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Madeleine S Durkee, Landon D Nash, Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Duncan J Maitland, Kristen C Maitland
The rapid development of new optical imaging techniques is dependent on the availability of low-cost, customizable, and easily reproducible standards. By replicating the imaging environment, costly animal experiments to validate a technique may be circumvented. Predicting and optimizing the performance of in vivo and ex vivo imaging techniques requires testing on samples that are optically similar to tissues of interest. Tissue-mimicking optical phantoms provide a standard for evaluation, characterization, or calibration of an optical system...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chiaki Yabuki, Akitomo Rikuta, Ryosuke Murayama, Syunsuke Akiba, Soshi Suzuki, Toshiki Takamizawa, Hiroyasu Kurokawa, Masashi Miyazaki
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acid erosion on the bonding performance of universal adhesives. Freshly extracted bovine teeth were cut into enamel slabs and assigned to either the Er or the control group. Specimens in the Er group were immersed in citric acid solution (pH 2.1) twice a day and stored in artificial saliva, while control specimens were simply stored in artificial saliva. Differences in the mean values between the control and Er groups were greater than expected, despite accounting for the effect of differences in the adhesive systems (p=0...
March 17, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Canan Koksal, Ugur Akbas, Nazmiye Donmez Kesen, Murat Okutan, Hatice Bilge, Gonul Kemikler
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to perform pretreatment patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for intracranial irradiation using CyberKnife with an ion chamber. METHODS: Twenty-five intracranial plans created using the ray-tracing algorithm were used for this study. Computed tomography (CT) images of the water-equivalent RW3 slab phantom with PinPoint ionization chamber were acquired with 1-mm slice thickness and transferred to the MultiPlan treatment planning system (TPS)...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Stephen Gikonyo, Tabitha Kimani, Joseph Matere, Joshua Kimutai, Stella G Kiambi, Austine O Bitek, K J Z Juma Ngeiywa, Yilma J Makonnen, Astrid Tripodi, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Gabriel Rugalema, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Marco Giovanni Malusà, Maria Luce Frezzotti, Simona Ferrando, Enrico Brandmayr, Fabio Romanelli, Giuliano Francesco Panza
The long-term carbon budget has major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere, but the balance between carbon sequestration during subduction, and outgassing by volcanism is still poorly known. Although carbon-rich fluid inclusions and minerals are described in exhumed mantle rocks and xenoliths, compelling geophysical evidence of large-scale carbon storage in the upper mantle is still lacking. Here, we use a geophysical surface-wave seismic tomography model of the mantle wedge above the subducted European slab to document a prominent shear-wave low-velocity anomaly at depths greater than 180 km...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna C Tasolamprou, Thomas Koschny, Maria Kafesaki, Costas M Soukoulis
We present the design of a dielectric inverse photonic crystal structure that couples line-defect waveguide propagating modes into highly directional beams of controllable directionality. The structure utilizes a triangular lattice made of air holes drilled in an infinitely thick Si slab, and it is designed for operation in the near-infrared and optical regime. The structure operation is based on the excitation and manipulation of dark dielectric surface states, in particular on the tailoring of the dark states' coupling to outgoing radiation...
November 15, 2017: ACS Photonics
Baptiste Jayet, Stephen P Morgan, Hamid Dehghani
Bioluminescence imaging has shown great potential for studying and monitoring disease progression in small animal pre-clinical imaging. However, absolute bioluminescence source recovery through tomographic multi-wavelength measurements is often hindered through the lack of quantitative accuracy and suffers from both poor localisation and quantitative recovery. In this work a method to incorporate a permissible region strategy through not only a priori location (permissible region) but also based on a model of light propagation and hence light sensitivity is developed and tested using both simulations and experimental data...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Peng-Fei Wang, Hu-Rong Yao, Xin-Yu Liu, Ya-Xia Yin, Jie-Nan Zhang, Yuren Wen, Xiqian Yu, Lin Gu, Yu-Guo Guo
As one of the most fascinating cathode candidates for Na-ion batteries (NIBs), P2-type Na layered oxides usually exhibit various single-phase domains accompanied by different Na+ /vacancy-ordered superstructures, depending on the Na concentration when explored in a limited electrochemical window. Therefore, their Na+ kinetics and cycling stability at high rates are subjected to these superstructures, incurring obvious voltage plateaus in the electrochemical profiles and insufficient battery performance as cathode materials for NIBs...
March 2018: Science Advances
Aleksandar Staykov, Helena Tellez, John Druce, Ji Wu, Tatsumi Ishihara, John Kilner
Surface reactivity and near-surface electronic properties of SrO-terminated SrTiO3 and iron doped SrTiO3 were studied with first principle methods. We have investigated the density of states (DOS) of bulk SrTiO3 and compared it to DOS of iron-doped SrTiO3 with different oxidation states of iron corresponding to varying oxygen vacancy content within the bulk material. The obtained bulk DOS was compared to near-surface DOS, i.e. surface states, for both SrO-terminated surface of SrTiO3 and iron-doped SrTiO3 ...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Fatima Padilla-Cabal, Dietmar Georg, Hermann Fuchs
PURPOSE: The feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) based proton therapy is based, among several other factors, on the implementation of appropriate extensions on current dose calculation methods. This work aims to develop a pencil beam algorithm (PBA) for dose calculation of proton beams within magnetic field regions of up to 3T. METHODS: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE 7.1/GEANT4.9.4p02 toolkit were performed to generate calibration and benchmarking data for the PBA...
March 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Xiaoming Chen, Yanhua Lu, Hao Hu, Lixin Tong, Lei Zhang, Yi Yu, Juntao Wang, Huaijin Ren, Liu Xu
We present investigations into a narrow-linewidth, quasi-continuous-wave pulsed all-solid-state amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source by use of a novel multiple-pass zigzag slab amplifier. The SE fluorescence emitted from a Nd:YAG slab active medium acts as the seed and is amplified back and forth 8 times through the same slab. Thanks to the angular multiplexing nature of the zigzag slab, high-intensity 1064-nm ASE output can be produced without unwanted self-lasing in this configuration. Experimentally, the output energy, optical conversion efficiency, pulse dynamics, spectral property, and beam quality of the ASE source are studied when the Nd:YAG slab end-pumped by two high-brightness laser diode arrays...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Kristian Tølbøl Sørensen, Charlotte Bonde Ingvorsen, Line Hagner Nielsen, Anders Kristensen
A photonic crystal slab (PCS) sensor is a universal refractive index sensor with possibilities and performance very similar to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which represents the gold standard of biosensing. Cheap PCS sensors can be made vacuum-free entirely out of polymers, but come with additional challenges, besides those relating to temperature-variations, which must be considered in any refractive index based method: The polymeric waveguide core was found to swell by ∼0.3% as water absorbed into the waveguide core over ∼1...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Daniel Salgado-Blanco, Carlos I Mendoza, Marco A Chávez-Rojo, José A Moreno-Razo, Enrique Díaz-Herrera
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a Gay-Berne discotic fluid confined in a slab geometry for two different anchorings: homeotropic (face-on) and planar (edge-on), and for two different confinement lengths. Our results show that the behaviour of the more confined system in the temperature region of the isotropic-nematic transition is critically influenced by the presence of the walls: the growth of the solid-liquid crystal interface spans over the entire width of the cell, and the character of the transition is changed from first order to continuous...
March 12, 2018: Soft Matter
Soichi Otsuki
The reduced effective Mueller matrices of forward scattering from birefringent turbid slab media were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and were factorized in two dimensions by the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition. For a slab medium with the birefringence axis parallel to the y axis, the polarization parameters have second- or fourth-order rotational symmetry. Especially, the absolute value of linear retardance |δ| shows a characteristic variation; it becomes maximal at the azimuths of 0° and 180° but minimal at 90° and 270°...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Cheng Zhang, Rui Gao, Lirong Zheng, Yongmei Hao, Xiangfeng Liu
Elements doping has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of O3-type layered transition metal oxide cathodes for sodium-ion batteries. But their roles and the improvement mechanism have not been clearly understood. Herein, the effects of Mg substitution for Mn on the structure and electrochemical performances of NaMn0.48Ni0.2Fe0.3Mg0.02O2 have been comprehensively investigated and some new insights into the roles of Mg in improving the rate capability and cycling stability have been presented...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Reza Maalek, Derek D Lichti, Janaka Y Ruwanpura
Automated segmentation of planar and linear features of point clouds acquired from construction sites is essential for the automatic extraction of building construction elements such as columns, beams and slabs. However, many planar and linear segmentation methods use scene-dependent similarity thresholds that may not provide generalizable solutions for all environments. In addition, outliers exist in construction site point clouds due to data artefacts caused by moving objects, occlusions and dust. To address these concerns, a novel method for robust classification and segmentation of planar and linear features is proposed...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
Navin Singh, Sunil Dutt Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Painuly, Abhijit Mandal, Lalit Mohan Agarwal, Ashutosh Sinha
Aims: To evaluate the underdosing of the maxillary sinus at its distal end produced by air cavity in the path of the 6 MV photon beam. Materials and Methods: A cubic solid water slab phantom of dimensions 18 cm × 18 cm × 18 cm with 4 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm air cavity 3 cm away from its anterior surface was used in this study. The percentage depth dose (PDD) for 6 MV X-rays along the central axis of the cubical air cavity was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter-100 chips...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Yuntao Cui, Fei Liang, Zhenze Yang, Shuo Xu, Xi Zhao, Yujie Ding, Zheshuai Lin, Jing Liu
Interface interaction can strongly modify contact angle, adsorption energy, interfacial tension and composition of the contact area. Especially, the interfaces between gallium-based liquid metal (LM) and its intermetallic layer present many mysterious and peculiar wetting phenomena, which have not been fully realized up to now. Here in this study, we found that gallium-based liquid metal droplet can quickly transform into a puddle on the CuGa2 surface through a spreading-wetting procedure. The mechanism lying behind this phenomenon can be ascribed to the formation of an intermetallic CuGa2 on Cu plate surface, which provides a stable metallic bond to induce the wetting behavior...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alexandra Miere, Hassiba Oubraham, Francesca Amoroso, Pauline Butori, Polina Astroz, Oudy Semoun, Elsa Bruyere, Alexandre Pedinielli, Manar Addou-Regnard, Camille Jung, Salomon Y Cohen, Eric H Souied
Purpose: To compare the qualitative and quantitative choroidal neovascularization (CNV) changes after antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy in treatment-naïve and treated eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Consecutive patients with neovascular AMD underwent multimodal imaging, including OCTA (AngioPlex, CIRRUS HD-OCT model 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, OH) at baseline and at three monthly follow-up visits...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Agnès Maurel, Jean-Jacques Marigo, Jean-François Mercier, Kim Pham
We present a model based on a two-scale asymptotic analysis for resonant arrays of the Helmholtz type, with resonators open at a single extremity (standard resonators) or open at both extremities (double-sided resonators). The effective behaviour of such arrays is that of a homogeneous anisotropic slab replacing the cavity region, associated with transmission, or jump, conditions for the acoustic pressure and for the normal velocity across the region of the necks. The coefficients entering in the effective wave equation are simply related to the fraction of air in the periodic cell of the array...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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