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Huimin Na, Olga Ponomarova, Gabrielle E Giese, Albertha J M Walhout
Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase to produce the anabolic methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase to catabolize the short-chain fatty acid propionate. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, maternally supplied vitamin B12 is required for the development of offspring. However, the mechanism for exporting vitamin B12 from the mother to the offspring is not yet known. Here, we use RNAi of more than 200 transporters with a vitamin B12-sensor transgene to identify the ABC transporter MRP-5 as a candidate vitamin B12 exporter...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Ayako Casanova-Nakayama, Elena Wernicke von Siebenthal, Christian Kropf, Elisabeth Oldenberg, Helmut Segner
Genomic actions of estrogens in vertebrates are exerted via two intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, which show cell- and tissue-specific expression profiles. Mammalian immune cells express ERs and are responsive to estrogens. More recently, evidence became available that ERs are also present in the immune organs and cells of teleost fish, suggesting that the immunomodulatory function of estrogens has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. For a better understanding of the sensitivity and the responsiveness of the fish immune system to estrogens, more insight is needed on the abundance of ERs in the fish immune system, the cellular ratios of the ER subtypes, and their autoregulation by estrogens...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Roger T Engeli, Cornelia Fürstenberger, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt
Androgen biosynthesis in males occurs to a large extent in testicular Leydig cells. This study focused on the evaluation of three murine Leydig cell lines as potential screening tool to test xenobiotics interfering with gonadal androgen synthesis. The final step of testosterone (T) production in Leydig cells is catalyzed by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-hsd3). The endogenous 17β-hsd3 mRNA expression and Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) to T conversion were determined in the murine cell lines MA-10, BLTK1 and TM3...
February 2018: Heliyon
Pedro O Flores-Villanueva, Malathesha Ganachari, Heinner Guio, Jaime A Mejia, Julio Granados
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among both men and women in the United States, where non-small cell lung cancer accounts for ∼85% of lung cancer. Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the major histologic subtype. The presence of actionable mutations prompts the use of therapies designed to specifically address the deleterious effects of those cancer-driving mutations; these therapies have already shown promise in cases carrying those actionable mutations (∼30%). Innovative therapeutic approaches are needed for the treatment of 70% of patients suffering from lung ADC...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Andres Matoso, Binny Khandakar, Songyang Yuan, Tony Wu, Li J Wang, Kara A Lombardo, Shamlal Mangray, Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, Evgeny Yakirevich
Gender confirmation surgery (GCS) is increasingly common in persons with gender dysphoria. We describe changes seen in gonads from individuals seeking male to female physical adaptation. We studied 99 orchiectomies from 50 persons. The average age was 33years (range: 21-63). Eighty six of 99 (86.8%) testes were normal in size with an average size of 3.87cm (range: 3.0-5.5). Thirteen of 99 (13.1%) testes were hypotrophic and measured up to 2.5cm. Seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter compared to controls (0...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Ireen Vieweg, Eider Bilbao, James P Meador, Ibon Cancio, Morgan Lizabeth Bender, Miren P Cajaraville, Jasmine Nahrgang
Polar cod is an abundant Arctic key species, inhabiting an ecosystem that is subjected to rapid climate change and increased petroleum related activities. Few studies have investigated biological effects of crude oil on lipid metabolism in this species, despite lipids being a crucial compound for Arctic species to adapt to the high seasonality in food abundance in their habitat. This study examines the effects of dietary crude oil exposure on transcription levels of genes related to lipid metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors [ppar-α, ppar-γ], retinoic X receptor [rxr-β], palmitoyl-CoA oxidase [aox1], cytochrome P4507A1 [cyp7α1]), reproduction (vitellogenin [vtg-β], gonad aromatase [cyp19a1]) and biotransformation (cytochrome P4501A1 [cyp1a1], aryl hydrocarbon receptor [ahr2])...
March 16, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Marilena Marraudino, Mariangela Martini, Sara Trova, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, Stefano Gotti, GianCarlo Panzica
The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies (the periventricular region, RP3V and the arcuate nucleus, ARC) that send fibers mainly to the GnRH neurons and in a few other locations, including the paraventricular nucleus, PVN. In physiological conditions, gonadal hormones modulate the kisspeptin system with expression changes according to different phases of the estrous cycle: the highest being in estrus phase in RP3V and PVN (positive feedback), and in ARC during the diestrus phase (negative feedback)...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Siriporn Chamniansawat, Chattraporn Sawatdiyaphanon
It is widely known that not only the gonadal estradiol (E2) but also hippocampal E2 plays an essential role in memory process. However, the role of hippocampal E2-enhanced memory mechanism during aging is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age on E2 concentration, the expression level of its receptors, and key steroidogenic enzymes in hippocampus. We also investigated the effect of microglia activation on E2 synthesis in hippocampal neurons. The results showed that serum E2 was higher in 19-month-old (aged) rats, which exhibited spatial memory decline in the Morris water maze (MWM) test when compared to the younger rats...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Jinhua Jiang, Yan Shi, Ruixian Yu, Liping Chen, Xueping Zhao
Azoxystrobin (AZ) is a broad-spectrum systemic fungicide that widely used in the world. The present study investigated the toxicity effects on zebrafish after short-term exposure of AZ. Results demonstrated that the larval stage was most susceptible to AZ in the multiple life stages of zebrafish, with 96 h-LC50 value of 0.777 mg/L. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to different AZ concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/L) and examined on 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that AZ induced ROS accumulation, increased GST, GPX and POD activity and the transcriptions of antioxidant and stress response related genes, while the opposite trend occurred for SOD and CAT activity in 24-h or 48-h exposure period...
March 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Jeffrey B Mason, Kate C Parkinson, Tracy L Habermehl
Ovarian transplantation was first conducted at Utah State University in 1963. In more recent work, heterochronic transplantation of mammalian ovaries is being used to investigate the health-protective effects of young ovaries in young females. The current procedures employ an orthotopic transplantation method, where allogenic ovaries are transplanted back to their original position in the ovarian bursa. This is in contrast to the more commonly used heterotopic transplantation of ovaries/ovarian tissue subcutaneously or under the kidney capsule...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Edip Ünal, Ruken Yıldırım, Funda Feryal Taş, Vasfiye Demir, Hüseyin Onay, Yusuf Kenan Haspolat
BACKGROUND: Aromatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder with an unknown incidence. Aromatase converts androgens into estrogen in the gonadal and extra-gonadal tissues. Aromatase deficiency causes ambiguous genitalia in the female fetus and maternal virilization (hirsutism, acne, cliteromegaly, deep voice) during the pregnancy due to increased concentration of androgens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The-nineteen-month-old girl was assessed due to ambiguous genitalia There were findings of maternal virilization during pregnancy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Hong-Zhuan Shi, Hong Liu, Qiao-Sheng Guo, Jia Wang, Fei Liu
The reproductive system and gonad development and germ cell occurrence of Whitmania pigra have been studied by using tissue section electron microscope techniques. W. pigra has completely independent male and female reproduction system, which lasts 11 months. The development of spermary started before the development of ovary. When egg cell is only a primordial germ cell, sperm has an initially complete form. Meanwhile, sperm cells and egg cells orderly development and synchronously mature. According to the development of sperm cells and egg cells, the development of cycle of the spermary could be divided into 6 stages: proliferating stage (1-3 months of age), growing stage (4-5 months of age), resting stage (6-8 months of age), maturing stage (9 months of age), spawning stage (10 months of age) and degradation stage (11 months of age)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Kalyani Raju, Srinivas Murthy Venkataramappa
Hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in increased intestinal absorption of iron and eventually to iron overload. The onset of symptoms is usually seen around 40 years of age. Iron overload causes tissue damage in liver, pancreas, skin, joints, heart, and gonads. Approximately 50% of patients diagnosed with hemochromatosis will have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) because of selective beta-cell damage due to iron overload and leads to impaired insulin synthesis, release, and insulin resistance...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Sree Rekha Jinkala, Elancheran Muthalagan, Bhawana Ashok Badhe
Intracranial germinomas are rare and account for <0.5% of primary intracranial tumors. In contrast to the gonadal germinomas, these do not show granulomatous response within the tumor. In rare cases, the granulomatous component may obscure the tumor proper and lead to diagnostic difficulties/dilemmas. We report a case of suprasellar germinoma in a 17-year-old boy which showed granulomatous response. We discuss the differentials to be considered in such a scenario and discuss the utility of squash cytology and immunohistochemistry in these lesions...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Raffaele Nuzzi, Simona Scalabrin, Alice Becco, Giancarlo Panzica
Aim: Gonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular. Methods: Epidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed. Results: Analysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Katya B Rubinow
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, parallel recognition has grown of the importance of both sex steroids and immune activity in metabolic regulation. More recently, these discrete areas have been integrated in studies examining the metabolic effects of sex steroid immunomodulation. Implicit in these studies has been a traditional, endocrine model of sex steroid delivery from the gonads to target cells, including immune cells. Thus, research to date has focused on the metabolic effects of sex steroid receptor signaling in immune cells...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Matthew J Paul, Clemens K Probst, Lauren M Brown, Geert J de Vries
Alongside the development of sexual characteristics and reproductive competence, adolescents undergo marked cognitive, social, and emotional development [1]. A fundamental question is whether these changes are triggered by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at puberty (puberty dependent) or whether they occur independently of HPG activation (puberty independent). Disentangling puberty-dependent from puberty-independent mechanisms is difficult because puberty and adolescence typically proceed concurrently...
March 6, 2018: Current Biology: CB
M McGowan, M K Holland, G Boe-Hansen
This review focuses on current understanding of prenatal, prepubertal and post-pubertal development of the male reproductive system of cattle. The critical developmental events occur during the first 3 to 4 months of gestation and the first ~6 to 9 months after birth. The Wilms Tumor-1 and SRY proteins play critical roles in early development and differentiation of the fetal testis, which in turn drives gestational development of the entire male reproductive system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures earlier in the bovine fetus than other domestic species with descent of the testes into the scrotum occurring around the 4th month of gestation...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Yan Zhang, Ricardo S Hattori, Munti Sarida, Estefany C García, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, Yoji Yamamoto
To shed light on the mechanisms of and interactions of GSD and TSD in pejerrey, we investigated how the transcriptional profiles of amhy and amha are affected by feminizing (17°C) and masculinizing (29°C) temperatures during the critical period of sex determination/differentiation and their relation with the expression profiles of AMH receptor type II (amhrII), gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a), and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2). Careful consideration of the results of this study and all information currently available for this species, including similar analyzes for an intermediate, mixed-sex promoting temperature (25°C), suggests a model for genotypic/temperature-dependent sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation that involves a) cyp19a1a-dependent, developmentally-programmed ovarian development as the default state that becomes self-sustaining in the absence of a potent and timely masculinizing stimulus, b) early, developmentally-programmed amhy expression and high temperature as masculinization signals that antagonize the putative female pathway by suppressing cyp19a1a expression, c) increasing stress response, cortisol, and the synthesis of the masculinizing androgen 11-keto-testosterone via hsd11b2 with increasing temperature that is important for masculinization in both genotypes but particularly so in XX individuals, and d) an endocrine network with positive/negative feedback mechanisms that ensure fidelity of the male/female pathway once started...
March 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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