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hippocampus tumor

Vyacheslav L Murzin, Kaley Woods, Vitali Moiseenko, Roshan Karunamuni, Kathryn R Tringale, Tyler M Seibert, Michael J Connor, Daniel R Simpson, Ke Sheng, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidental irradiation of normal brain tissue during radiotherapy is linked to cognitive decline, and may be mediated by damage to healthy cortex. Non-coplanar techniques may be used for cortical sparing. We compared normal brain sparing and probability of cortical atrophy using 4π radiation therapy planning vs. standard fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plans from previously irradiated brain tumor patients ("original IMRT", n = 13) were re-planned to spare cortex using both 4π optimization ("4π") and IMRT optimization ("optimized IMRT")...
March 5, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Eman N Hosny, Hussein G Sawie, Mohamed E Elhadidy, Yasser A Khadrawy
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of caffeine against aluminum chloride (AlCl3 )-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty-one male albino rats were divided into 3 groups: control, AlCl3 -intoxicated group that received daily oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg for 30 days) and protected group injected daily with caffeine (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) one hour before oral administration of AlCl3 for 30 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and Na+ /K+ -ATPase were measured spectrophotometrically...
March 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Tomoko Matsuzaki, Huan Wang, Yukio Imamura, Shunya Kondo, Shuichiro Ogawa, Makoto Noda
Reck encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein implicated in the regulation of extracellular metalloproteinases, Notch-signaling, and Wnt7-signaling and shown to play critical roles in embryogenesis and tumor suppression. Precise mechanisms of its actions in vivo, however, remain largely unknown. By homologous recombination, we generated a new Reck allele, ReckCreERT2 (MGI symbol: Reck<tm3.1(cre/ERT2)Noda>). This allele is defective in terms of Reck function but expected to induce loxP-mediated recombination in the cells committed to express Reck...
March 6, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Ling Ma, Yong Jiang, Yanan Dong, Jun Gao, Bin Du, Dianwei Liu
Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can induce apoptosis in many regions of the brain including the cortex and hippocampus. However, few studies have focused on apoptosis in the hypothalamus after SAH. Although some antiapoptotic strategies have been developed for SAH, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antibody, the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether SAH could induce apoptosis in the hypothalamus and identify the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of anti-TNF-α antibody, as a therapeutic regimen, upon apoptosis...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ioannis Kramvis, Huibert D Mansvelder, Rhiannon M Meredith
Recordings from fresh human brain slices derived from surgically resected brain tissue are being used to unravel mechanisms underlying human neurophysiology and for the evaluation of potential therapeutic targets and compounds. Data resulting from these studies provide unique insights into physiologic properties of human neuronal microcircuits. However, substantial limitations still remain with this approach. First, the tissue is always resected from patients, never from healthy controls. Second, the patient population undergoing brain surgery with tissue resection is limited to epilepsy and tumor patients - never from patients with other neurologic disorders...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Laetitia Padovani, Frédérique Chapon, Nicolas André, Mohamed Boucekine, Anne Geoffray, Franck Bourdeau, Julien Masliah-Planchon, Line Claude, Aymeri Huchet, Anne Laprie, Stephane Supiot, Bernard Coche-Dequéant, Christine Kerr, Claire Alapetite, Julie Leseur, Tandat Nguyen, Sophie Chapet, Valerie Bernier, Pierre-Yves Bondiau, Georges Noel, Jean Louis Habrand, Stephanie Bolle, François Doz, Christelle Dufour, Xavier Muracciole, Christian Carrie
PURPOSE: To identify the incidence of patients with perihippocampal metastases to assess the risk of brain relapse when sparing the hippocampal area. Medulloblastoma (MB) represents 20% of pediatric brain tumors. For high-risk MB patients, the 3- to 5-year event-free survival rate has recently improved from 50% to >76%. Many survivors, however, experience neurocognitive side effects. Several retrospective studies of patients receiving whole brain irradiation (WBI) have suggested a relationship between the radiation dose to the hippocampus and neurocognitive decline...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Kyung Su Kim, Chan Woo Wee, Jin-Yong Seok, Joo Wan Hong, Jin-Beom Chung, Keun-Yong Eom, Jae-Sung Kim, Chae-Yong Kim, Young Ho Park, Yu Jung Kim, In Ah Kim
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy via volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) could preserve the neurocognitive function (NCF) of patients with primary brain tumors treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed data from patients with primary brain tumors who underwent hippocampal-sparing brain radiotherapy via VMAT between February 2014 and December 2015. The optimization criteria for the contralateral hippocampus was a maximum dose (Dmax ) of less than 17 Gy...
February 20, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Xingbo Bian, Xiaofeng Liu, Jinping Liu, Yan Zhao, Haijun Li, Enbo Cai, Pingya Li, Yugang Gao
The antidepressant-like effect of chiisanoside from the leaves of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus was evaluated by using mice models of depression, forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The results showed that treatment with chiisanoside at dose of 5.0 mg/kg significantly decreased immobility time in the FST and TST. Pretreatment with haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of chiisanoside (5...
February 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
E H Taniguti, Y S Ferreira, I J V Stupp, E B Fraga-Junior, C B Mendonça, F L Rossi, H N Ynoue, D L Doneda, L Lopes, E Lima, Z S Buss, S Vandresen-Filho
Accumulating evidence indicates an interaction between inflammation and depression since increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with depression-related symptoms. Melatonin is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant-like effects. In this way, it would be interesting to evaluate the putative antidepressant-like effect of melatonin treatment in an acute inflammation mice model of depression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced depressive-like behavior, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and alteration on brain-derived neurotrophic fator (BDNF) levels...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
The present study investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the dentate gyrus to elucidate the roles of COX‑2 in the hypothyroid hippocampus. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats by treating with 0.03% 2‑mercapto‑1‑methyl‑imidazole dissolved in drinking water for 5 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Hypothyroidism rats exhibited decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels in the serum, while the levels of thyroid‑stimulating hormone and the weight of thyroid glands were significantly higher in the hypothyroid rats compared with those in the vehicle‑treated group...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shan Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Liuyu Zhai, Xiaona Sheng, Weina Zheng, Hongshan Chu, Guohua Zhang
Inflammatory damage aggravates the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the mechanism of inflammatory damage may provide a new therapeutic window for the treatment of AD. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling can regulate the inflammatory process. However, changes in TLR4 signaling pathway induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) have not been well characterized in brain, especially in the hippocampus. In the present study, we explored the changes of TLR4 signaling pathway induced by Aβ in the hippocampus and the role of atorvastatin in modulating this signal pathway and neurotoxicity induced by Aβ...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Kang Pa Lee, Nan Hee Choi, Hyun-Soo Kim, Sanghyun Ahn, In-Sik Park, Dea Won Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: One of the mechanisms considered to be prevalent in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hyper-stimulation of microglia. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocapa L.) is widely used to treat diabetes and atherosclerosis, and is known to exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its neuroprotective effects have not been elucidated thus far. MATERIALS/METHODS: We undertook to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of black chokeberry friut (BCE) in BV2 cells, and evaluate its neuroprotective effect in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of AD...
February 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Kwon Young Lee, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Woosuk Kim, Jong Whi Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Dae Won Kim, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang, Jung Hoon Choi
In the present study, we examined the effects of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille leaf extract (DML) on D-galactose-induced morphological changes in microglia and cytokines, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the hippocampus. Administration of DML to D-galactose-treated mice significantly improved D-galactose-induced reduction in escape latency, swimming speed, and spatial preference for the target quadrant...
December 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
Mengyang Wang, Faliang Duan, Jinglei Wu, Qiang Min, Qiaochun Huang, Ming Luo, Zhuqiang He
Post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by re‑experiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance of trauma‑associated stimulation, general changes in mood and cognition, and hyper arousal symptoms. Cyclooxygenase is involved in the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and its inducible form cyclooxygenase‑2(COX‑2), an important mediator of cell injury in inflammation, is primarily expressed in leukocytes and brain cells. The present study investigated the expression of COX‑2 in the hippocampi of rats with PTSD and evaluated the effect of COX‑2 inhibition on PTSD...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhao-Hui Yao, Xiao-Li Yao, Yong Zhang, Shao-Feng Zhang, Ji-Chang Hu
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in cognition deficit following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Luteolin, a natural flavonoid found in many plants, is known for a variety of pharmacological activities, such as its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, urate, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. To assess whether luteolin could prevent CCH-induced cognitive dysfunction, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative-stress effects, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, enzyme activity assays, behavioral methods, immunohistochemistry, and electrophysiology to detect neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, cognition alterations, and long-term potential (LTP), in a bilateral common carotid arteries ligation (2VO) rat model...
February 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Pei-Sen Yao, Guo-Rong Chen, Huang-Cheng Shang-Guan, Qing-Song Lin, Xing-Fu Wang, Shu-Fa Zheng, De-Zhi Kang
RATIONALE: Intracranial ganglioneuroblastoma represents a rare subtype of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Here, we report a hippocampal ganglioneuroblastoma and a literature review of cerebral anglioneuroblastoma is carried out. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 16-year-old male patient presenting with absence seizure and high-infiltration hippocampal ganglioneuroblastoma. INTERVENTIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicates a space-occupying lesion with a well-defined margin in the right temporal lobe and hippocampus...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carlos G Martínez-Moreno, Denisse Calderón-Vallejo, Steve Harvey, Carlos Arámburo, José Luis Quintanar
This brief review of the neurological effects of growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, spinal cord, neural retina, and brain tumors, summarizes recent information about their therapeutic potential as treatments for different neuropathologies and neurodegenerative processes. The effect of GH and GnRH (by independent administration) has been associated with beneficial impacts in patients with brain trauma and spinal cord injuries...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barrett Allen, Munjal M Acharya, Celine Lu, Erich Giedzinski, Nicole Chmielewski, David Quach, Mike Hefferan, Karl K Johe, Charles L Limoli
Clinical management of primary and secondary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies frequently includes radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence after surgical resection. While cranial radiotherapy remains beneficial, adult and pediatric brain tumor survivors suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Although this has been recognized as a significant problem for decades, there remains no clinical recourse for the unintended neurocognitive sequelae associated with these types of cancer treatments...
January 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Julien Detour, Caroline Bund, Charles Behr, Hélène Cebula, Ercument A Cicek, Maria-Paola Valenti-Hirsch, Béatrice Lannes, Benoît Lhermitte, Astrid Nehlig, Pierre Kehrli, François Proust, Edouard Hirsch, Izzie-Jacques Namer
OBJECTIVE: Within a complex systems biology perspective, we wished to assess whether hippocampi with established neuropathological features have distinct metabolome. Apparently normal hippocampi with no signs of sclerosis (noHS), were compared to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) type 1 (HS1) and/or type 2 (HS2). Hippocampus metabolome from patients with epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (EANTs), namely, gangliogliomas (GGs) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs), was also compared to noHS epileptiform tissue...
January 17, 2018: Epilepsia
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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