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Tony C Slaba, Amir A Bahadori, Brandon D Reddell, Robert C Singleterry, Martha S Clowdsley, Steve R Blattnig
Models have been extensively used in the past to evaluate and develop material optimization and shield design strategies for astronauts exposed to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on long duration missions. A persistent conclusion from many of these studies was that passive shielding strategies are inefficient at reducing astronaut exposure levels and the mass required to significantly reduce the exposure is infeasible, given launch and associated cost constraints. An important assumption of this paradigm is that adding shielding mass does not substantially increase astronaut exposure levels...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
Han Hoe Yap, Jian-Sheng Wang
We study the radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite half-spaces, bounded by conductive surfaces in contact with vacuum. This setup is interpreted as a four-terminal mesoscopic transport problem. The slabs and interfaces are viewed as bosonic reservoirs, coupled perfectly to a scattering center consisting of the two planes and vacuum. Using Rytov's fluctuational electrodynamics and assuming Kirchhoff's circuital law, we calculate the heat flow in each bath. This allows for explicit evaluation of a conductance matrix, from which one readily verifies Büttiker symmetry...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Olga V Yakubovich, Larisa V Shvanskaya, Galina V Kiriukhina, Anatoly S Volkov, Olga V Dimitrova, Evgeny A Ovchenkov, Alexander A Tsirlin, Alexander A Shakin, Olga S Volkova, Alexander N Vasiliev
The novel borophosphate Rb2.3(H2O)0.8Mn3[B4P6O24(O,OH)2] was prepared under hydrothermal conditions at 553 K. Its crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data obtained from a non-merohedral twin and refined against F(2) to R = 0.057. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn, with unit-cell parameters a = 20.076(2) Å, b = 9.151(1) Å, c = 12.257(1) Å, V = 2251.8(2) Å(3), and Z = 4. The title compound is the first example of a borophosphate with manganese ions adopting both octahedral and tetrahedral coordinations...
February 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Abhishekh Srivastava, Timothy DelSole
This paper shows that the most predictable components of internal variability in coupled atmosphere-ocean models are remarkably similar to the most predictable components of climate models without interactive ocean dynamics (i.e., models whose ocean is represented by a 50-m-deep slab ocean mixed layer with no interactive currents). Furthermore, a linear regression model derived solely from dynamical model output can skillfully predict observed anomalies in these components at least a year or two in advance, indicating that these model-derived components and associated linear dynamics are realistic...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yanxin Wang, Hongwei Gao
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations together with periodic slab models are carried out to investigate the influence of ZrO2 support and its surface structures on the stability and nucleation of Ptn (n = 1-5) clusters. Three surfaces of ZrO2 include cubic ZrO2 (c-ZrO2) (111), monoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) (-111) and tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) (101) surfaces. Our results show that the stability of Ptn clusters on three surfaces and the isolated Ptn clusters follow the trend: m-ZrO2(-111) > t-ZrO2(101) > c-ZrO2(111) > isolated cluster, while the nucleation ability over three surfaces follow the opposite trend: isolated cluster > c-ZrO2(111) > t-ZrO2(101) > m-ZrO2(-111)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xuran Zuo, Lung Sang Chan, Jian-Feng Gao
The Cathaysia Block is located in southeastern part of South China, which situates in the west Pacific subduction zone. It is thought to have undergone a compression-extension transition of the continental crust during Mesozoic-Cenozoic during the subduction of Pacific Plate beneath Eurasia-Pacific Plate, resulting in extensive magmatism, extensional basins and reactivation of fault systems. Although some mechanisms such as the trench roll-back have been generally proposed for the compression-extension transition, the timing and progress of the transition under a convergence setting remain ambiguous due to lack of suitable geological records and overprinting by later tectonic events...
2017: PloS One
Keisuke Sagisaka, Jun Nara, David Bowler
We investigate the influence of slab thickness on the electronic structure of the Si(100)-p(2x2) surface in density functional theory (DFT) calculations, considering both density of states and band structure. Our calculations, with slab thicknesses of up to 78 atomic layers, reveal that the slab thickness profoundly affects the surface band structure, particularly the dangling bond states of the silicon dimers near the Fermi level. We find that, to precisely reproduce the surface bands, the slab thickness needs to be large enough to completely converge the bulk bands in the slab...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Haibo Yao, Mingfeng Zhu, Liwei Jiang, Yisong Zheng
We perform a numerical simulation on time evolution of electronic wave packet in a Weyl semimetal(WSM) slab driven by a magnetic field. We find that the evolution trajectory of the wave packet depends sensitively on its initial spin state. Only the initial spin state being identical to that of the Fermi arc state at the surface it localized, does the wave packet evolution demonstrate the characteristic cyclotron orbit of WSM predicted previously from a semiclassical viewpoint. By analyzing the eigen-expansion of the electronic wave packet, we find the chiral Landau Levels(LLs) of the WSM slab, as an ingredient of the wave packet, is responsible for establishing the characteristic cyclotron orbit of Weyl semimetal...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
W Duncan Wadsworth, Raffaele Argiento, Michele Guindani, Jessica Galloway-Pena, Samuel A Shelbourne, Marina Vannucci
BACKGROUND: The Human Microbiome has been variously associated with the immune-regulatory mechanisms involved in the prevention or development of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. Integrative approaches which aim at associating the composition of the human microbiome with other available information, such as clinical covariates and environmental predictors, are paramount to develop a more complete understanding of the role of microbiome in disease development...
February 8, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Nozomi Nishizawa, Kazuhiro Nishibayashi, Hiro Munekata
We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: first, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensify the EL light at the cleaved side walls below the spin injector Fe slab, and second, the crystalline AlOx spin-tunnel barrier that ensures electrically stable device operation...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sekar Mahalaxmi, Manavalan Madhana Madhubala, Mahendran Jayaraman, Shanmugasundaram Sathyakumar
AIM: The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and Cysteine Cathepsins (CCs) in the adhesive interface using etch and rinse adhesive at different time intervals using zymographic technique. METHODOLOGY: Twenty freshly extracted non-carious human third molars were used in this study. Occlusal surfaces were ground flat and 1mm thick horizontal dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth using a diamond disc...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Faroq Razzaz, Majeed A S Alkanhal
This paper presents theoretical investigation of the electromagnetic wave tunneling and anomalous transmission around the trapped modes in a pseudochiral omega slab. The dispersion relation, the conditions of the trapped modes, and the evanescent wave coupling and tunneling in two different reciprocal pseudochiral omega slab structures are derived. The Berreman's matrix method is applied to obtain the transmission coefficients across the pseudochiral omega slab. When the structure is perturbed, a resonance phenomenon is detected around the trapped modes...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pratik Israni, Mangesh Panat
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis rare. It has been estimated that fractures of the upper tibial epiphysis account for 0.5-3.1% of all epiphyseal injuries. Who had no neurovascular deficit, with fixed extension deformity at the left knee was treated early with closed reduction techniques. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 16-year-old boy who while playing cricket on the road was hit by a car. The patient presented in emergency room with extremely swollen knee and soft tissue swelling (hemarthrosis), he was unable to lift his leg actively due to severe pain because of hamstrings spasm, and he had no wound over his left knee and had no other associated injuries...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Cameron Trapp, Kishore Vakamudi, Stefan Posse
Current studies of resting-state connectivity rely on coherent signal fluctuations at frequencies below 0.1 Hz, however, recent studies using high-speed fMRI have shown that fluctuations above 0.5 Hz may exist. This study replicates the feasibility of measuring high frequency (HF) correlations in six healthy controls and a patient with a brain tumor while analyzing non-physiological signal sources via simulation. Resting-state data were acquired using a high-speed multi-slab echo-volumar imaging pulse sequence with 136 ms temporal resolution...
February 3, 2017: NeuroImage
Martin Jansen, Beluvalli Prasad, Sudipta Kanungo, Alexander Komarek, Binghai Yan, Claudia Felser, Pascal Manuel
Quasi two-dimensional (2D) oxide based honeycomb lattices have attracted great attention for displaying specific electronic instabilities, which give rise to unconventional bonding patterns and unexpected magnetic exchange couplings. We report on AgRuO3, a representative, exhibiting unique structural properties. The stacking sequence of the honey-comb layers (Ru2O6) differs from analogue precedents, in particular, the intercalating silver atoms are shifted from the middle of the interspaces and are capping the void octahedral sites of the (Ru2O6) slabs from both sides...
February 3, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hanxue Zhao, Zhenggan Zhou, Jin Fan, Gen Li, Guangkai Sun
This paper reports the application of the least-squares regression method in the step-heating thermographic inspection of steel structures. The surface temperature variation of a slab with finite thickness during both the step-heating phase and the cooling-down phase is presented. A mild steel slab with holes of various depths and diameters is chosen as the specimen. The step-heating thermographic inspection experiments are carried out on the specimen with different heating times. The heating as well as the cooling-down phases are recorded with an infrared camera and are analyzed separately by linear regression of the double logarithmic temperature increase versus time plots...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Hongfei Jiao, Yu He, Ganghua Bao, Jinlong Zhang, Bin Ma, Xinbin Cheng, Zhanshan Wang
Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is a critical factor that limits the output power of slab lasers. To suppress the ASE effect in slab lasers, this paper proposes a metal/dielectric broadband absorbing coating between the laser gain medium and the metal heat sink to suppress ASE from zero to total internal reflection angle on the facet from inside the laser medium. Based on accurate characterization of Cr metal thin films, Cr/SiO<sub>2</sub> broadband absorbing films for 1064 nm YAG slab lasers are designed and fabricated to suppress ASE...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yan Zhou, Jianqiu Xu, Yulong Tang
We report a multiple-gain-element Nd:YAG laser where the gain media (three pieces of slab crystal) are alternately bonded to two optical quality 4H-SiC wafers. Such composite gain configuration can efficiently remove waste heat from the gain medium, preventing thermal lensing and heat-induced birefringence/distortion under high power laser operation. Through near Brewster's angles incidence designing and polarization discrimination, two orthogonally linearly polarized (P and S polarized) laser beams are generated simultaneously from different parts of the same system...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
Yang Huang, Ya Min Wu, Lei Gao
We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
Christopher Sandoval, Arnold D Kim
We introduce a new model for multiple scattering of polarized light by statistically isotropic and mirror-symmetric particles, which we call the generalized Kubelka-Munk (gKM) approximation. It is obtained through a linear transformation of the system of equations resulting from applying the double spherical harmonics approximation of order one to the vector radiative transfer equation (vRTE). The result is a 32×32 system of differential equations that is much simpler than the vRTE. We compare numerical solutions of the vRTE with the gKM approximation for the problem in which a plane wave is normally incident on a plane-parallel slab composed of a uniform absorbing and scattering medium...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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