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Elizabeth M Maschmeyer, Liurukara D Sanjeewa, Kulugammana G S Ranmohotti
In an attempt to search for mixed alkaline-earth and transition metal pyroborates, the title compound, barium manganese(II) pyroborate, has been synthesized by employing a flux method. The structure of BaMnB2O5 is composed of MnO5 square pyramids that form Mn2O8 dimers by edge-sharing and of pyroborate units ([B2O5](4-)) that are composed of two corner-sharing trigonal-planar BO3 units. These building blocks share corners to form ∞(2)[MnB2O5](2-) layers extending parallel to (100). The Ba(2+) cations reside in the gap between two manganese pyroborate slabs with a coordination number of nine...
September 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
S Gopinath, K Sethusankar, Helen Stoeckli-Evans, Muhamad Rafiq, Arasambattu K Mohanakrishnan
The title compounds, C23H16S, (I), and C26H16S, (II), are benzo-thio-phene derivatives in which the benzo-thio-phene moiety is fused with a naphthalene ring system in (I), and with an anthracene ring system in (II). In (I), the mean plane of the benzo-thio-phene ring system makes a dihedral angle of 2.28 (6)° with the naphthalene ring system, and a dihedral angle of 1.28 (6)° with the anthracene ring system in (II), showing that the fused units are essentially planar. In (I), the 4-methyl-benzene ring substituent makes a dihedral angle of 71...
September 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Maulilio John Kipanyula, Solomon Wilson Nong'ona
African swine fever is a contagious viral disease responsible for up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs. A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the clinical presentation and anatomical distribution of gross lesions in affected pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania during the 2010 to 2014 outbreaks. Data were collected during clinical and postmortem examination by field veterinarians and using a structured questionnaire. A total of 118 respondents (100%) showed awareness about African swine fever. During previous outbreaks, the mortality rate was almost 100%, while in 2014 it was estimated to be less than 50%...
December 3, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mehrdad Malihi, Yali Jia, Simon S Gao, Christina Flaxel, Andreas K Lauer, Thomas Hwang, David J Wilson, David Huang, Steven T Bailey
PURPOSE: To evaluate the morphological structure of ill-defined choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) with traditional fluorescein angiography (FA) compared with optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A retrospective case series study of 11 eyes with ill-defined CNV on FA was performed. Eyes were scanned with commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) (70 000 A-scans/s). The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm was used to distinguish blood flow from static tissue...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ankun Yang, Alexander J Hryn, Marc R Bourgeois, Won-Kyu Lee, Jingtian Hu, George C Schatz, Teri W Odom
Plasmonic nanostructures with enhanced localized optical fields as well as narrow linewidths have driven advances in numerous applications. However, the active engineering of ultranarrow resonances across the visible regime-and within a single system-has not yet been demonstrated. This paper describes how aluminum nanoparticle arrays embedded in an elastomeric slab may exhibit high-quality resonances with linewidths as narrow as 3 nm at wavelengths not accessible by conventional plasmonic materials. We exploited stretching to improve and tune simultaneously the optical response of as-fabricated nanoparticle arrays by shifting the diffraction mode relative to single-particle dipolar or quadrupolar resonances...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Orso Meneghini, Francesco A Volpe
An innovative millimeter wave diagnostic is proposed to measure the local magnetic field and edge current as a function of the minor radius in the tokamak pedestal region. The idea is to identify the direction of minimum reflectivity at the O-mode cutoff layer. Correspondingly, the transmissivity due to O-X mode conversion is maximum. That direction, and the angular map of reflectivity around it, contains information on the magnetic field vector B at the cutoff layer. Probing the plasma with different wave frequencies provides the radial profile of B...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jiří Kolafa
Saturated concentration of rock salt in water is determined by a simulation of brine in contact with a crystal in the slab geometry. The NaCl crystals are rotated to expose facets with higher Miller indices than [001] to brine. The rock salt melting point is obtained by both the standard and adiabatic simulations in the slab geometry with attention paid to finite size effects as well as to a possible influence of facets with higher Miller indices and applied stress. Two force fields are used, the Lennard-Jones-based model by Young and Cheatham with SPC/E water and the Kiss and Baranyai polarizable model with BK3 water...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Andriy E Serebryannikov, Evrim Colak, Thore Magath, Ekmel Ozbay
We study single-beam deflection and asymmetry in transmission, two aspects of the same phenomenon that appear in the topologically simple, nonsymmetric, photonic crystal (PhC)-based structures without corrugations at the interfaces. Strong diffractions enabling efficient blazing, i.e., redistribution of the incident wave energy in favor of the desired higher diffraction order(s), can be achieved owing to the defect-like layer(s) embedded in a regular slab of PhC. The main features, together with the peculiarities of the two basic transmission types and relevant coupling and deflection scenarios, are discussed, for one of which a part of the PhC works in the evanescent-wave regime...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Luke E Meade, Andrew S Jones, Richard J Butler
A series of sandstone slabs from Hamstead, Birmingham (West Midlands, UK), preserve an assemblage of tetrapod trackways and individual tracks from the Enville Member of the Salop Formation (late Carboniferous: late Moscovian-Kasimovian). This material has received limited previous study, despite being one of the few British sites to preserve Carboniferous tetrapod footprints. Here, we restudy and revise the taxonomy of this material, and document it using 3D models produced using photogrammetry. The assemblage is dominated by large tracks assigned to Limnopus isp...
2016: PeerJ
Silvia Carlotto, Marta Maria Natile, Antonella Glisenti, Jean-François Paul, Dimitri Blanck, Andrea Vittadini
The energetics of the catalytic oxidation of CO on a complex metal oxide are investigated for the first time via density functional theory calculations. The catalyst, Co-doped SrTiO3, is modelled using periodically repeated slabs based on the SrTiO3(100) surface. The comparison of the energy profiles obtained for the pure host and the Co-doped material reveals the actual pathway followed by the reaction, and shows that Co doping enhances the catalytic properties of SrTiO3 by reducing the energy cost for the formation of oxygen vacancies...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Paul Voosen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Science
Sergio Alonso, Rodrigo Weber Dos Santos, Markus Bär
Arrhythmias in cardiac tissue are generally associated with irregular electrical wave propagation in the heart. Cardiac tissue is formed by a discrete cell network, which is often heterogeneous. Recently, it was shown in simulations of two-dimensional (2D) discrete models of cardiac tissue that a wave crossing a fibrotic, heterogeneous region may produce reentry and transient or persistent ectopic activity provided the fraction of conducting connections is just above the percolation threshold. Here, we investigate the occurrence of these phenomena in three-dimensions by simulations of a discrete model representing a thin slab of cardiac tissue...
2016: PloS One
Andreas Hermann, Mainak Mookherjee
We investigate the high-pressure phase diagram of the hydrous mineral brucite, Mg(OH)2, using structure search algorithms and ab initio simulations. We predict a high-pressure phase stable at pressure and temperature conditions found in cold subducting slabs in Earth's mantle transition zone and lower mantle. This prediction implies that brucite can play a much more important role in water transport and storage in Earth's interior than hitherto thought. The predicted high-pressure phase, stable in calculations between 20 and 35 GPa and up to 800 K, features MgO6 octahedral units arranged in the anatase-TiO2 structure...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Refaat E Gabr, Amol S Pednekar, Koushik A Govindarajan, Xiaojun Sun, Roy F Riascos, María G Ramírez, Khader M Hasan, John A Lincoln, Flavia Nelson, Jerry S Wolinsky, Ponnada A Narayana
PURPOSE: To improve the conspicuity of white matter lesions (WMLs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) using patient-specific optimization of single-slab 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen MS patients were enrolled in a prospective 3.0T MRI study. FLAIR inversion time and echo time were automatically optimized for each patient during the same scan session based on measurements of the relative proton density and relaxation times of the brain tissues...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Kyoko Takakura, Aki Kido, Koji Fujimoto, Kayo Kiguchi, Yasutaka Fushimi, Naotaka Sakashita, Tokunori Kimura, Kaori Togashi
The aim of this study was to compare true-steady state free precession (True-SSFP) with fast field echo (FFE) as readout imaging sequences for renal arterial spin labeling (ASL), and to optimize the imaging condition. Renal ASL perfusion images were acquired using signal targeting with alternated radio frequency using asymmetric inversion slab (ASTAR) technique with respiratory triggering at 3T MRI system, using either 3D True-SSFP or FFE as the readout sequence. Inversion time (TI) varied from 800 to 2400 ms...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Laurentius Huber, Dimo Ivanov, Daniel A Handwerker, Sean Marrett, Maria Guidi, Kâmil Uludağ, Peter A Bandettini, Benedikt A Poser
Quantitative cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI has the potential to overcome several specific limitations of BOLD fMRI. It provides direct physiological interpretability and promises superior localization specificity in applications of sub-millimeter resolution fMRI applications at ultra-high magnetic fields (7T and higher). Non-invasive CBV fMRI using VASO (vascular space occupancy), however, is inherently limited with respect to its data acquisition efficiency, restricting its imaging coverage and achievable spatial and temporal resolution...
November 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Ying Lin, William F Northrop, Xuesong Li
This work introduces a Markov Chain solution to model photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs via anisotropic scattering process, i.e., Mie scattering. Results show that the proposed Markov Chain model agree with commonly used Monte Carlo simulation for various mediums such as medium with non-uniform phase functions and absorbing medium. The proposed Markov Chain solution method successfully converts the complex multiple scattering problem with practical phase functions into a matrix form and solves transmitted/reflected photon angular distributions by matrix multiplications...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
Vladimir V Konotop, Boris I Mantsyzov
Light propagation through a finite-width periodically modulated layer obeying parity-time (PT) symmetry is considered. We consider the configuration when the resonant conditions of mode coupling by the grating are satisfied. It is shown that the dependence of the transmission and reflection coefficients on the slab width has resonant character featuring strong amplification of reflected and transmitted waves with negative angles. The dependence of the scattering data on the gain-and-loss intensity also feature strong resonances near the PT-symmetry breaking point, when the slab strongly amplifies waves reflected and transmitted with negative angles, provided the incident wave has a positive angle of incidence...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
Wenlei Song, Cheng Xu, Martin P Smith, Jindrich Kynicky, Kangjun Huang, Chunwan Wei, Li Zhou, Qihai Shu
Carbonatites, usually occurring within intra-continental rift-related settings, have strong light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment; they rarely contain economic heavy REE (HREE). Here, we report the identification of Late Triassic HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the northernmost Qinling orogen. The rocks contain abundant primary HREE minerals and molybdenite. Calcite-hosted fluid inclusions, inferred to represent a magmatic-derived aqueous fluid phase, contain significant concentrations of Mo (~17 ppm), reinforcing the inference that these carbonatitic magmas had high Mo concentrations...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Karen B Schaal, Andrew D Legarreta, William J Feuer, Giovanni Gregori, Qianqian Cheng, John E Legarreta, Mary K Durbin, Paul F Stetson, Sophie Kubach, Philip J Rosenfeld
PURPOSE: The ability to detect reticular pseudodrusen (RPD)/subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) using 12×12-mm widefield en face swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging was compared with conventional multimodal imaging (color, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and infrared reflectance [IR] imaging) in eyes with nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with nonexudative AMD were prospectively enrolled in an SS-OCT imaging study at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute...
November 14, 2016: Ophthalmology
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