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Phosphoethanolamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899954/phosphoethanolamine-and-the-danger-of-unproven-drugs
#1
Noam Pondé, Evandro de Azambuja, Felipe Ades
The use of unproven forms of therapy in cancer treatment is very common. In Brazil, the distribution by researchers to patients of an investigational agent called phophoethanolamine (PHOS) has led to a widely publicized scientific scandal. PHOS is a precursor to components of the cell membrane, with some published pre-clinical studies suggesting cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. The willingness of courts and of legislators to guarantee access to PHOS in spite of the lack of any clinical data and against the recommendations of scientific and medical organisations underscores the risks that unproven agents pose to regulatory authorities, health care systems and patients, and bears resemblance to other cases such as the controversy surrounding the approval of zidovudine for AIDS treatment by the FDA...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893806/hplc-based-mass-spectrometry-characterizes-the-phospholipid-alterations-in-ether-linked-lipid-deficiency-models-following-oxidative-stress
#2
Robin Drechsler, Shaw-Wen Chen, Blair C R Dancy, Lena Mehrabkhani, Carissa Perez Olsen
Despite the fact that the discovery of ether-linked phospholipids occurred nearly a century ago, many unanswered questions remain concerning these unique lipids. Here, we characterize the ether-linked lipids of the nematode with HPLC-MS/MS and find that more than half of the phosphoethanolamine-containing lipids are ether-linked, a distribution similar to that found in mammalian membranes. To explore the biological role of ether lipids in vivo, we target fatty acyl-CoA reductase (fard-1), an essential enzyme in ether lipid synthesis, with two distinct RNAi strategies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877240/ros-responsive-mitochondria-targeting-blended-nanoparticles-chemo-and-photodynamic-synergistic-therapy-for-lung-cancer-with-on-demand-drug-release-upon-irradiation-with-a-single-light-source
#3
Caixia Yue, Yuming Yang, Chunlei Zhang, Gabriel Alfranca, Shangli Cheng, Lijun Ma, Yanlei Liu, Xiao Zhi, Jian Ni, Weihua Jiang, Jie Song, Jesús M de la Fuente, Daxiang Cui
Mitochondria in cancer cells maintain a more negative membrane potential than normal cells. Mitochondria are the primary source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are necessary for photodynamic therapy. Thus, the strategy of targeting mitochondria can maximize the photodynamic therapeutic efficiency for cancer. Here we report, for the first time, synthesis of a new mitochondria-targeting drug delivery system, ZnPc/CPT-TPPNPs. To synthesize this novel compound, polyethylene glycol was functionalized with thioketal linker-modified camptothecin (TL-CPT) and triphenylphosphonium to form the block copolymer, TL-CPT-PEG1K-TPP...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863688/determination-of-the-activity-of-maleimide-functionalized-phospholipids-during-preparation-of-liposomes
#4
Mira Oswald, Simon Geissler, Achim Goepferich
Numerous examples exist in the literature for the use of maleimide-thiol-reactions in the area of functionalized nanoparticles. Although the hydrolysis tendency of maleimides is well-known, qualitative and quantitative information on the stability and reactivity of maleimide groups during preparation and in final formulations are missing. This is surprising, since hydrolysis of maleimides prevents nanoparticle functionalization and results in an increase of negative surface charge due to the hydrolysis product maleic acid...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863184/lipase-sensitive-transfersomes-based-on-photosensitizer-polymerizable-lipid-conjugate-for-selective-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-of-acne
#5
Hyung Park, Jonghwan Lee, Songhee Jeong, Byeong Nam Im, Min-Kyoung Kim, Su-Geun Yang, Kun Na
Acne vulgaris is a common skin problem affecting nearly 90% of adolescents and its development is associated with a colonization of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat acne, antibiotic resistance of P. acnes is an emerging issue to be solved. In this study, a new way of photodynamic acne therapy is developed using P. acnes lipase-sensitive transfersome (DSPE-PEG-Pheo A (DPP) transfersome). For enhanced selectivity and skin penetration efficiency, DPP transfersomes are prepared from 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)-2000], pheophorbide A (Pheo A), cholesterol, and Tween-80...
November 10, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843311/cd20-monoclonal-antibody-targeted-nanoscale-drug-delivery-system-for-doxorubicin-chemotherapy-an-in-vitro-study-of-cell-lysis-of-cd20-positive-raji-cells
#6
Shuang Jiang, Xiaobo Wang, Zhiran Zhang, Lan Sun, Yunzhu Pu, Hongjuan Yao, Jingcao Li, Yan Liu, Yingge Zhang, Weijing Zhang
A monoclonal antibody targeted nanoscale drug delivery system (NDDS) for chemotherapy was evaluated in CD20-positive Raji cells in vitro. Nanoparticles were formed by the assembly of an amphiphilic polymer consisting of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxypolyethyleneglycol-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000). Active carbon nanoparticles (ACNP) were conjugated to the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX), and the nanoliposome carrier, DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 conjugated to the human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocytes...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807502/near-infrared-dye-loaded-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-photoacoustic-contrast-agent-for-enhanced-tumor-imaging
#7
Chuang Gao, Zi-Jian Deng, Dong Peng, Yu-Shen Jin, Yan Ma, Yan-Yan Li, Yu-Kun Zhu, Jian-Zhong Xi, Jie Tian, Zhi-Fei Dai, Chang-Hui Li, Xiao-Long Liang
Objective: Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) has attracted extensive interest because of its optical absorption contrast and ultrasonic detection. This study aims to develop a biocompatible and biodegradable PA contrast agent particularly promising for clinical applications in human body. Methods: In this study, we presented a PA contrast agent: 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)] (DSPE-PEG)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with indocyanine green (ICG)...
September 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789298/a-langmuir-and-afm-study-on-interfacial-behavior-of-binary-monolayer-of-hexadecanol-dppe-at-the-air-water-interface
#8
Huaze Zhu, Runguang Sun, Changchun Hao, Pengli Zhang
Hexadecanol is chemically stable and can be used as an effective addition in synthetic clinical lung surfactant preparations to improve their spreading properties. In this work, a detailed thermodynamic and structural characterization of a simple model system, which based on a hexadecanol-phospholipid mixture is reported. Langmuir monolayers of binary mixtures of hexadecanol/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) have been studied with thermodynamic parameters and monolayer structure. The extent of the thermodynamic parameters has been evaluated by the direct related parameters, such as mean molecular area, percent of condensation, surface excess Gibbs free energies, isothermal compressibility, interaction energy parameter, activity coefficient and two-dimensional phase diagram...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784725/characterisation-of-homologous-sphingosine-1-phosphate-lyase-s1pl-isoforms-in-the-bacterial-pathogen-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#9
Christopher McLean, Jon Marles-Wright, Rafael Custodio, Jonathan Lowther, Amanda J Kennedy, Jacob Pollock, David J Clarke, Alan R Brown, Dominic J Campopiano
Sphingolipids (SLs) are ubiquitous elements in eukaryotic membranes and are also found in some bacterial and viral species. As well as playing an integral structural role, SLs also act as potent signalling molecules involved in numerous cellular pathways and have been linked to many human diseases. A central SL signalling molecule is sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) whose breakdown is catalysed by sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL), a pyridoxal 5 '-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyses the cleavage of S1P to (2E)-hexadecenal (2E-HEX) and phosphoethanolamine (PE)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769002/nonviral-gene-delivery-by-highly-fluorinated-gemini-bispyridinium-surfactant-based-dna-nanoparticles
#10
Emilia Fisicaro, Carlotta Compari, Franco Bacciottini, Laura Contardi, Erika Pongiluppi, Nadia Barbero, Guido Viscardi, Pierluigi Quagliotto, Gaetano Donofrio, Marie Pierre Krafft
Biological and thermodynamic properties of a new homologous series of highly fluorinated bispyridinium cationic gemini surfactants, differing in the length of the spacer bridging the pyridinium polar heads in 1,1' position, are reported for the first time. Interestingly, gene delivery ability is closely associated with the spacer length due to a structural change of the molecule in solution. This conformation change is allowed when the spacer reaches the right length, and it is suggested by the trends of the apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs molality...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760361/bilayer-properties-of-lipid-a-from-various-gram-negative-bacteria
#11
Seonghoon Kim, Dhilon S Patel, Soohyung Park, Joanna Slusky, Jeffery B Klauda, Göran Widmalm, Wonpil Im
Lipid A is the lipid anchor of a lipopolysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In general, lipid A consists of two phosphorylated N-acetyl glucosamine and several acyl chains that are directly linked to the two sugars. Depending on the bacterial species and environments, the acyl chain number and length vary, and lipid A can be chemically modified with phosphoethanolamine, aminoarabinose, or glycine residues, which are key to bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, homogeneous lipid bilayers of 21 distinct lipid A types from 12 bacterial species are modeled and simulated to investigate the differences and similarities of their membrane properties...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749106/dopa-based-paclitaxel-loaded-liposomes-with-modifications-of-transferrin-and-alendronate-for-bone-and-myeloma-targeting
#12
Qing Chang, Rui Geng, Shanzheng Wang, Ding Qu, Xiangfei Kong
Treatment for multiple myeloma (MM) with a combined strategy of bone and tumor targeting remains a crucial technical challenge due to the incorporation of various functional components into one single system. Here, we developed dioleoyl phosphatidic acid (DOPA)-based paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded liposomes with modifications of alendronate and transferrin (Ald-/Tf-modified PTX-L), which were capable of bone affinity mediated by phosphate groups in DOPA and alendronate, and tumor targeting offered by transferrin. Ald-/Tf-modified PTX-L had clear and well-defined spherical shape with an intermediated size of 118...
November 2016: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718555/modulating-drug-release-rate-from-partially-silica-coated-bicellar-nanodisc-by-incorporating-pegylated-phospholipid
#13
Li Lin, Xiaoyou Wang, Xiaoda Li, Yongbo Yang, Xiuli Yue, Qiang Zhang, Zhifei Dai
This article reports an effective method to regulate hydrophobic drug release rate from partially silica-coated bicellar nanodisc generated from proamphiphilic organoalkoxysilane and dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine by introducing different molar percentages of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-PEG2000 (DSPE-PEG2000) into planar bilayers of hybrid bicelles. It was found that the drug release rate increased with increasing the molar percentages of DSPE-PEG2000, and 57.38%, 69.21%, 78.69%, 81.64% and 82...
October 10, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709756/structural-basis-for-phospholyase-activity-of-a-class-iii-transaminase-homolog
#14
Anibal Cuetos, Fabian Steffen-Munsberg, Juan Mangas Sanchez, Amina Frese, Uwe T Bornscheuer, Matthias Höhne, Gideon Grogan
PLP-dependent enzymes catalyze a remarkable diversity of chemical reactions in Nature. A1RDF1 from Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 is a Fold Type I, PLP-dependent enzyme in the Class III transaminase (TA) subgroup. Despite sharing 28% sequence identity with its closest structural homologs, including β-alanine:pyruvate and γ-amino butyrate:α-ketoglutarate TAs, A1RDF1 displayed no TA activity. Activity screening revealed the enzyme to possess phospholyase (E.C. 4.2.3.2) activity towards O-phosphoethanolamine (PEtN), an activity described previously for vertebrate enzymes such as human AGXT2L1, and for which no structure has yet been reported...
October 6, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694054/the-biological-activity-of-cationic-liposomes-in-drug-delivery-and-toxicity-test-in-animal-models
#15
Panpan Qi, Mei Cao, Liju Song, Chong Chen, Mingdong Liu, Ningzhe Li, Daoyan Wu, Jingshan Peng, Guoku Hu, Jian Zhao
In the study we made use of DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium), DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-snglycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) and PEG-PE (polyethylene glycol- polyethylene) to make cationic PEG-liposomes by ultrasonic dispersion method. The plasmid pGPU6 combined with cationic PEG-liposomes or Liopofectamin 2000 was used to transfect PC3 cells to judge the transfection efficiency. HE staining showed that the pGUP6-shAurora B plasmid/liposomes complex could significantly inhibit tumor growth in mice tumor model...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693589/probing-phosphoethanolamine-containing-lipids-in-membranes-with-duramycin-cinnamycin-and-aegerolysin-proteins
#16
Françoise Hullin-Matsuda, Asami Makino, Motohide Murate, Toshihide Kobayashi
In this mini-review, we summarize current knowledge about the lipid-binding characteristics of two types of toxins used to visualize the membrane distribution of phosphoethanolamine-containing lipid species: the glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and the sphingolipid, ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE). The lantibiotic cinnamycin and the structurally-related peptide duramycin produced by some Gram-positive bacteria were among the first toxins characterized by their specificity for PE which is widely present in animal kingdoms from bacteria to mammals...
September 28, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664502/an-extensive-simulation-study-of-lipid-bilayer-properties-with-different-head-groups-acyl-chain-lengths-and-chain-saturations
#17
Xiaohong Zhuang, Eder M Dávila-Contreras, Andrew H Beaven, Wonpil Im, Jeffery B Klauda
Previous MD simulations of six phosphocholine (PC) lipid bilayers demonstrated the accuracy of the CHARMM36 force field (C36FF) for PC bilayer simulation at varied temperatures (BBA-Biomembranes, 1838 (2014): 2520-2529). In this work, we further examine the accuracy of C36FF over a wide temperature range for a broader range of lipid types such as various head groups (phosphatidic acid (PA), PC, phosphoethanolamine (PE), phosphoglycerol (PG), and phosphoserine (PS)), and tails (saturated, mono-, mixed- and poly-unsaturated acyl chains with varied chain lengths)...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662033/cationic-lipids-bearing-succinic-based-acyclic-and-macrocyclic-hydrophobic-domains-synthetic-studies-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-gene-transfer
#18
Emile Jubeli, Amanda B Maginty, Nada Abdul Khalique, Liji Raju, David G Nicholson, Helge Larsen, Michael D Pungente, William P D Goldring
In this communication we describe the construction of four succinic-based cationic lipids, their formulation with plasmid DNA (pDNA), and an evaluation of their in vitro gene delivery into Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO-K1) cells. The cationic lipids employed in this work possess either a dimethylamine or trimethylamine headgroup, and a macrocyclic or an acyclic hydrophobic domain composed of, or derived from two 16-atom, succinic-based acyl chains. The synthesized lipids and a co-lipid of neutral charge, either cholesterol or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), were formulated in an overall 3:2 cationic-to-neutral lipid molar ratio, then complexed with plasmid DNA (pDNA)...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650487/molecular-imaging-of-brain-localization-of-liposomes-in-mice-using-maldi-mass-spectrometry
#19
Annabelle Fülöp, Denis A Sammour, Katrin Erich, Johanna von Gerichten, Peter van Hoogevest, Roger Sandhoff, Carsten Hopf
Phospholipids have excellent biocompatibility and are therefore often used as main components of liposomal drug carriers. In traditional bioanalytics, the in-vivo distribution of liposomal drug carriers is assessed using radiolabeled liposomal constituents. This study presents matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) as an alternative, label-free method for ex-vivo molecular imaging of liposomal drug carriers in mouse tissue. To this end, indocyanine green as cargo and two liposomal markers, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine conjugated with monodisperse polyethylene glycol (PEG36-DSPE) were incorporated into liposomal carriers and administered to mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634569/developmental-inhibition-of-mir-iab8-3p-disrupts-mushroom-body-neuron-structure-and-adult-learning-ability
#20
Germain U Busto, Tugba Guven-Ozkan, Molee Chakraborty, Ronald L Davis
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit protein expression post-transcriptionally. They have been implicated in many different physiological processes, but little is known about their individual involvement in learning and memory. We recently identified several miRNAs that either increased or decreased intermediate-term memory when inhibited in the central nervous system, including miR-iab8-3p. We report here a new developmental role for this miRNA. Blocking the expression of miR-iab8-3p during the development of the organism leads to hypertrophy of individual mushroom body neuron soma, a reduction in the field size occupied by axonal projections, and adult intellectual disability...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
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