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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454211/seasonality-water-use-and-community-management-of-water-systems-in-rural-settings-qualitative-evidence-from-ghana-kenya-and-zambia
#1
Emma Kelly, Katherine F Shields, Ryan Cronk, Kristen Lee, Nikki Behnke, Tori Klug, Jamie Bartram
The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453741/fuel-for-the-work-required-a-theoretical-framework-for-carbohydrate-periodization-and-the-glycogen-threshold-hypothesis
#2
Samuel G Impey, Mark A Hearris, Kelly M Hammond, Jonathan D Bartlett, Julien Louis, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
Deliberately training with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability to enhance endurance-training-induced metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle (i.e. the 'train low, compete high' paradigm) is a hot topic within sport nutrition. Train-low studies involve periodically training (e.g., 30-50% of training sessions) with reduced CHO availability, where train-low models include twice per day training, fasted training, post-exercise CHO restriction and 'sleep low, train low'. When compared with high CHO availability, data suggest that augmented cell signalling (73% of 11 studies), gene expression (75% of 12 studies) and training-induced increases in oxidative enzyme activity/protein content (78% of 9 studies) associated with 'train low' are especially apparent when training sessions are commenced within a specific range of muscle glycogen concentrations...
February 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452985/effectiveness-of-two-home-ergonomic-programs-in-reducing-pain-and-enhancing-quality-of-life-in-informal-caregivers-of-post-stroke-patients-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Karen Lucia de Araújo Freitas Moreira, Gracia María Ábalos-Medina, Carmen Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Neide María Gomes de Lucena, Anderson Belmont Correia de Oliveira, José Manuel Pérez-Mármol
BACKGROUND: Informal caregivers of post-stroke patients usually undergo high levels of pain and stress and have a reduced quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of two home ergonomic interventions aimed at reducing pain intensity and perceived stress and enhancing the quality of life in informal caregivers of chronic post-stroke patients. METHODS: A randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted, with a sample of 33 informal caregivers of patients with stroke...
February 13, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452805/perioperative-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-cpet-consensus-clinical-guidelines-on-indications-organization-conduct-and-physiological-interpretation
#4
D Z H Levett, S Jack, M Swart, J Carlisle, J Wilson, C Snowden, M Riley, G Danjoux, S A Ward, P Older, M P W Grocott
The use of perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate the risk of adverse perioperative events and inform the perioperative management of patients undergoing surgery has increased over the last decade. CPET provides an objective assessment of exercise capacity preoperatively and identifies the causes of exercise limitation. This information may be used to assist clinicians and patients in decisions about the most appropriate surgical and non-surgical management during the perioperative period...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450524/effect-of-a-quality-improvement-intervention-on-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-in-india-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-the-acs-quik-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Mark D Huffman, Padinhare P Mohanan, Raji Devarajan, Abigail S Baldridge, Dimple Kondal, Lihui Zhao, Mumtaj Ali, Mangalath N Krishnan, Syam Natesan, Rajesh Gopinath, Sunitha Viswanathan, Joseph Stigi, Johny Joseph, Somanathan Chozhakkat, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
Importance: Wide heterogeneity exists in acute myocardial infarction treatment and outcomes in India. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a locally adapted quality improvement tool kit on clinical outcomes and process measures in Kerala, a southern Indian state. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cluster randomized, stepped-wedge clinical trial conducted between November 10, 2014, and November 9, 2016, in 63 hospitals in Kerala, India, with a last date of follow-up of December 31, 2016...
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450135/development-of-a-specific-index-to-detect-malnutrition-in-athletes-validity-in-weight-class-or-intermittent-fasted-athletes
#6
François D Desgorces, Christophe Moinard, Mounir Chennaoui, Jean-François Toussaint, Cyril Petibois, Philippe Noirez
Fasted or weight-category athletes manage their training under strict diet conditions that could impair the stress-recovery balance and result in acute or chronic fatigue. However, to date, no validated biomarker are available to quantify this phenomena. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a specific index combining plasma albumin and weight change to detect nutrition-related risks of fatigue increase and under-performance in athletes experiencing particular nutritional conditions. An athlete's nutrition risk index (ANRI) equation, based on data from lightweight and heavyweight rowers, was developed using relationship between plasma albumin concentrations combined to weight changes with sport performance and overtraining scores and was tested by odds ratio for failure...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449792/seric-concentrations-of-copper-chromium-manganesum-nickel-and-selenium-in-aerobic-anaerobic-and-mixed-professional-sportsmen
#7
Marcos Maynar, Francisco Llerena, Ignacio Bartolomé, Javier Alves, María-Concepción Robles, Francisco-Javier Grijota, Diego Muñoz
Background: The aim of the present study was to determine changes in serum concentrations of trace elements Cooper (Cu), Chromiun (Cr), Manganesum (Mn), Nickel (Ni) and Selenium (Se) in high-level sportsmen. Methods: Eighty professional athletes of different metabolic modalities, were recruited before the start of their training period. Thirty one sedentary participants of the same geographic area constituted the control group. Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni and Se analysis was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449458/a-barnes-maze-for-juvenile-rats-delineates-the-emergence-of-spatial-navigation-ability
#8
Daniel G McHail, Nazanin Valibeigi, Theodore C Dumas
The neural bases of cognition may be greatly informed by relating temporally defined developmental changes in behavior with concurrent alterations in neural function. A robust improvement in performance in spatial learning and memory tasks occurs at 3 wk of age in rodents. We reported that the developmental increase of spontaneous alternation in a Y-maze was related to changes in temporal dynamics of fast glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. We also showed that, during allothetic behaviors in the Y-maze, network oscillation power increased at frequency bands known to support spatial learning and memory in adults...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449457/the-activity-of-thalamic-nucleus-reuniens-is-critical-for-memory-retrieval-but-not-essential-for-the-early-phase-of-off-line-consolidation
#9
Hao Mei, Nikos K Logothetis, Oxana Eschenko
Spatial navigation depends on the hippocampal function, but also requires bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus (HPC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cross-regional communication is typically regulated by critical nodes of a distributed brain network. The thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both HPC and PFC and may coordinate the information flow within the HPC-PFC pathway. Here we examined if RE activity contributes to the spatial memory consolidation. Rats were trained to find reward following a complex trajectory on a crossword-like maze...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449292/cost-effectiveness-of-a-community-delivered-multicomponent-intervention-compared-with-enhanced-standard-care-of-obese-adolescents-cost-utility-analysis-alongside-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-help-trial
#10
Monica Panca, Deborah Christie, Tim J Cole, Silvia Costa, John Gregson, Rebecca Holt, Lee D Hudson, Anthony S Kessel, Sanjay Kinra, Anne Mathiot, Irwin Nazareth, Jay Wataranan, Ian Chi Kei Wong, Russell M Viner, Stephen Morris
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a cost-utility analysis of a motivational multicomponent lifestyle-modification intervention in a community setting (the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme (HELP)) compared with enhanced standard care. DESIGN: Cost-utility analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Community settings in Greater London, England. PARTICIPANTS: 174 young people with obesity aged 12-19 years. INTERVENTIONS: Intervention participants received 12 one-to-one sessions across 6 months, addressing lifestyle behaviours and focusing on motivation to change and self-esteem rather than weight change, delivered by trained graduate health workers in community settings...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449201/peer-coaching-through-mhealth-targeting-physical-activity-in-people-with-parkinson-disease-feasibility-study
#11
Cristina Colón-Semenza, Nancy K Latham, Lisa M Quintiliani, Terry D Ellis
BACKGROUND: Long-term engagement in exercise and physical activity mitigates the progression of disability and increases quality of life in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Despite this, the vast majority of individuals with PD are sedentary. There is a critical need for a feasible, safe, acceptable, and effective method to assist those with PD to engage in active lifestyles. Peer coaching through mobile health (mHealth) may be a viable approach. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a PD-specific peer coach training program and a remote peer-mentored walking program using mHealth technology with the goal of increasing physical activity in persons with PD...
February 15, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447217/does-napping-enhance-the-effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-appraisal-training-an-experimental-study
#12
Marcella L Woud, Jan C Cwik, Simon E Blackwell, Birgit Kleim, Emily A Holmes, Dirk Adolph, Hui Zhang, Jürgen Margraf
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446537/replacing-the-canadianization-generation-an-examination-of-faculty-composition-from-1977-through-2017
#13
François Lachapelle, Patrick John Burnett
Amid growing numbers of doctoral graduates entering an increasingly competitive global academic job market, concerns about equity in the hiring process and the value of the Canadian Ph.D. are mounting. Grounded within the historical context of the Canadianization Movement, we examine the doctoral credentials of 4,934 U15 social science faculty between 1977 and 2017 to understand the ebb and flow of incoming and outgoing faculty across the country's academic field. Our trend analyses reveal an overall increase in the proportion of Canadian-trained faculty hires with the noted exceptions of Canada's top three universities who display a strong presence of high-status American-trained faculty throughout...
February 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446245/differential-metabolic-effects-of-constant-moderate-versus-high-intensity-interval-training-in-high-fat-fed-mice-possible-role-of-muscle-adiponectin
#14
Sergio F Martinez-Huenchullan, Babu Raja Maharjan, Paul F Williams, Charmaine S Tam, Susan V Mclennan, Stephen M Twigg
Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446155/not-just-trust-factors-influencing-learners-attempts-to-perform-technical-skills-on-real-patients
#15
Susan L Bannister, Mark S Dolson, Lorelei Lingard, David A Keegan
CONTEXT: As part of their training, physicians are required to learn how to perform technical skills on patients. The previous literature reveals that this learning is complex and that many opportunities to perform these skills are not converted into attempts to do so by learners. This study sought to explore and understand this phenomenon better. METHODS: A multi-phased qualitative study including ethnographic observations, interviews and focus groups was conducted to explore the factors that influence technical skill learning...
February 15, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446086/subchondral-bone-morphology-in-the-metacarpus-of-racehorses-in-training-changes-with-distance-from-the-articular-surface-but-not-with-age
#16
Sandra Martig, Peta L Hitchens, Mark A Stevenson, R Chris Whitton
The repetitive large loads generated during high-speed training and racing commonly cause subchondral bone injuries in the metacarpal condyles of racehorses. Adaptive bone modelling leads to focal sclerosis at the site of highest loading in the palmar aspect of the metacarpal condyles. Information on whether and how adaptive modelling of subchondral bone changes during the career of a racehorse is sparse. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the changes in subchondral bone micromorphology in the area of highest loading in the palmar aspect of the metacarpal condyle in thoroughbred racehorses as a function of age and training...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445882/procedure-rates-performed-by-emergency-medicine-residents-a-retrospective-review
#17
Joshua T Bucher, Christopher Bryczkowski, Grant Wei, Renee L Riggs, Anoop Kotwal, Brian Sumner, Jonathan V McCoy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study is to investigate rates of individual procedures performed by residents in our emergency medicine (EM) residency program. Different programs expose residents to different training environments. Our hypothesis is that ultrasound examinations are the most commonly performed procedure in our residency. METHODS: The study took place in an academic level I trauma center with multiple residency and fellowship programs including surgery, surgical critical care, trauma, medicine, pulmonary/critical care, anesthesiology and others...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445716/a-study-on-performance-and-safety-tests-of-defibrillator-equipment
#18
A Tavakoli Golpaygani, M M Movahedi, M Reza
Introduction: Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444561/committed-to-be-fit-the-value-of-preoperative-care-in-the-perioperative-medicine-era
#19
Javier Ripollés-Melchor, Francesco Carli, Miquel Coca-Martínez, Macarena Barbero-Mielgo, José M Ramírez-Rodríguez, José A García-Erce
In the era of perioperative medicine, important advances have been made in the perioperative care of patients, usually within those known as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. These have led to a decrease in postoperative complications and the duration of hospital stays; however, there is still a lack of preoperative care, which could make perioperative medicine more prominent. Elderly patients, malnourished, anaemic and ones with a low physical function before surgery are likely to have sub-optimal recovery from surgery...
February 14, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444412/heart-rate-variability-responses-to-acute-and-repeated-post-exercise-sauna-in-trained-cyclists
#20
Anthony S Leicht, Aaron Halliday, Wade H Sinclair, Shaun D'Auria, Martin Buchheit, Glen P Kenny, Jamie Stanley
Short- to medium-term (i.e. 4-14 days) heating protocols induce physiological adaptations including improved cardiac autonomic modulations, as assessed using heart rate variability, which may contribute to greater exercise performance. Whether similar cardiac autonomic changes occur during an intense heating protocol (sauna) reported to increase plasma volume in athletes remains to be confirmed. This study examined the changes in heart rate and its variability during a single, extreme heat (sauna) exposure and repeated exposures in athletes...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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