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Opioid misuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#1
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917616/opioid-use-following-total-hip-arthroplasty-trends-and-risk-factors-for-prolonged-use
#2
Nicholas A Bedard, Andrew J Pugely, S Blake Dowdle, Kyle R Duchman, Natalie A Glass, John J Callaghan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to answer the following questions: (1) What is the prevalence of opioid use prior to primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? (2) What is the typical trend in opioid use following THA over the first post-operative year? (3) What are the risk factors for prolonged opioid use following primary THA? METHODS: Primary THA patients were identified in the Humana database from 2007 to 2015. Pre-operative and post-operative opioid use was measured by monthly prescription refill rates...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910174/family-and-peer-group-substance-abuse-as-a-risk-factor-for-opioid-misuse-behaviors-for-a-young-adult-with-cancer-related-pain-a-case-study
#3
Kelly R Peck, Jennifer L Harman, Doralina L Anghelescu
The purpose of this report is to illustrate the importance of assessing for family, peer, and personal substance abuse risk factors in the case of a young adult with cancer-related pain and behaviors potentially indicative of opioid misuse (OM). A thorough clinical interview and an OM screening measure revealed important information about the patient's family and social environment. Based on this information, the treatment team acted quickly to prevent additional aberrant opioid-associated behaviors (AOBs)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890331/a-prospective-randomized-study-analyzing-preoperative-opioid-counseling-in-pain-management-after-carpal-tunnel-release-surgery
#4
Todd H Alter, Asif M Ilyas
PURPOSE: Prescription opioid misuse has become increasingly prevalent in the United States. Preoperative opioid counseling has been proposed to decrease opioid consumption after surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of preoperative opioid counseling on patients' pain experience and opioid consumption after carpal tunnel release (CTR) surgery. METHODS: A prospective comparison of consecutive patients scheduled to undergo CTR surgery was conducted. Patients were randomized to receive either formal preoperative opioid counseling or no counseling...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887348/population-health-management-in-a-small-health-system-impact-of-controlled-substance-stewardship-in-a-patient-centered-medical-home
#5
Felicity A E Homsted, Chelsea E Magee, Noah Nesin
PURPOSE: The success of a patient-centered medical home in providing population health management (PHM) services through controlled substance stewardship is described. SUMMARY: In 2013, Penobscot Community Health Care (PCHC), in Bangor, Maine, was fully engulfed in the prescription opioid crisis. At PCHC, patients' opioid doses were startlingly high. Within the organization, measures to ensure that prescriptions were being used as prescribed, and not diverted, were underutilized...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885239/opioid-use-in-children-and-adolescents-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-repair
#6
Nicole Taylor, Shannon Frick, Samantha Killilea, Teri Dugan-Frost, Jean Solodiuk
Opioid overdose is a leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the United States. When more opioids are prescribed than needed, leftover opioids may be misused if not properly disposed. The purpose of this study is to describe the opioid use of subjects (aged 13-21 years) after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair. After obtaining IRB approval, we obtained consent from 100 subjects (over an 8-month period) undergoing ACL reconstructions performed by five sports medicine surgeons. The mean age of enrolled subjects was 16 years, most were female (60%) and white (72%)...
September 1, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882458/opioid-prescribing-education-in-surgical-residencies-a-program-director-survey
#7
Brian K Yorkgitis, Elizabeth Bryant, Desiree Raygor, Gabriel Brat, Douglas S Smink, Marie Crandall
BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse and misuse is a public health crisis. A national effort to reduce this phenomenon is ongoing. Residents represent a large pool of opioid prescribers but, are often not the target for opioid prescribing education (OPE). We developed a survey to assess current opioid prescribing practices and education among surgical residents. STUDY DESIGN: An Institutional Review Board and Association of Program Directors in Surgery approved survey was electronically mailed to surgical program directors (PDs)...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872697/perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-providing-methadone-maintenance-treatment-among-rural-community-pharmacists-in-southwestern-ontario
#8
Joseph Fonseca, Andrew Chang, Feng Chang
PURPOSE: Misuse of opioids has become a public health concern across North America. Rural patients have limited access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), an opioid addiction-treatment service that could be offered by community pharmacists. The aim of this study was to identify rural community pharmacists' perceived barriers, motivations, and solutions to offering MMT to their patients. METHODS: One-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 community pharmacists who practice in rural southwestern Ontario...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869906/association-of-childhood-abuse-and-prescription-opioid-use-in-early-adulthood
#9
Anna E Austin, Meghan E Shanahan, Bharathi J Zvara
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has examined the association of childhood abuse with opioid misuse and dependence in adulthood. However, little research has focused specifically on prescription opioids, and no studies have examined associations with prescription opioid use, a potential pathway to later opioid misuse and dependence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse with prescription opioid use in early adulthood...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869859/maternal-buprenorphine-treatment-and-infant-outcome
#10
Lauren M Jansson, Martha L Velez, Krystle McConnell, Nancy Spencer, Michelle Tuten, Hendree Jones, Rebeca Rios, Van L King, Neeraj Gandotra, Lorraine Millio, Janet A DiPietro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal buprenorphine maintenance predisposes the infant to exhibit neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), but there is insufficient published information regarding the nature of NAS and factors that contribute to its severity in buprenorphine-exposed infants. METHODS: The present study evaluated forty-one infants of buprenorphine-maintained women in comprehensive substance use disorder treatment who participated in an open-label study examining the effects of maternal buprenorphine maintenance on infant outcomes...
August 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865800/the-role-of-continuing-medical-education-in-increasing-enrollment-in-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#11
John T Finnell, Robert K Twillman, Stephanie A Breslan, Jan Schultz, Lyerka Miller
PURPOSE: Opioid diversion, misuse, and abuse are rapidly growing problems in the United States; >60% of all drug overdose deaths involve an opioid. At least 49 states now have fully operational prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to support legitimate medical use of controlled substances; however, there is considerable underutilization of such programs. METHODS: To increase awareness of PDMPs and their use, a continuing medical education program including 2 webcasts and a series of newsletters was offered to health care providers...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857643/opioid-prescribing-in-rural-family-practices-a-qualitative-study
#12
Ivy A Click, Jeri Ann Basden, Joy M Bohannon, Heather Anderson, Fred Tudiver
BACKGROUND: Rural Tennessee, especially rural East Tennessee has seen a dramatic increase in rates of controlled drug prescriptions and controlled drug overdose deaths in recent years. However, little is known about the individual decisions to prescribe or continue prescriptions with relation to addiction concerns. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to learn more about what factors lead to physicians' prescribing control drugs for non-cancer pain through the use of focus groups...
August 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854060/racial-ethnic-differences-in-prevalence-trends-for-heroin-use-and-non-medical-use-of-prescription-opioids-among-entrants-to-opioid-treatment-programs-2005-2016
#13
Enrique R Pouget, Chunki Fong, Andrew Rosenblum
Recent data suggest an increase in use of heroin and non-medical use of prescription opioids (POs) in the United States, but it is unclear if these trends are consistent across racial/ethnic groups. In a nationwide prevalence study, 69,140 patients newly admitted to an opioid treatment program (OTP) completed a brief self-administered survey of past month heroin use and PO misuse from January 2005 through September 2016. We calculated heroin use and PO misuse prevalence rates, and prevalence rate ratios of Black and Latino OTP entrants compared to White entrants over time...
August 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845476/opioid-prescription-drug-use-and-expenditures-in-us-outpatient-physician-offices-evidence-from-two-nationally-representative-surveys
#14
Zaina P Qureshi, M Rifat Haider, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio, Nikki R Wooten, Ruslan V Nikitin, Sarah Ball, Kelly Barth, Ronit Elk, Ronnie Horner, Charles Bennett
BACKGROUND: Opioids are widely prescribed for their analgesic properties. Chronic opioid use is a persistent problem in the US. Nevertheless, little is known about its prescribing and utilization patterns and overall expenditures. OBJECTIVE: This study examined secular trends in opioid prescription drug utilization and expenditures, along with factors associated with opioid prescription drug use in US physician offices. METHODS: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data (2006-2010), both nationally representative surveys, were used to assess the trend, predictors of opioid prescription among US adults (more than 18 years) and the opioid-associated expenditures as a whole and borne by the patients in outpatient settings...
2017: Cancer Ther Oncol Int J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833803/important-statistical-considerations-in-the-evaluation-of-post-market-studies-to-assess-whether-opioids-with-abuse-deterrent-properties-result-in-reduced-abuse-in-the-community
#15
Kunthel By, Jana K McAninch, Stephine L Keeton, Alex Secora, Cynthia J Kornegay, Catherine S Hwang, Thomas Ly, Mark S Levenson
PURPOSE: Abuse, misuse, addiction, overdose, and death associated with non-medical use of prescription opioids have become a serious public health concern. Reformulation of these products with abuse-deterrent properties is one approach for addressing this problem. FDA has approved several extended-release opioid analgesics with abuse-deterrent labeling, the bases of which come from pre-market studies. As all opioid analgesics must be capable of delivering the opioid in order to reduce pain, abuse-deterrent properties do not prevent abuse, nor do pre-market evaluations ensure that there will be reduced abuse in the community...
August 23, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831738/epidemiology-from-tweets-estimating-misuse-of-prescription-opioids-in-the-usa-from-social-media
#16
Michael Chary, Nicholas Genes, Christophe Giraud-Carrier, Carl Hanson, Lewis S Nelson, Alex F Manini
BACKGROUND: The misuse of prescription opioids (MUPO) is a leading public health concern. Social media are playing an expanded role in public health research, but there are few methods for estimating established epidemiological metrics from social media. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the geographic variation of social media posts mentioning prescription opioid misuse strongly correlates with government estimates of MUPO in the last month. METHODS: We wrote software to acquire publicly available tweets from Twitter from 2012 to 2014 that contained at least one keyword related to prescription opioid use (n = 3,611,528)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830713/characterization-of-loperamide-mediated-block-of-herg-channels-at-physiological-temperature-and-its-proarrhythmia-propensity
#17
Jiansong Sheng, Phu N Tran, Zhihua Li, Sara Dutta, Kelly Chang, Thomas Colatsky, Wendy W Wu
BACKGROUND: Loperamide (Immodium®) is indicated for symptomatic control of diarrhea. It is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, and recently has been associated with misuse and abuse. At therapeutic doses loperamide has not been associated with cardiotoxicity. However, loperamide overdose is associated with proarrhythmia and death - two effects that are likely attributable to its block of cardiac ion channels that are critical for generating action potentials. In this study, we defined loperamide-hERG channel interaction characteristics, and used a ventricular myocyte action potential model to compare loperamide's proarrhythmia propensity to twelve drugs with defined levels of clinical risk...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821312/opioid-misuse-epidemic-addressing-opioid-prescribing-and-organization-initiatives-for-holistic-safe-and-compassionate-care
#18
Madeline Naegle, Ann M Mitchell, Margaret Flinter, Lynne Dunphy, Patricia Vanhook, Kathleen R Delaney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820778/src-kinase-inhibition-attenuates-morphine-tolerance-without-affecting-reinforcement-or-psychomotor-stimulation
#19
Fiona A Bull, Daniel T Baptista-Hon, Claire Sneddon, Lisa Wright, Wendy Walwyn, Tim G Hales
BACKGROUND: Prolonged opioid administration leads to tolerance characterized by reduced analgesic potency. Pain management is additionally compromised by the hedonic effects of opioids, the cause of their misuse. The multifunctional protein β-arrestin2 regulates the hedonic effects of morphine and participates in tolerance. These actions might reflect µ opioid receptor up-regulation through reduced endocytosis. β-Arrestin2 also recruits kinases to µ receptors. We explored the role of Src kinase in morphine analgesic tolerance, locomotor stimulation, and reinforcement in C57BL/6 mice...
August 18, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814260/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-management-a-review-of-recent-evidence
#20
Matthew Grossman, Carl Seashore, Alison Volpe Holmes
BACKGROUND: The evaluation and management of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), the constellation of opioid withdrawal specific to newborns, has received renewed attention over the past decade during a new epidemic of opioid use, misuse, abuse, and dependence. Infants with NAS often endure long and costly hospital stays. OBJECTIVE: We aim to review recent literature on the management and outcomes of infants with, and at risk for, opioid withdrawal...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
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