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Chronic lung disease in infants

Alireza Sadeghnia, Behzad Koorang Beheshti, Majid Mohammadizadeh
Background: Considering all the latest achievements in neonatal respiratory care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still among the most prevalent morbidity causes in premature infants. Involvement in this process results in longer period of hospitalization for the newborn and in the long run makes the living conditions more difficult. Taking the multifactorial pathogenesis into account, approaches to tackle chronic lung disease (CLD) are mainly focused on interventions and prevention procedures...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Deonne Dersch-Mills, Belal Alshaikh, Amuchou S Soraisham, Albert Akierman, Kamran Yusuf
Background: There is no injectable ibuprofen product marketed to treat patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in newborns in Canada. The authors' institution has used ibuprofen arginine in the past. In the absence of published evidence supporting use of this salt form of ibuprofen for neonatal PDA, a retrospective analysis was undertaken. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of ibuprofen arginine, ibuprofen tromethamine, and indomethacin in the treatment of PDA...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Nelida Olave, Colm Travers, Gabriel Rezonzew, Kalsang Dolma, Alexandra Simpson, Brian Halloran, Zubair Aghai, Pragnya Das, Nirmal Sharma, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Derek Russell, Tomasz Szul, Nengjun Yi, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Premature infants are at high risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by chronic inflammation and inhibition of lung development, which we have recently identified as being modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and alterations in the airway microbiome. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs may regulate cell differentiation and tissue and organ development. We discovered that tracheal aspirates from infants with severe BPD had increased numbers of, but smaller, exosomes compared with term controls...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
David A Osborn, Tim Schindler, Lisa J Jones, John Kh Sinn, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ruifeng Li, Juan Zhang
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common chronic lung disease in the newborns. Staging of BPD severity does not have a high predictive value for the outcomes. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic value of chest computed tomography (CT) combined with x-ray for premature infants with BPD.Twenty-five premature infants with mild BPD and 20 premature infants with moderate to severe BPD treated at our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015 were randomly selected. The imaging features were compared between premature infants with different severity of BPD...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joël Israëls, Ad F Nagelkerke, Dick G Markhorst, Marc van Heerde
The number of children on commercial aircrafts is rising steeply and poses a need for their treating physicians to be aware of the physiologic effects and risks of air travel. The most important risk factors while flying are a decrease in partial oxygen pressure, expansion of trapped air volume, low cabin humidity, immobility, recirculation of air and limited options for medical emergencies. Because on-board medical emergencies mostly concern exacerbations of chronic disease, the medical history, stability of current disease and previous flight experience should be assessed before flight...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Apollinaire Tsopmo
Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Research has shown that some these phytochemicals are present in the mother's milk and can contribute to its oxidative stability...
February 22, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
David K Meyerholz, David A Stoltz, Nick D Gansemer, Sarah E Ernst, Daniel P Cook, Matthew D Strub, Erica N LeClair, Carrie K Barker, Ryan J Adam, Mariah R Leidinger, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Philip H Karp, Michael J Welsh, Paul B McCray
Loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function causes cystic fibrosis (CF), predisposing the lungs to chronic infection and inflammation. In young infants with CF, structural airway defects are increasingly recognized before the onset of significant lung disease, which suggests a developmental origin and a possible role in lung disease pathogenesis. The role(s) of CFTR in lung development is unclear and developmental studies in humans with CF are not feasible. Young CF pigs have structural airway changes and develop spontaneous postnatal lung disease similar to humans; therefore, we studied lung development in the pig model (non-CF and CF)...
February 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Chung-Ting Hsu, Chao-Huei Chen, Ming-Chih Lin, Teh-Ming Wang, Ya-Chi Hsu
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan...
2018: PloS One
Paramahamsa Maturu, Yanhong Wei-Liang, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, Weiwu Jiang, Lihua Wang, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Xanthi I Couroucli
Quercetin (QU) is one of the most common flavonoids that are present in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and beverages. This compound possesses potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants with pulmonary insufficiency. However, hyperoxia is one of the major risk factors for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is also termed chronic lung disease in premature infants. Currently, no preventive approaches have been reported against BPD...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Julio Jiménez, Flore Lesage, Jute Richter, Taro Nagatomo, Thomas Salaets, Silvia Zia, Marina Gabriela Mori Da Cunha, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan A Deprest, Jaan Toelen
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that affects extremely preterm infants and remains - despite improvements in neonatal intensive care - a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Cell-therapeutic strategies employing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to modulate lung development in BPD models. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we evaluate the potential of human amniotic fluid (hAF)-SC and hAF-SC with upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as cell-therapeutic agents for BPD...
February 1, 2018: Neonatology
Hajime Maeda, Kentaro Haneda, Yoshinobu Honda
Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a respiratory pathogen in young children and is second only to the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a cause of lower respiratory tract infection. PIV type 3 (PIV3) is the most severe. Herein we describe an outbreak of PIV3 in three infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. They were diagnosed on virus culture from pharyngeal swabs. We prevented the spread of the virus using standard infection control procedures and isolation of the symptomatic infants. One infant had severe chronic lung disease and was complicated with recurrent wheezing for a long time...
November 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Pingsheng Wu, Gabriel J Escobar, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kecia N Carroll, Sherian X Li, Eileen M Walsh, Edward F Mitchel, Chantel Sloan, William D Dupont, Chang Yu, Jeffrey R Horner, Tina V Hartert
We sought to determine the real-world effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis in a population-based cohort to inform policy. The study population included infants born 1996-2008 and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. During the RSV season (November-March), RSV immunoprophylaxis administration and the following 30 days were defined as RSV immunoprophylaxis protected period(s), and all other days as unprotected period(s). Bronchiolitis hospitalizations were determined using the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes during RSV season...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Najla Fiaturi, Joshua W Russo, Heber C Nielsen, John J Castellot
Lung immaturity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, especially those born <28 weeks of gestation. These infants are at high risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a lung disease caused by insufficient surfactant production and immaturity of saccular/alveolar type II epithelial cells in the lung. RDS treatment includes oxygen and respiratory support that improve survival but also increase the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease characterized by arrested alveolarization, airway hyperreactivity, and pulmonary hypertension...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Nansi S Boghossian, Marco Geraci, Erika M Edwards, Jeffrey D Horbar
OBJECTIVES: To identify the relative risks of mortality and morbidities for small for gestational age (SGA) infants in comparison with non-SGA infants born at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Data were collected (2006-2014) on 156 587 infants from 852 US centers participating in the Vermont Oxford Network. We defined SGA as sex-specific birth weight <10th centile for gestational age (GA) in days. Binomial generalized additive models with a thin plate spline term on GA by SGA were used to calculate the adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes by GA...
January 18, 2018: Pediatrics
Corrie J Alonzo, Karen D Fairchild
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone is administered to some preterm infants with chronic lung disease to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation. Heart rate characteristics (HRC), including heart rate variability (HRV), may be impacted by glucocorticoids and may predict extubation readiness. A commercially available monitor developed for sepsis detection continuously calculates HRV and an HRC index, which are inversely related. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of dexamethasone on HRV and the HRC index, in relation to extubation success...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Vasantha Hs Kumar, Huamei Wang, Sergei Kishkurno, Babu S Paturi, Lori Nielsen, Rita M Ryan
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of premature infants have improved greatly, however the health risks in adulthood are still relatively unclear. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants is a major risk factor producing alteration in lung function and predisposition to later respiratory morbidity, and is associated with hyperoxia. This study explores the effect of neonatal hyperoxia on organ systems in adult mice. METHODS: Newborn mouse litters were randomized to 85%O2 or room air (RA) on P3 for 12 days; mice were sacrificed at P3, P7, P15, 3 months and 9 months...
December 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Cheng Cai, Jiajun Qiu, Gang Qiu, Yihuan Chen, Zhijun Song, Juan Li, Xiaohui Gong
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a neonatal chronic lung disease characterized by impaired pulmonary alveolar development in preterm infants. Until now, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of BPD. There is increasing evidence that lncRNAs regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis during lung organogenesis. The potential role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of BPD is unclear. This study aims to clarify the role of MALAT1 during the process of BPD in preterm infants and illustrate the protective effect of MALAT1 involved in preterm infants...
December 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Zuzanna Kubicka, Eyad Zahr, Tamara Rousseau, Henry A Feldman, John Fiascone
OBJECTIVE: Reduce chronic lung disease by 10% among very-low birth weight infants by implementing a consistent respiratory care bundle. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quality improvement study of infants below 32 weeks gestation in a small neonatal intensive care unit. A respiratory care bundle to eliminate inter-provider variability and minimize use of mechanical ventilation was implemented. This included: defining delivery room management with use of continuous positive airway pressure/nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation, uniform intubation/extubation criteria, and standardizing ventilation/post-extubation support...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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