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metabolic training

Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Jordan Perry, Wayne Johnson, Gilbert W Fellingham, Pat R Vehrs
Background/Objective: The heart rate (HR) and metabolic (VO2 ) responses to treadmill running using the GlideTrak™ body weight support system have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the submaximal and maximal HR and VO2 responses to normal-weight treadmill running (TMR) to treadmill running with body weight support provided by the GlideTrak™ (GTR). Methods: Twenty participants (11 males; 9 females) 18 to 26 years of age voluntarily participated in this study...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Ryan L Sheppard, Joshua M Swift, Aaron Hall, Richard T Mahon
Introduction: Individuals with a known susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) demonstrate a reduced ventilation response and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction when exposed to hypoxia. It is unknown whether reduced sensitivity to hypercapnia is correlated with increased incidence and/or severity of HAPE, and while acute exercise at altitude is known to exacerbate symptoms the effect of exercise training on HAPE susceptibility is unclear. Purpose: To determine if chronic intermittent hypercapnia and exercise increases the incidence of HAPE in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Daniela G L Terson de Paleville, Susan J Harkema, Claudia A Angeli
CONTEXT: Four individuals with motor complete SCI with an implanted epidural stimulator who were enrolled in another study were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, metabolic function and body composition at four time points before, during, and after task specific training. Following 80 locomotor training sessions, a 16-electrode array was surgically placed on the dura (L1-S1 cord segments) to allow for electrical stimulation. After implantation individuals received 160 sessions of task specific training with epidural stimulation (stand and step)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Jażdżewska, Waldemar Moska, Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Marek Sawczuk, Svetlana I Gubaydullina, Alsu T Shakirova, Pawel Cięszczyk, Adam Maszczyk, Ildus I Ahmetov
The effectiveness of physical exercise on fat loss and improvement of aerobic capacity varies considerably between individuals. A strong linkage exists between common allelic variants of the adrenergic receptor genes and weight gain, as well as changes in body composition. Therefore we aimed to check if body composition and metabolic variables were modulated by the ADRB2 (Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) and ADRA2A (rs553668 G/A) gene polymorphisms in 163 Polish sedentary women (age 19-24; body mass index (BMI) 21...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Maria Kerti, Zsuzsanna Balogh, Krisztina Kelemen, Janos T Varga
Rationale: The relationship of functional parameters such as lung mechanics, chest kinematics, metabolism and peripheral and respiratory muscle function with the level of exercise tolerance remains a controversial subject. While it has been previously shown that pulmonary rehabilitation is capable of improving exercise tolerance in patients afflicted by COPD, as expressed by values of 6-minute walking test (6MWT), the degree of contribution to this change by each of the aforementioned parameters remains unclear...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Robin A Wilson, William Deasy, Christos G Stathis, Alan Hayes, Matthew B Cooke
Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT)...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Kieran N Kilcawley, Hope Faulkner, Holly J Clarke, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products...
March 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Daniel R Garza, Marcel C van Verk, Martijn A Huynen, Bas E Dutilh
The environmental metabolome and metabolic potential of microorganisms are dominant and essential factors shaping microbial community composition. Recent advances in genome annotation and systems biology now allow us to semiautomatically reconstruct genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) of microorganisms based on their genome sequence1 . Next, growth of these models in a defined metabolic environment can be predicted in silico, mechanistically linking the metabolic fluxes of individual microbial populations to the community dynamics...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Simon P Lailvaux, Andrew Z Wang, Jerry F Husak
The energetic costs of performance constitute a non-trivial component of animals' daily energetic budgets. However, we currently lack an understanding of how those costs are partitioned among the various stages of performance development, maintenance, and production. We manipulated individual investment in performance by training Anolis carolinensis lizards for endurance or sprinting ability. We then measured energetic expenditure both at rest and immediately following exercise to test whether such training alters the maintenance and production costs of performance...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Paolo Taboga, Alessandro Ganzini, Rado Pišot, Bostjan Šimunič, Gianni Biolo, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Marco Narici, Joern Rittweger, Pietro Enrico di Prampero, Stefano Lazzer
In this study, we investigated: i) the effects of bed rest and a subsequent physical training program on metabolic cost (Cw), mechanical work and efficiency during walking in older and young men; ii) the mechanisms underlying the higher Cw observed in older than young men.Twenty-three healthy male subjects (N = 16 older adults, age 59.6±3.4 years; N = 7 young, age: 23.1±2.9 years) participated in this study. The subjects underwent 14 days of bed rest followed by two weeks of physical training (6 sessions)...
2018: PloS One
Helmuth Haslacher, Hannelore Fallmann, Claudia Waldhäusl, Edith Hartmann, Oswald F Wagner, Werner Waldhäusl
BACKGROUND: T1D treatment requires informed self-responsible patients, who, however, frequently miss their therapeutic goals, providing considerable potential for improvement. METHODS: This observational report evaluates T1D patients [N = 109], aged ≥18 years (range 22-82), poorly controlled at home, at and 3 weeks after their admission to our diabetes rehabilitation clinic [DRC], where they were offered standardized, but unmonitored life-style modification. RESULTS: At admission, patients displayed elevated HbA1c values (66 mmol/mol [57; 81]), a high prevalence of co-morbidities (88%), lipodystrophies due to monolocal insulin injections (42%), a low rate of influenza (16%) and pneumococcal (7%) immunization, and underuse of lipid-lowering drugs (-38%)...
2018: PloS One
Jinbo Chen, Uwe Scholz, Ruonan Zhou, Matthias Lange
In order to access and filter content of life-science databases, full text search is a widely applied query interface. But its high flexibility and intuitiveness is paid for with potentially imprecise and incomplete query results. To reduce this drawback, query assistance systems suggest those combinations of keywords with the highest potential to match most of the relevant data records. Widespread approaches are syntactic query corrections that avoid misspelling and support expansion of words by suffixes and prefixes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Marc A Tuazon, Sara C Campbell, Dylan J Klein, Sue A Shapses, Keith R Anacker, Tracy G Anthony, Mehmet Uzumcu, Gregory C Henderson
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. METHODS: Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Tatsiana Suvorava, Miriam M Cortese-Krott
Moderate exercise training is a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. Shear-induced upregulation of eNOS activity and function in the vascular endothelium is considered as one of the main molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been reported that levels of plasma nitrite, which are largely dependent on eNOS activity, were increased in healthy subjects after acute exercise, while this increase was abolished in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Y Zhang, G Claireaux, H Takle, S M Jørgensen, A P Farrell
The recovery of oxygen uptake to the standard metabolic rate (SMR) following exhaustive chasing exercise in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar parr occurred in three phases (rapid, plateau and slow). The initial recovery phase lasted 0·7 h and contributed 16% to the total excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). It was followed by a longer plateau phase that contributed 53% to the total EPOC. The slow recovery phase that completed recovery of SMR, which has not been reported previously, made a 31% contribution to the total EPOC...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Prema S Rao, Ryan Endicott, Randy Mullins, U Subrahmanyeswara Rao
Comparison of human genome sequences from different individuals has unraveled that genes involved in the drug efficacy and metabolism are polymorphic, harboring mutations, splicing variations and other alterations. These data provide a reasonable explanation for the inter-individual variations observed in drug therapy. Thus, a detailed molecular analysis and an in-depth knowledge of these genes is a prerequisite to practice pharmacogenomics-based medicine. We have introduced a 6-week laboratory research rotation to train students in the expression analysis of different pharmacogenes combined with bioinformatics tools...
March 8, 2018: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Sandhya B Kumar, Barbara C Hamilton, Stephanie G Wood, Stanley J Rogers, Jonathan T Carter, Matthew Y Lin
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become popular due to its technical ease and excellent short-term results. Understanding the risk profile of LSG compared with the gold standard laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is critical for patient selection. OBJECTIVES: To use traditional regression techniques and random forest classification algorithms to compare LSG with LRYGB using the 2015 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Data Registry...
March 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Gretel Ruprechter, Maria de Lourdes Adrien, Alejandro Larriestra, Otavio Meotti, Chester Batista, Ana Meikle, Mirela Noro
The predictive values of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, albumin and calcium to predict risk of peripartum diseases in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was investigated. Besides it was assessed if the health status interacted with parity on body condition score and metabolic profiles during the transition period. Dairy cows (126 PP and 182 MP) from a commercial dairy free stall herd (loose-housing system) were weekly body condition scored and tail bled for metabolites determination from -3 to +4 weeks relative to calving...
February 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
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