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hippocampus tumor

Y-Q Li, Zw-C Cheng, Sk-W Liu, I Aubert, C S Wong
Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in neurocognitive dysfunction after cranial irradiation for brain tumors. How irradiation results in impaired neuronal development remains poorly understood. The Trp53 (p53) gene is known to regulate cellular DNA damage response after irradiation. Whether it has a role in disruption of late neuronal development remains unknown. Here we characterized the effects of p53 on neuronal development in adult mouse hippocampus after irradiation. Different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms and a transplantation study were used for cell fate mapping...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Minyoung Oh, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, S D N K Bathige, Seongdo Lee, Myoung-Jin Kim, Jehee Lee
Apoptosis is a physiological process that can also participate in host immune defense mechanisms, including tumor growth suppression along with homeostasis and maturation of immune cells. Caspases are known to be involved in cellular apoptotic signaling; among them, caspase-8 plays an important role in the initiation phase of the apoptotic death cascade. In the current study, we molecularly characterized a caspase-8 homolog (designated as HaCasp-8) from Hippocampus abdominalis. The HaCasp-8 gene harbors a 1476 bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a protein of 492 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 55 kDa...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
David W Nauen
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor autoimmune encephalitis can arise in the setting of ovarian teratoma and often responds to resection. When it occurs in the absence of tumor, failure to respond to treatment may be more likely, and affected patients often require intensive care. To further understand the mechanisms and potential management, we present findings from an autopsy conducted on a young woman who died of refractory autoimmune encephalitis of this type. Rituximab was administered 70 days before death, and both 37 and 14 days before death, CD19(+) lymphocytes were only 0...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Weam W Ibrahim, Marwa M Safar, Mahmoud M Khattab, Azza M Agha
The prevalence or recurrence of depression is seriously increased in women during the transition to and after menopause. The chronic hypo-estrogenic state of menopause may reduce the response to antidepressants; however the influence of estrogen therapy on their efficacy is still controversial. This study aimed at investigating the effects of combining escitalopram with 17β-estradiol on depression and cognitive impairment induced by ovariectomy, an experimental model of human menopause. Young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to either sham operation or ovariectomy...
September 26, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Chunhua Ma, Hongyan Long
Betulin is extracted from birch tree bark and exerts diverse pharmacological activities. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of betulin (BE) on cognitive decline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic model was built by streptozotocin (STZ) (30mg/kg, ip). After 4 weeks, the diabetic rats were treated with vehicle or BE (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and serum insulin were detected. Three days later, Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate memory function...
September 22, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Ying Luo, Shengnan Kuang, Lai Xue, Junqing Yang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in the learning and memory dysfunction in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). METHODS: Eighty rats were divided into eight groups: the 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (NaCMC)-treated group, empty vector (LV-Mock)-treated group, CUMS+NaCMC-treated group, CUMS+sertraline-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (10mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (30mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+LV-Mock-treated group, and CUMS+5-LO-silencers lentiviral vectors (LV-si-5-LO)-treated group, n=10...
September 14, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Conrad Johanson, Nancy Johanson
Robust modeling of CNS transport integrates molecular fluxes at the microvascular blood-brain barrier and epithelial choroid plexus blood-CSF barrier. Normal activity of solute transporters, channels and aquaporins, in the cerebral endothelium and choroidal epithelium, sets the microenvironment composition for neurons and glia. Conversely, perturbed transport/permeability at the barrier interfaces causes interstitial fluid dyshomeostasis (e.g. edema) arising in neural disorders. Critically-important transependymal solute/water distribution between brain and CSF needs more attention...
September 15, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Tulika Gupta, Daisy Sahni, R Shane Tubbs, Sunil K Gupta
BACKGROUND: The fornix is the main efferent tract from the hippocampus and is an important component of the memory pathways. Variations in the anatomy of the fornix are not commonly encountered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anatomy of the fornix was studied in 30 cadavers of normal adult healthy males who had died in road accidents. The full extent of the hippocampus was prosected up to the tail under the magnoscope. RESULTS: In 10 of the 30 brains, the crura and the body of fornix were bilaterally broad and flat like a sheet, rather than the usual compact bundle, forming a cobra-like hood over the roof of the third ventricle...
September 2016: Neurology India
Carlos Borges Filho, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Franciele Donato, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Leandro Cattelan Souza, Renata Giacomeli, Michelle Antunes, Cristiane Luchese, Silvane Souza Roman, Silvana Peterini Boeira
Chrysin is a flavonoid which is found in bee propolis, honey and various plants. Antidepressant-like effect of chrysin in chronically stressed mice was previously demonstrated by our group. Conversely, neurochemical factors associated with this effect require further investigations. Thus, we investigated the possible involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, kynurenine pathway (KP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism and caspases activities in the effect of chrysin in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS)...
September 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Fang Zhang, Yanyan Fu, Xiaoyan Zhou, Wei Pan, Yue Shi, Mei Wang, Xunbao Zhang, Dashi Qi, Lei Li, Kai Ma, Renxian Tang, Kuiyang Zheng, Yuanjian Song
Previous studies have demonstrated that lycopene possesses anti-inflammatory properties in the central nervous system. However, the potential role and the molecular mechanisms of lycopene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge inflammation and depression-like behaviors has not been clearly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the effects and the potential mechanisms of lycopene on LPS-induced depression-like behaviors. Lycopene was orally administered (60mg/kg) every day for seven days followed by intraperitoneal LPS injection (1mg/kg)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jungha Park, Kyoung Hoon Jeong, Won-Ho Shin, Young-Seuk Bae, Un Ju Jung, Sang Ryong Kim
Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
Esraa Moustafa ELnahas, Mahdy Salama Abou Zeid, Hala Salah Abdel Kawy, Nevien Hendawy, Walaa Baher
AIM: Depression associating patients with chronic liver diseases is a major treatment goal. This study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective and antidepressant effects of celecoxib in a model of experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) and depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6 mice. MAIN METHODS: EAH was induced by immunization with S-100 liver antigen emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Mice were randomly allocated to 5 groups; control phosphate buffered saline group; control CFA group; EAH group, and 2 groups of EAH plus celecoxib (7...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Helene Johannessen, David Revesz, Yosuke Kodama, Nikki Cassie, Karolina Skibicka, Perry Barrett, Suzanne Dickson, Jens Holst, Jens Rehfeld, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger Adan, Bård Kulseng, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system...
August 30, 2016: Obesity Surgery
A V Alessenko, S O Bachurin, S V Gurianova, Y O Karatasso, E F Shevtsova, L N Shingarova
Dimebon (Dimebolin) is an antihistamine drug which has been used in Russia since 1983. Recently Dimebolin has attracted renewed interest after being shown to have positive effects on persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Animal studies have shown that dimebon acts through multiple mechanisms, both blocking the action of neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptides and inhibiting L-type calcium channels, modulating the action of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors. Our experiments with cell culture L929 and mice have shown that dimebon may exert its neuroprotective effect by blocking cytotoxic signals induced by proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a which are believed to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease...
May 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Ana Cicvaric, Jiaye Yang, Sigurd Krieger, Deeba Khan, Eun-Jung Kim, Manuel Dominguez-Rodriguez, Maureen Cabatic, Barbara Molz, Juan Pablo Acevedo Aguilar, Radoslav Milicevic, Tarik Smani, Johannes M Breuss, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Daniela D Pollak, Pavel Uhrin, Francisco J Monje
INTRODUCTION: Podoplanin is a cell-surface glycoprotein constitutively expressed in the brain and implicated in human brain tumorigenesis. The intrinsic function of podoplanin in brain neurons remains however uncharacterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an established podoplanin-knockout mouse model and electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, we investigated the brain neuronal role of podoplanin. RESULTS: Ex-vivo electrophysiology showed that podoplanin deletion impairs dentate gyrus synaptic strengthening...
August 25, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Shuli Liang, Limin Zhang, Xiaoman Yu, Shaohui Zhang, Guojun Zhang, Ping Ding
BACKGROUND: Electronic conduction, a new treatment approach for epilepsy, has been confirmed to reduce epileptiform discharge on EEG and convulsive behaviors, particularly epileptic discharge propagation and serious behavioral seizures, in rats with kainic acid (KA)-induced acute temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal cell apoptosis was examined to confirm the neuroprotective effect of electronic conduction therapy in rats with KA-induced acute TLE...
August 2, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Andrej Fabrizius, Daniel Andre, Tilmann Laufs, Anne Bicker, Stefan Reuss, Elena Porto, Thorsten Burmester, Thomas Hankeln
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a respiratory protein that is almost exclusively expressed in the vertebrate nervous system. Despite many years of research, the exact function and even the expression sites of Ngb are still a matter of debate. However, to investigate hypotheses surrounding the potential roles of Ngb, a detailed knowledge of its major and minor expression sites is indispensable. We have therefore evaluated Ngb expression by extensive bioinformatic analysis using publicly available transcriptome data (RNA-Seq)...
August 16, 2016: Neuroscience
Weishan Zhang, Ning Ning, Xianjun Li, Gang Niu, Lijun Bai, Youmin Guo, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: The tumor-to-brain communication has been emphasized by recent converging evidences. This study aimed to compare the difference of brain glucose metabolism between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and control subjects. METHODS: NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy and control subjects without malignancy confirmed by 6 months follow-up were collected and underwent the resting state 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. Normalized FDG metabolism was calculated by a signal intensity ratio of each brain region to whole brain...
2016: PloS One
Junhua Yang, Fangfang Qi, Yang Yang, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo, Zhibin Yao
The immune system plays a vital role in brain development. The hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) is administered to more than 70% of neonates worldwide. Whether this neonatal vaccination affects brain development is unknown. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with HBV or phosphate-buffered saline. HBV induced impaired behavioral performances and hippocampal long-term potentiation at 8 weeks (w) of age without influence at 4 or 12w. At 6w, there was decreased neurogenesis, M1 microglial activation and a neurotoxic profile of neuroimmune molecule expression [increased tumor necrosis factor-α and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1] in the hippocampus of the HBV-vaccinated mice...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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