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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925962/strengthening-of-existing-bridge-structures-for-shear-and-bending-with-carbon-textile-reinforced-mortar
#1
Martin Herbrand, Viviane Adam, Martin Classen, Dominik Kueres, Josef Hegger
Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a large number of structures are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extend their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile-reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of pre-stressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly...
September 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921660/rapid-whole-brain-gray-matter-imaging-using-single-slab-three-dimensional-dual-echo-fast-spin-echo-a-feasibility-study
#2
Hyunyeol Lee, Eung Yeop Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn, Jaeseok Park
PURPOSE: To achieve rapid, high resolution whole-brain gray matter (GM) imaging by developing a novel, single-slab three-dimensional dual-echo fast-spin-echo pulse sequence and GM-selective reconstruction. METHODS: Unlike conventional GM imaging that uses time-consuming double-inversion-recovery preparation, the proposed pulse sequence was designed to have two split portions along the echo train, in which the first half was dedicated to yield short inversion recovery (IR)-induced white matter suppression and variable-flip-angle-induced two-step GM signal evolution while the second half cerebrospinal fluid-only signals...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921564/machine-specific-quality-assurance-procedure-for-stereotactic-treatments-with-dynamic-couch-rotations
#3
Byron Wilson, Ermias Gete
OBJECTIVE: We present a method in which the treatment couch's accuracy is measured using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and a phantom of our own construction. Using this phantom, we were able to quantify the treatment couch walkout, and the rotation angle accuracy for both static and dynamic couch treatments. These measurements were used to provide an accurate measure of the treatment couch isocentre as well as to verify the couch rotation angle recorded in the trajectory log...
September 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918101/silver-diamine-fluoride-remineralized-artificial-incipient-caries-in-permanent-teeth-after-bacterial-ph-cycling-in-vitro
#4
Kulnipa Punyanirun, Thanida Yospiboonwong, Thansinee Kunapinun, Panida Thanyasrisung, Chutima Trairatvorakul
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remineralizing effect of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) application on enamel artificial caries in adjunct to 1000ppm fluoride toothpaste compared with fluoride toothpaste alone by analyzing the mineral density, depth of remineralization, and remineralization percentage of the lesions. METHODS: Eighteen artificial caries slabs were created from the proximal surfaces of nine chemically demineralized premolars. The slabs were scanned by Micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) to determine the baseline mineral density of the initial lesions and randomly allocated into 2 groups...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915728/atomic-level-simulation-study-of-n-hexane-pyrolysis-on-silicon-carbide-surfaces
#5
Md Symon Jahan Sajib, Mohammadreza Samieegohar, Tao Wei, Katherine Shing
Ethylene production plays a key role in the petrochemical industry. The severe operation conditions of ethylene thermal cracking, such as high-temperature and coke-formation, pose challenges for the development of new corrosion-resistant and coking-resistant materials for ethylene reactor radiant coils tubes (RCTs). We investigated the performance of ceramic materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) in severe pyrolysis conditions by using reactive forcefield molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD) simulation method. Our results indicate that β-SiC surface remains fully stable at 1500 K, whereas increased temperature results in melted interface...
September 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914907/fast-electroholographic-wavelength-selective-switching-implemented-in-a-slab-waveguide
#6
Sagi Frishman, Meir Razvag, Aharon J Agranat
We present wavelength selective switching with a rise time of 25 ns implemented in a slab waveguide constructed in a KLTN:Cu crystal. The waveguide was fabricated by implantations of alpha particles at 2.1 MeV which produced a 0.5 μm thick cladding layer with reduced refractive index at 4.5 μm underneath the crystal surface. This demonstrates the feasibility of implementing electroholography in waveguides maintaining the performance obtained in bulk crystals, providing in potential the basis for constructing integrated photonic circuits which incorporate interconnected electroholographic wavelength selective switches and electrical wavelength tuning devices for employing wavelength addressing routing schemes in computer networks, in particular for relieving the bandwidth bottlenecks in data center networks...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912418/genesis-of-ultra-high-ni-olivine-in-high-mg-andesite-lava-triggered-by-seamount-subduction
#7
Tatsuji Nishizawa, Hitomi Nakamura, Tatiana Churikova, Boris Gordeychik, Osamu Ishizuka, Satoru Haraguchi, Takashi Miyazaki, Bogdan Stefanov Vaglarov, Qing Chang, Morihisa Hamada, Jun-Ichi Kimura, Kenta Ueki, Chiaki Toyama, Atsushi Nakao, Hikaru Iwamori
The Kamchatka Peninsula is a prominent and wide volcanic arc located near the northern edge of the Pacific Plate. It has highly active volcanic chains and groups, and characteristic lavas that include adakitic rocks. In the north of the peninsula adjacent to the triple junction, some additional processes such as hot asthenospheric injection around the slab edge and seamount subduction operate, which might enhance local magmatism. In the forearc area of the northeastern part of the peninsula, monogenetic volcanic cones dated at <1 Ma were found...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905419/fast-3d-rosette-spectroscopic-imaging-of-neocortical-abnormalities-at-3-t-assessment-of-spectral-quality
#8
Claudiu V Schirda, Tiejun Zhao, Victor E Yushmanov, Yoojin Lee, Gena R Ghearing, Frank S Lieberman, Ashok Panigrahy, Hoby P Hetherington, Jullie W Pan
PURPOSE: To use a fast 3D rosette spectroscopic imaging acquisition to quantitatively evaluate how spectral quality influences detection of the endogenous variation of gray and white matter metabolite differences in controls, and demonstrate how rosette spectroscopic imaging can detect metabolic dysfunction in patients with neocortical abnormalities. METHODS: Data were acquired on a 3T MR scanner and 32-channel head coil, with rosette spectroscopic imaging covering a 4-cm slab of fronto-parietal-temporal lobes...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902333/multi-modal-imaging-including-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-posterior-multifocal-placoid-pigment-epitheliopathy
#9
Jens Ulrich Werner, Christian Enders, Gerhard Klaus Lang, Gabriele Elisabeth Lang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: New imaging methods provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients (eight eyes) in acute, subacute, and late phases of the disease were analyzed with multi-modal imaging methods including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), structural OCT, fundus photography, and fundus autofluorescence. One patient was observed during the entire disease course...
September 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894975/reperfusion-of-the-choriocapillaris-observed-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-hypertensive-choroidopathy
#10
Miwa Saito, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Reiko Kinouchi, Akitoshi Yoshida
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can visualize the vascular status of the choriocapillaris noninvasively and separately from the other vascular beds. We describe focal ischemia in the choriocapillaris and reperfusion of the area in hypertensive choroidopathy using en-face OCTA. CASE: A 32-year-old woman diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension presented with acute anorthopia in the right eye after delivery via Caesarian section. Fundus examination showed an Elschnig's spot and serous retinal detachment (SRD) in the inferior perifoveal region...
September 11, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890599/evaluation-of-structural-robustness-against-column-loss-methodology-and-application-to-rc-frame-buildings
#11
Yihai Bao, Joseph A Main, Sam-Young Noh
A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss...
August 2017: Journal of Structural Engineering (New York, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888098/wave-propagation-through-a-flexoelectric-piezoelectric-slab-sandwiched-by-two-piezoelectric-half-spaces
#12
Fengyu Jiao, Peijun Wei, Yueqiu Li
Reflection and transmission of plane waves through a flexoelectric piezoelectric slab sandwiched by two piezoelectric half-spaces are studied in this paper. The secular equations in the flexoelectric piezoelectric material are first derived from the general governing equation. Different from the classical piezoelectric medium, there are five kinds of coupled elastic waves in the piezoelectric material with the microstructure effects taken into consideration. The state vectors are obtained by the summation of contributions from all possible partial waves...
August 24, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887945/the-radiation-environment-on-the-surface-of-mars-numerical-calculations-of-the-galactic-component-with-geant4-planetocosmics
#13
Daniel Matthiä, Thomas Berger
Galactic cosmic radiation and secondary particles produced in the interaction with the atmosphere lead to a complex radiation field on the Martian surface. A workshop ("1st Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop") organized by the MSL-RAD science team was held in June 2016 in Boulder with the goal to compare models capable to predict this radiation field with each other and measurements from the RAD instrument onboard the curiosity rover taken between November 15, 2015 and January 15, 2016. In this work the results of PLANETOCOSMICS/GEANT4 contributed to the workshop are presented...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887942/radiation-transport-simulation-of-the-martian-gcr-surface-flux-and-dose-estimation-using-spherical-geometry-in-phits-compared-to-msl-rad-measurements
#14
John Flores-McLaughlin
Planetary bodies and spacecraft are predominantly exposed to isotropic radiation environments that are subject to transport and interaction in various material compositions and geometries. Specifically, the Martian surface radiation environment is composed of galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced by their interaction with the Martian atmosphere, albedo particles from the Martian regolith and occasional solar particle events. Despite this complex physical environment with potentially significant locational and geometric dependencies, computational resources often limit radiation environment calculations to a one-dimensional or slab geometry specification...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887461/on-the-consistency-of-seismically-imaged-lower-mantle-slabs
#15
G E Shephard, K J Matthews, K Hosseini, M Domeier
The geoscience community is increasingly utilizing seismic tomography to interpret mantle heterogeneity and its links to past tectonic and geodynamic processes. To assess the robustness and distribution of positive seismic anomalies, inferred as subducted slabs, we create a set of vote maps for the lower mantle with 14 global P-wave or S-wave tomography models. Based on a depth-dependent threshold metric, an average of 20% of any given tomography model depth is identified as a potential slab. However, upon combining the 14 models, the most consistent positive wavespeed features are identified by an increasing vote count...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884781/novel-routes-to-electromagnetic-enhancement-and-its-characterisation-in-surface-and-tip-enhanced-raman-scattering
#16
P Dawson, D Frey, V Kalathingal, R Mehfuz, J Mitra
Quantitative understanding of the electromagnetic component in enhanced Raman spectroscopy is often difficult to achieve on account of the complex substrate structures utilised. We therefore turn to two structurally simple systems amenable to detailed modelling. The first is tip-enhanced Raman scattering under electron scanning tunnelling microscopy control (STM-TERS) where, appealing to understanding developed in the context of photon emission from STM, it is argued that the localised surface plasmon modes driving the Raman enhancement exist in the visible and near-infrared regime only by virtue of significant modification to the optical properties of the tip and sample metals (gold here)...
September 8, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879578/improved-wedge-method-for-the-measurement-of-sub-millimeter-slice-thicknesses-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Tsutomu Kanazawa, Masaki Ohkubo, Tatsuya Kondo, Takayuki Miyazawa, Shoichi Inagawa
The standard method for measuring the slice thickness of magnetic resonance images uses the inclined surface of a wedge (wedge method); it is sensitive to small increases in noise because of the differentiation of the edge response function (ERF) required. The purpose of this study was to improve the wedge method by fitting a curve to the ERF. The curve-fit function was obtained by convolving an ideal ERF (a ramp function) with a Gaussian function to represent ERF blurring. Measurements of 5- and 3-mm slice thicknesses were performed on a 3T scanner using the conventional wedge method, the improved wedge method, and another standard method using an inclined slab (slab method)...
September 6, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876935/zero-valent-selenium-adsorption-mechanisms-on-cao-surface-a-dft-calculation-and-experimental-study
#18
Yaming Fan, Yuqun Zhuo, Zhenwu Zhu, Wen Du, Liangliang Li
Zero-valent Se (Se atom and small Se2 molecule) adsorption mechanisms on a CaO surface were studied by both Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and adsorption experiments. Non-valent Se adsorption on the CaO (001) surface was simulated using a slab model. The adsorption energy, adsorption structure, electron density clouds, and electron properties were calculated. Different Se surface coverages were investigated to elucidate the adsorption process. In the experiments, the Se adsorption products were prepared in a U-shaped quartz reactor at 300 °C...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871781/structural-and-dynamic-heterogeneity-of-capillary-wave-fronts-at-aqueous-interfaces
#19
Tiecheng Zhou, Alex McCue, Yasaman Ghadar, Imre Bakó, Aurora E Clark
Using a unique combination of slab-layering analyses and identification of truly interfacial molecules, this work examines water/vapor and water/n-hexane interfaces, specifically the structural and dynamic perturbations of the interfacial water molecules at different locations within the surface capillary waves. From both the structural and dynamic properties analyzed, it is found that these interfacial water molecules dominate the perturbations within the interfacial region, which can extend deep into the water phase relative to the Gibbs dividing surface...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871200/highly-oxidising-fluids-generated-during-serpentinite-breakdown-in-subduction-zones
#20
B Debret, D A Sverjensky
Subduction zones facilitate chemical exchanges between Earth's deep interior and volcanism that affects habitability of the surface environment. Lavas erupted at subduction zones are oxidized and release volatile species. These features may reflect a modification of the oxidation state of the sub-arc mantle by hydrous, oxidizing sulfate and/or carbonate-bearing fluids derived from subducting slabs. But the reason that the fluids are oxidizing has been unclear. Here we use theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations to predict the redox state of fluids generated during serpentinite dehydration...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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