacecraft were separated by more than 0.6 AU in heliocentric distance, less than 4° in heliographic longitude, and less than 7° in heliographic latitude. Both ICMEs took approximately two days to travel between the spacecraft. The ICME magnetic field profiles observed at MESSENGER have been mapped to the heliocentric distance of STEREO-B and compared directly to the profiles observed by STEREO-B...
2018: Solar Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566468/lymphatic-vessel-mapping-in-the-upper-extremities-of-a-healthy-korean-population
#15
Yun-Whan Lee, Soo-Hyun Lee, Hi-Jin You, Jae-A Jung, Eul-Sik Yoon, Deok-Woo Kim
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) lymphography can effectively detect functioning lymph vessels in edematous limbs. However, it is sometimes difficult to clearly identify their course in later-stage edematous limbs. For this reason, many surgeons rely on experience when they decide where to make the skin incision to locate the lymphatic vessels. The purpose of this study was to elucidate lymphatic vessel flow patterns in healthy upper extremities in a Korean population and to use these findings as a reference for lymphedema treatment...
March 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559713/skeletal-changes-during-and-after-spaceflight
#16
REVIEW
Laurence Vico, Alan Hargens
Space sojourns are challenging for life. The ability of the human body to adapt to these extreme conditions has been noted since the beginning of human space travel. Skeletal alterations that occur during spaceflight are now better understood owing to tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and murine models help researchers to understand cellular and matrix changes that occur in bone and that are difficult to measure in humans. However, questions remain with regard to bone adaptation and osteocyte fate, as well as to interactions of the skeleton with fluid shifts towards the head and with the vascular system...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548084/metastable-state-en-route-to-traveling-wave-synchronization-state
#17
Jinha Park, B Kahng
The Kuramoto model with mixed signs of couplings is known to produce a traveling-wave synchronized state. Here, we consider an abrupt synchronization transition from the incoherent state to the traveling-wave state through a long-lasting metastable state with large fluctuations. Our explanation of the metastability is that the dynamic flow remains within a limited region of phase space and circulates through a few active states bounded by saddle and stable fixed points. This complex flow generates a long-lasting critical behavior, a signature of a hybrid phase transition...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544379/the-effect-of-carbon-irradiation-is-associated-with-greater-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-intestine-and-colon-relative-to-%C3%AE-rays
#18
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Albert J Jr Fornace, Kamal Datta
Carbon irradiation due to its higher biological effectiveness relative to photon radiation is a concern for toxicity to proliferative normal gastrointestinal (GI) tissue after radiotherapy and long-duration space missions such as mission to Mars. Although radiation-induced oxidative stress is linked to chronic diseases such as cancer, effects of carbon irradiation on normal GI tissue have not been fully understood. This study assessed and compared chronic oxidative stress in mouse intestine and colon after different doses of carbon and γ radiation, which are qualitatively different...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541653/near-infrared-and-optical-beam-steering-and-frequency-splitting-in-air-holes-in-silicon-inverse-photonic-crystals
#19
Anna C Tasolamprou, Thomas Koschny, Maria Kafesaki, Costas M Soukoulis
We present the design of a dielectric inverse photonic crystal structure that couples line-defect waveguide propagating modes into highly directional beams of controllable directionality. The structure utilizes a triangular lattice made of air holes drilled in an infinitely thick Si slab, and it is designed for operation in the near-infrared and optical regime. The structure operation is based on the excitation and manipulation of dark dielectric surface states, in particular on the tailoring of the dark states' coupling to outgoing radiation...
November 15, 2017: ACS Photonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540322/persistent-nature-of-alterations-in-cognition-and-neuronal-circuit-excitability-after-exposure-to-simulated-cosmic-radiation-in-mice
#20
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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