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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321232/hypermyelination-of-the-left-auditory-cortex-in-developmental-dyslexia
#1
Michael A Skeide, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Robert Trampel, Andreas Schäfer, Claudia Männel, Katharina von Kriegstein, Angela D Friederici
OBJECTIVE: Cortical malformations are documented postmortem in speech processing areas of the dyslexic human brain. The goal of this pilot study was to find out if such anatomic anomalies can be detected noninvasively and in vivo. METHODS: We developed a reconstruction of left perisylvian cortex profiles at a resolution of 400 μm using T1 data acquired with ultra-high-field MRI at 7T. Cortical thickness, myelinated cortical thickness, and layer-wise myelination were then compared in 6 men with developmental dyslexia and 6 healthy controls matched for age, sex, handedness, education level, and nonverbal IQ...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306985/children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-have-unstable-neural-responses-to-sound
#2
Sebastian Otto-Meyer, Jennifer Krizman, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diverse, manifesting in a wide array of phenotypes. However, a consistent theme is reduced communicative and social abilities. Auditory processing deficits have been shown in individuals with ASD-these deficits may play a role in the communication difficulties ASD individuals experience. Specifically, children with ASD have delayed neural timing and poorer tracking of a changing pitch relative to their typically developing peers. Given that accurate processing of sound requires highly coordinated and consistent neural activity, we hypothesized that these auditory processing deficits stem from a failure to respond to sound in a consistent manner...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298446/effect-of-cochlear-implantation-on-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-unilateral-hearing-loss
#3
Margaret T Dillon, Emily Buss, Meredith A Rooth, English R King, Ellen J Deres, Craig A Buchman, Harold C Pillsbury, Kevin D Brown
OBJECTIVE: Patients with moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss in 1 ear and normal hearing in the contralateral ear, known as unilateral hearing loss (UHL) or single-sided deafness (SSD), may experience improved quality of life with the use of a cochlear implant (CI) in the affected ear. Quality of life assessment before and after implantation may reveal changes to aspects of hearing beyond those explicitly evaluated with behavioral measures. METHODS: The present report completed 2 experiments investigating quality of life outcomes in CI recipients with UHL...
January 4, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291085/emotion-appraisal-dimensions-inferred-from-vocal-expressions-are-consistent-across-cultures-a-comparison-between-australia-and-india
#4
Henrik Nordström, Petri Laukka, Nutankumar S Thingujam, Emery Schubert, Hillary Anger Elfenbein
This study explored the perception of emotion appraisal dimensions on the basis of speech prosody in a cross-cultural setting. Professional actors from Australia and India vocally portrayed different emotions (anger, fear, happiness, pride, relief, sadness, serenity and shame) by enacting emotion-eliciting situations. In a balanced design, participants from Australia and India then inferred aspects of the emotion-eliciting situation from the vocal expressions, described in terms of appraisal dimensions (novelty, intrinsic pleasantness, goal conduciveness, urgency, power and norm compatibility)...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278019/a-feasibility-randomized-controlled-trial-of-readyspeech-for-people-with-dysarthria-after-stroke
#5
Claire Mitchell, Audrey Bowen, Sarah Tyson, Paul Conroy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a multicentre randomized controlled trial of ReaDySpeech, an online speech therapy programme for people with dysarthria. DESIGN: Feasibility randomized controlled trial, 2:1 minimization procedure. SETTING: Four UK NHS services across hospital and community. PARTICIPANTS: Forty participants with dysarthria at least one week post-stroke. Interventions/comparator: ReaDySpeech with usual care ( n = 26) versus usual care only ( n = 14)...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248909/stimulation-of-executive-functions-as-part-of-the-language-intervention-process-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Ingrid Ya I Sun, Cristina Andrade Varanda, Fernanda Dreux Fernandes
AIMS: Identifying effective methods for stimulating language and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to the effective use of available resources to support these children. This pilot study was designed to explore the potential benefits of a program of stimulation of executive functions (SEF) on the functional aspects of language and communication through the assessment of the functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance. METHODS: Twenty children, aged 5-12 years, with a diagnosis of ASD participated in the study...
2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242051/bamboo-nodes-on-a-series-of-15-patients-vocal-fold-lesion-as-a-sign-of-autoimmune-disease-and-microphonotrauma
#7
Natalie Oker, Aude Julien-Laferrière, Philippe Herman, Gérard Chevaillier
OBJECTIVES: Bamboo nodes are band-like submucosal deposits of the middle third of the vocal fold. They are often related to connective tissue disorders, but can also precede them. The aim of this study was to report our experience with conservative treatment of those rare lesions. METHODS: This is a retrospective series of 15 patients consulting for hoarseness and presenting bamboo nodes from 2010 to 2016. RESULTS: All patients were women of mean age of 38 years with a moderate or high degree of daily vocal effort...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238964/reading-comprehension-difficulties-in-children-with-rolandic-epilepsy
#8
Nicola K Currie, Adina R Lew, Tom M Palmer, Helen Basu, Christian De Goede, Anand Iyer, Kate Cain
AIM: Difficulties in reading comprehension can arise from either word reading or listening comprehension difficulties, or a combination of the two. We sought to determine whether children with rolandic epilepsy had poor reading comprehension relative to typically developing comparison children, and whether such difficulties were associated with word reading and/or general language comprehension difficulties. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, children with rolandic epilepsy (n=25; 16 males, 9 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 7mo) and a comparison group (n=39; 25 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 3mo) completed assessments of reading comprehension, listening comprehension, word/non-word reading, speech articulation, and Non-verbal IQ...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237334/the-association-between-cognitive-performance-and-speech-in-noise-perception-for-adult-listeners-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Adam Dryden, Harriet A Allen, Helen Henshaw, Antje Heinrich
Published studies assessing the association between cognitive performance and speech-in-noise (SiN) perception examine different aspects of each, test different listeners, and often report quite variable associations. By examining the published evidence base using a systematic approach, we aim to identify robust patterns across studies and highlight any remaining gaps in knowledge. We limit our assessment to adult unaided listeners with audiometric profiles ranging from normal hearing to moderate hearing loss...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224774/australian-children-with-cleft-palate-achieve-age-appropriate-speech-by-5-years-of-age
#10
Antonia Chacon, Melissa Parkin, Kate Broome, Alison Purcell
INTRODUCTION: Children with cleft palate demonstrate atypical speech sound development, which can influence their intelligibility, literacy and learning. There is limited documentation regarding how speech sound errors change over time in cleft palate speech and the effect that these errors have upon mono-versus polysyllabic word production. The objective of this study was to examine the phonetic and phonological speech skills of children with cleft palate at ages 3 and 5. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational design was used...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224729/different-cognitive-complaint-profiles-in-memory-clinic-and-depressive-patients
#11
Lisa Miebach, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Ingo Frommann, Rachel Buckley, Michael Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are considered early indicators of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) but are very common in geriatric patients, especially in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical assessment of cognitive complaints is still poorly operationalized. Recent qualitative research suggests that certain phenomenologic complaint themes may have some specificity for prodromal AD. The aim of the study was to replicate and explore their occurrence in a clinical setting...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223113/comparisons-of-severity-classification-systems-for-oropharyngeal-dysfunction-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-relations-with-other-functional-profiles
#12
Yu-Ra Goh, Ja Young Choi, Seon Ah Kim, Jieun Park, Eun Sook Park
This study aimed to investigate the relationships between various classification systems assessing the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia and communication function and other functional profiles in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a prospective, cross-sectional, study in a university-affiliated, tertiary-care hospital. We recruited 151 children with CP (mean age 6.11 years, SD 3.42, range 3-18yr). The Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS) and the dysphagia scales of Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), Swallow Function Scales (SFS), and Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) were used...
December 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213249/skewed-sociolinguistic-awareness-of-a-native-non-standard-dialect-evidence-from-the-cypriot-greek-writing-of-greek-cypriot-students
#13
Ioli Ayiomamitou, Androula Yiakoumetti
Over the last 50 years, sociolinguistic research in settings in which a regional, social, or ethnic non-standard linguistic variety is used alongside the standard variety of the same language has steadily increased. The educational implications of the concomitant use of such varieties have also received a great deal of research attention. This study deals with regional linguistic variation and its implications for education by focusing on the Greek Cypriot educational context. This context is ideal for investigating the linguistic profiles of speakers of proximal varieties as the majority of Greek Cypriots are primarily educated in just one of their varieties: the standard educational variety...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203897/flexible-timing-by-temporal-scaling-of-cortical-responses
#14
Jing Wang, Devika Narain, Eghbal A Hosseini, Mehrdad Jazayeri
Musicians can perform at different tempos, speakers can control the cadence of their speech, and children can flexibly vary their temporal expectations of events. To understand the neural basis of such flexibility, we recorded from the medial frontal cortex of nonhuman primates trained to produce different time intervals with different effectors. Neural responses were heterogeneous, nonlinear, and complex, and they exhibited a remarkable form of temporal invariance: firing rate profiles were temporally scaled to match the produced intervals...
December 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198815/voice-profile-recovery-and-quality-of-life-changes-after-microdirect-laryngoscopy-in-three-categories-of-glottis-lesions-benign-precancerous-and-malignant
#15
Anna Rzepakowska, Ewelina Sielska-Badurek, Raul Cruz, Maria Sobol, Ewa Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Kazimierz Niemczyk
The aim of the study was comparison of voice and life quality after microdirect laryngoscopy in three patient histopathological categories: benign, precancerous, and malignant glottic lesions. A totalnof 137 patients treated with microdirect laryngoscopy were included in the study. Each patient was evaluated with a multidimensional protocol before and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Final 1-year evaluations were achieved in 74.5% (102). The assessment included laryngovideostroboscopy (LVS), perceptual (GRBAS) grading, aerodynamic measures including maximum phonation time and phonation quotient and acoustic measurements (Kay Elemetrics Multi-Speech program), Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire; and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief Version (WHOQoL-BREF)...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196251/effectiveness-of-ipsilateral-stroke-prevention-between-conservative-management-and-indirect-revascularization-for-moyamoya-disease-mmd-in-a-north-american-cohort
#16
Jose L Porras, Wuyang Yang, Risheng Xu, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Justin M Caplan, Geoffrey P Colby, Alexander L Coon, Edward S Ahn, Rafael J Tamargo, Judy Huang
BACKGROUND: Few reports compare surgical intervention with conservative treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD) in non-Asian cohorts. This study describes the effectiveness of follow-up stroke prevention by indirect revascularization relative to conservative management in a Northeast United States study population. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with MMD at our institution from 1990-2014. Baseline characteristics and follow-up results including subsequent ipsilateral strokes were collected, and compared between an indirect revascularization group and a conservatively managed group on a per-hemisphere basis...
November 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195420/toward-clinical-application-of-landmark-based-speech-analysis-landmark-expression-in-normal-adult-speech
#17
Keiko Ishikawa, Joel MacAuslan, Suzanne Boyce
The goal of clinical speech analysis is to describe abnormalities in speech production that affect a speaker's intelligibility. Landmark analysis identifies abrupt changes in a speech signal and classifies them according to their acoustic profiles. These acoustic markers, called landmarks, may help describe intelligibility deficits in disordered speech. As a first step toward clinical application of landmark analysis, the present study describes expression of landmarks in normal speech. Results of the study revealed that syllabic, glottal, and burst landmarks consist of 94% of all landmarks, and suggest the effect of gender needs to be considered for the analysis...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173721/an-interprofessional-team-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis-of-children-with-language-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Xueman Lucy Liu, Dawn M Zahrt, Mark D Simms
The ability to communicate effectively with others is central to children's development. Delays or disruptions due to isolated expressive language delay, articulation errors, multiple sound production errors with motor planning deficits, or mixed expressive and receptive language delay, often bring widespread consequences. Physical anomalies, neurologic and genetic disorder, cognitive and intellectual disabilities, and emotional disturbances may affect speech and language development. Communication disorders may be misdiagnosed as intellectual impairment or autism...
February 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#19
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#20
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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