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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140154/no-difference-in-young-adult-athletes-resting-energy-expenditure-when-measured-under-inpatient-or-outpatient-conditions
#1
Julia L Bone, Louise M Burke
Low energy availability can place athletes at increased risk of injury and illness and can be detected by a low metabolic rate. The lowest metabolic rate is captured at the bedside, after an overnight fast and termed inpatient REE. Measurements done in a laboratory with a shorter overnight fast are termed outpatient REE. Although important to know what the lowest energy expenditure, a bedside measure and/or 12 h fast is not always practical or logistically possible particularly when you take into account an athlete's training schedule...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138224/short-term-metformin-and-exercise-training-effects-on-strength-aerobic-capacity-glycemic-control-and-mitochondrial-function-in-children-with-burn-injury
#2
Eric Rivas, David N Herndon, Craig Porter, Walter Meyer, Oscar E Suman
Severely burned children experience a chronic state of sympathetic nervous system activation that is associated with hypermetabolic/cardiac stress and muscle wasting. Metformin, a diabetes medication, helps control hyperglycemia in diabetic populations, and exercise has been shown to improve exercise strength and aerobic exercise capacity after severe burns. However, whether exercise improves glycemic control in burned children and whether combining exercise and metformin improves outcomes to a greater degree than exercise alone is unknown...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136094/effects-of-multidomain-lifestyle-intervention-omega-3-supplementation-or-their-combination-on-physical-activity-levels-in-older-adults-secondary-analysis-of-the-multidomain-alzheimer-preventive-trial-mapt-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Yves Rolland, Matteo Cesari, Charlotte Dupuy, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Background/objectives: to investigate the effects of a 3-year multidomain lifestyle intervention, omega-3 supplementation or both on physical activity (PA) in older adults with subjective memory complaints. Design/settings/subjects: the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial was a 3-year randomised controlled trial that enroled 1,680 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years or over, with subjective memory complaints. Participants were randomised to omega-3 supplementation (total daily dose of 800 mg docosahexanoic acid and up to 225 mg eicosapentanoic acid), multidomain intervention (nutritional and exercise counselling and cognitive training), omega-3 plus multidomain intervention or placebo with usual care...
November 10, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135645/phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibitors-sport-and-doping
#4
Luigi Di Luigi, Massimiliano Sansone, Andrea Sansone, Roberta Ceci, Guglielmo Duranti, Paolo Borrione, Clara Crescioli, Paolo Sgrò, Stefania Sabatini
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) (e.g., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and avanafil) are drugs commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. PDE5i are not prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) but are alleged to be frequently misused by healthy athletes to improve sporting performance. In vitro and in vivo studies have reported various effects of PDE5i on cardiovascular, muscular, metabolic, and neuroendocrine systems and the potential, therefore, to enhance performance of healthy athletes during training and competition...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134510/drug-design-for-alk-positive-nsclc-an-integrated-pharmacophore-based-3d-qsar-and-virtual-screening-strategy
#5
Nivya James, V Shanthi, K Ramanathan
The increasing death rates related to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung cancer culminated in a significant interest in the discovery of novel inhibitors for ALK. In the present research work, pharmacophore-based 3D QSAR modeling and virtual screening strategy have been carried out to address these issues. Initially, a five-point pharmacophore model was developed using the biological data of 50 compounds which includes an FDA-approved ALK inhibitor, crizotinib. Using the generated pharmacophore, a 3D QSAR model was developed and used as a query to screen the DrugBank database...
November 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133569/efficacy-of-tilorone-dihydrochloride-against-ebola-virus-infection
#6
Sean Ekins, Mary A Lingerfelt, Jason E Comer, Alexander N Freiberg, Jon C Mirsalis, Kathleen O'Loughlin, Anush Harutyunyan, Claire McFarlane, Carol E Green, Peter B Madrid
Tilorone dihydrochloride (tilorone) is a small-molecule, orally bioavailable drug that is used clinically as an antiviral outside of the US. A machine learning model trained on anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) screening data previously identified tilorone as a potent in vitro EBOV inhibitor, making it a candidate for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). In the present study, a series of in vitro ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) assays demonstrated the drug has excellent solubility, high Caco-2 permeability, was not a P-glycoprotein substrate and had no inhibitory activity against five human CYP450 enzymes (3A4, 2D6, 2C19, 2C9 and 1A2)...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133342/exercise-training-protects-human-and-rodent-%C3%AE-cells-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis
#7
Flavia M M Paula, Nayara C Leite, Patricia C Borck, Ricardo Freitas-Dias, Miriam Cnop, Mara P T Chacon-Mikahil, Claudia R Cavaglieri, Piero Marchetti, Antonio C Boschero, Claudio C Zoppi, Decio L Eizirik
Prolonged exercise has positive metabolic effects in obese or diabetic individuals. These effects are usually ascribed to improvements in insulin sensitivity. We evaluated whether exercise also generates circulating signals that protect human and rodent β cells against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, we obtained serum from humans or mice before and after an 8 wk training period. Exposure of human islets or mouse or rat β cells to human or rodent sera, respectively, obtained from trained individuals reduced cytokine (IL-1β+IFN-γ)- or chemical ER stressor-induced β-cell ER stress and apoptosis, at least in part via activation of the transcription factor STAT3...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132475/relation-of-muscle-indices-with-metabolic-parameters-and-c-peptide-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Sabah Tuzun, Can Oner, M Resat Dabak, Halim Omer Kasikci, Mehmet Sargin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between bioimpedance measurements and metabolic parameters and C-peptide in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Kartal Dr Lutfi Kirdar Training and Research Hospital, Pendik Kaynarca Diabetes Center, Exercise and Metabolism Unit, between January and March 2015. METHODOLOGY: Patients with DM, aged less than 65 years, were assessed for bioimpedance analysis, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide levels, triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol levels...
November 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127759/is-irisin-the-new-player-in-exercise-induced-adaptations-or-not-a-2017-update
#9
REVIEW
Ioannis G Fatouros
Irisin is produced by a proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and has emerged as a potential mediator of exercise-induced energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to review the results of studies that investigated irisin responses to acute and chronic exercise and provide an update. A comprehensive search in the databases of MEDLINE was performed (74 exercise studies). The focus of the analysis was on data concerning FNDC5 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and circulating irisin concentration relatively to exercise mode, intensity, frequency and duration and the characteristics of the sample used...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126841/-exercise-as-a-protective-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-factor-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#10
Myriam Isnard-Rouchon, Céline Coutard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of Physical Activity (PA) during haemodialysis as a protective treatment against cardiovascular (CV) diseases. METHODS: Eighty volunteer patients were included in this multicentric prospective study and followed for two years: 40 patients in the Exercise group (EX), 40 patients in the Control group (Ctrl). CV risk factors: Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL cholesterol (LDL-c), Triglycerides (TG) and Hemoglobin (Hb), and Prealbumin, Albumin, Parathormon, 25-OH Vitamin D, were checked at Month 0 (M0) and Month 24 (M24)...
November 7, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#11
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122708/combinatory-effects-of-phytoestrogens-and-exercise-on-body-fat-mass-and-lipid-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-female-rats
#12
Wenya Zheng, Jana Rogoschin, Anja Niehoff, Kristina Oden, Sabine E Kulling, Mingyong Xie, Patrick Diel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combinatory effects of an isoflavone (ISO)-rich diet and exercise on fat mass and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Therefore the female Wistar rats were sedentary, performed an intense treadmill uphill running, received ISOs, or a combination of ISOs and running after ovariectomy. The exercise reduced visceral fat mass, adipocyte size and serum leptin in Sham animals and antagonized the increases of these parameters induced by OVX. ISOs reduced OVX induced increase of serum leptin...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119246/skeletal-muscle-and-performance-adaptations-to-high-intensity-training-in-elite-male-soccer-players-speed-endurance-runs-versus-small-sided-game-training
#13
Dan Fransson, Tobias Schmidt Nielsen, Karl Olsson, Tobias Christensson, Paul S Bradley, Ioannis G Fatouros, Peter Krustrup, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Magni Mohr
PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21) or a small-sided game group (SSG; n = 18). Over 4 weeks, thrice weekly, SET performed 6-10 × 30-s all-out runs with 3-min recovery, while SSG completed 2 × 7-9-min small-sided games with 2-min recovery...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118014/exercise-training-reduces-intrahepatic-lipid-in-people-with-and-people-without-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#14
Bram Brouwers, Vera B Schrauwen-Hinderling, Tomas Jelenik, Anne Gemmink, Lauren M Sparks, Bas Havekes, Yvonne Bruls, Dennis Dahlmans, Michael Roden, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
Exercise training reduces intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content in people with elevated liver fat content. It is unclear, however, whether exercise training reduces IHL content in people with normal liver fat content. Here, we measured the effect of exercise training on IHL content in people with and people without non-alcohol fatty liver. We further measured changes in insulin sensitivity and hepatic energy metabolism. Eleven males with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and 11 BMI-matched individuals without non-alcoholic fatty liver (CON) completed a 12-week supervised exercise training program...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117797/obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-copd-is-exercise-the-answer
#15
Benjamin D James, Amy V Jones, Ruth E Trethewey, Rachael A Evans
Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117557/the-role-of-eif6-in-skeletal-muscle-homeostasis-revealed-by-endurance-training-co-expression-networks
#16
Kim Clarke, Sara Ricciardi, Tim Pearson, Izwan Bharudin, Peter K Davidsen, Michela Bonomo, Daniela Brina, Alessandra Scagliola, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Farhat Khanim, John Ankers, Mark A Sarzynski, Sujoy Ghosh, Addolorata Pisconti, Jan Rozman, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Chris Bunce, Claire Stewart, Stuart Egginton, Mark Caddick, Malcolm Jackson, Claude Bouchard, Stefano Biffo, Francesco Falciani
Regular endurance training improves muscle oxidative capacity and reduces the risk of age-related disorders. Understanding the molecular networks underlying this phenomenon is crucial. Here, by exploiting the power of computational modeling, we show that endurance training induces profound changes in gene regulatory networks linking signaling and selective control of translation to energy metabolism and tissue remodeling. We discovered that knockdown of the mTOR-independent factor Eif6, which we predicted to be a key regulator of this process, affects mitochondrial respiration efficiency, ROS production, and exercise performance...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117471/tumor-adjacent-tissue-co-expression-profile-analysis-reveals-pro-oncogenic-ribosomal-gene-signature-for-prognosis-of-resectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
O V Grinchuk, S P Yenamandra, R Iyer, M Singh, H K Lee, K H Lim, P K H Chow, V A Kuznetsov
Currently, molecular markers are not used whilst determining the prognosis and treatment strategy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we proposed that the identification of common pro-oncogenic pathways in primary tumors (PT), and adjacent non-malignant tissues (AT), that typically used to predict HCC patient risks may result in HCC biomarker discovery. We examined the genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of paired PT and AT samples from 321 HCC patients. The workflow integrated differentially expressed gene selection, gene ontology enrichment, computational classification, survival predictions, image analysis and experimental validation methods...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117073/metabolic-and-performance-effects-of-yerba-mate-on-well-trained-cyclists
#18
Jose L Areta, Ingvild Austarheim, Helle Wangensteen, Carlo Capelli
INTRODUCTION: Yerba Mate (YM) is a South-American plant, rich in polyphenols, saponins and xanthines, of growing scientific interest due to its metabolic effects. YM has been shown to increase fat utilization during exercise in untrained humans, but its effects on well-trained individuals during exercise are unknown. METHODS: We characterized metabolic and physical performance effects of YM in eleven well-trained male cyclists. In a double-blind crossover design, participants ingested 5 g of YM or placebo (PL; maltodextrin) daily for 5 days, and 1 h prior to experimental trials...
November 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115912/hyperoxia-for-performance-and-training
#19
D A Cardinale, B Ekblom
Recent technological developments have made it possible to use hyperoxia as an enhancement aid during training. Athletes wearing a mask can breathe a higher fraction of oxygen from a stationary or portable apparatus while exercising. A large body of evidence indicates that the oxygen transport capacity, lactate metabolism, power output and work tolerance (endurance) are improved when breathing hyperoxia. The physiological mechanisms underlying these performance improvements, although still not fully elucidated, are based on higher oxygen delivery and reduced central fatigue...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113935/predicting-age-by-mining-electronic-medical-records-with-deep-learning-characterizes-differences-between-chronological-and-physiological-age
#20
Zichen Wang, Li Li, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Ariel Israel, Joel T Dudley, Avi Ma'ayan
Determining the discrepancy between chronological and physiological age of patients is central to preventative and personalized care. Electronic medical records (EMR) provide rich information about the patient physiological state, but it is unclear whether such information can be predictive of chronological age. Here we present a deep learning model the uses vital signs and lab tests contained within the EMR of Mount Sinai Health System (MSHS) to predict chronological age. The model is trained on 377,686 EMR from patients of ages 18-85 years old...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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