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T Malla, B Sathian, K Karmacharya Malla, S Adhikari
Background Urine culture is usually not a part of work-up for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia; hence its prevalence remains unknown. Objective This study was done to determine the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in asymptomatic newborns with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and to evaluate which other laboratory parameters are associated with UTIs. Method A prospective observational study where jaundiced newborns otherwise clinically well, were evaluated for UTI. The study was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from June 2012 -April 2013...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
James A Angus, Christine E Wright
Trovafloxacin, a fluroquinolone antibiotic, was recently found to be an inhibitor of pannexin-1 channels through which ATP is released as "find-me" signals in apoptotic Jurkat cells. Our interest in the role of pannexin-1 channels in α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction led us to the novel finding reported here. Concentration-response curves to methoxamine and phenylephrine were competitively antagonised by trovafloxacin (1-30µM) with a pKB of 5.54 and 5.32, respectively, in rat mesenteric small arteries isolated for myography...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Abdul Naeem, Syed Lal Badshah, Mairman Muska, Nasir Ahmad, Khalid Khan
Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases...
March 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cheryl R Durand, Mohammad Alsharhan, Kristine C Willett
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), and review eravacycline and other agents in the pipeline for management of cIAI. The increasing incidence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria has led to the need for additional antibiotics with activity against these organisms. There are 2 newly approved antibiotics, ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolazane/tazobactam for treatment of cIAI...
January 19, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Hyun Yong Jeong, Haeun Kim, Sunghoon Kwon, Sungweon Ryoo
BACKGROUND: This study used the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay (MTBDRsl, Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany), an assay for anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing, for the detection of resistance of 40 tuberculosis strains to fluroquinolones (FLQ), injectable drugs (amikacin or capreomycin) and ethambutol to identify multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients previously identified by solid drug susceptibility test (DST). METHODS: These tuberculosis strains were analysed by both DNA sequencing and conventional drug susceptibility testing on solid medium...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Dandan Li, Tiansheng Wang, Su Shen, Sheng Cheng, Junxian Yu, Yang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Huilin Tang
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem especially in developing countries, the comparative efficacy and safety of fluroquinolones (FQs) for adult patients with newly diagnosed, sputum-positive tuberculosis remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the benefits and risks of FQs-containing (addition/substitution) regimens in this population. METHODS: A network meta-analysis was performed to compare FQs (C: ciprofloxacin; O: ofloxacin; Lo: levofloxacin; M: moxifloxacin; G: gatifloxacin) addition/substitution regimen with standard HRZE regimen (ie isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) in newly diagnosed, sputum-positive tuberculosis...
2015: PloS One
Danielle M Schulte, Ajay Sethi, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Dennis G Maki, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Candida species are major causes of healthcare-associated infections with colonization preceding infection. Understanding risk factors for colonization by Candida species is important in prevention. However, data on risk factors for colonization by Candida species alone or with other healthcare-associated pathogens is limited. METHODS: From 2002 to 2006, 498 patients were enrolled into a prospective cohort study at our institution. Surveillance perirectal, nasal and skin swab samples were obtained upon enrollment...
2015: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Joshua M Swift, Joan T Smith, Juliann G Kiang
Ionizing radiation exposure combined with wound injury increases animal mortalities than ionizing radiation exposure alone. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is in the fluroquinolone family of synthetic antibiotic that are available from the strategic national stockpile for emergency use and is known to inhibit bacterial sepsis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ciprofloxacin as a countermeasure to combined injury mortality and determine the signaling proteins involved in energy machinery. B6D2F1/J female mice were randomly assigned to receive either 9...
June 2015: Radiation Research
Saiprasad Vilas Patil, Anoop Laxminarayan Hajare, Manjusha Patankar, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) contribute to more than 75% of health care seeking in primary health care facilities in India. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are managed frequently by β-lactam, macrolide and fluroquinolone class of antibiotics. However, these recommended classes of antibiotic have shown resistance in community settings. Antibiotic combinations may provide broader spectrum not only in terms of coverage but also to overcome multiple resistance mechanisms overcoming individual class limitations...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Deyu Huang, Ying Zhao, Yueping Jiang, Zhongbin Li, Wucai Yang, Guofeng Chen
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of cirrhosis. Based on our current understanding of SBP, the most common etiologies for SBP in cirrhosis are Enterobacter and Streptococcal species. Th e Aeromonas species are ubiquitous in fresh or sea water. Aeromonas caviae is never identified as etiology in cases of SBP. A patient, who had a history of liver cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 1 year, presented with diarrhea. He had diarrhea 1 week later returned from coastal city...
March 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
D Choudhury, A Das Talukdar, A P Maurya, M Dutta Choudhury, D Dhar Chanda, A Chakravarty, A Bhattacharjee
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading opportunistic pathogen and its ability to acquire resistance against series of antimicrobial agents confine treatment option for nosocomial infections. Increasing resistance to fluroquinolone (FQ) agents has further worsened the scenario. The major mechanism of resistance to FQs includes mutation in FQs target genes in bacteria (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerases) and overexpression of antibiotic efflux pumps. OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the role of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance in nosocomial isolates of P...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Elizabeth P Shen, Yi-Ting Hsieh, Hsiao-Sang Chu, Shan-Chwen Chang, Fung-Rong Hu
PURPOSE: To determine the association of type III secretion system (T3SS) genotype with antibiotic susceptibility, serotypes, and clinical manifestation of centrally located Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. METHODS: Clinical characteristics of P. aeruginosa keratitis cases from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed. Each strain was serotyped and genotyped for T3SS exotoxin genes. Antibiotic sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined with agar dilution method...
January 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Vishak K Acharya, Mahesha Padyana, Unnikrishnan B, Anand R, Preethm R Acharya, Divya Jyoti Juneja
BACKGROUND: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the most common respiratory tract infection in day to day practice. The knowledge of organism commonly causative of CAP helps in early empirical treatment initiation. AIM: To study the microbiological profile of patients with community acquired pneumonia and to study drug sensitivity pattern. METHODS: Hospital based cross sectional study among 100 patients with CAP was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Southern India...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Dwarikadhish Kaushik, Mudit Mohan, Dhammraj M Borade, Onkar C Swami
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem. AMR has posed new challenges in treatment of infectious diseases. Antimicrobials are losing efficacy due to development of resistant pathogens. It has lead to re-emergence of certain infectious diseases. Treatment of such diseases has undergone changes with use of alternative antimicrobials and drug combinations. Pathogens are likely to develop resistance to alternative antimicrobials also and risk of infections with nonexistent treatment is real. Salmonella showed widespread resistant to ampicillin which resulted in use of alternative antimicrobials like fluroquinolones and cephalosporins in the treatment of enteric fever in last two decades...
May 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Debby Ben-David, Mitchell J Schwaber, Amos Adler, Samira Masarwa, Rotem Edgar, Shiri Navon-Venezia, David Schwartz, Nurith Porat, Tali Kotlovsky, Nikolay Polivkin, Irina Weinberg, Avraham Lazary, Nissim Ohana, Ron Dagan
Prolonged outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in health care facilities are uncommon. We found persistent transmission of a fluroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae clone during 2006-2011 in a post-acute care facility in Israel, despite mandatory vaccination and fluoroquinolone restriction. Capsular switch and multiple antimicrobial nonsusceptibility mutations occurred within this single clone. The persistent transmission of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae during a 5-year period underscores the importance of long-term care facilities as potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant streptococci...
May 2014: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michael Klompas, Ken Kleinman, Michael V Murphy
OBJECTIVE: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented new surveillance definitions for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) in January 2013. We describe the epidemiology, attributable morbidity, and attributable mortality of VAEs. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. PATIENTS: All patients initiated on mechanical ventilation between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011...
May 2014: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
A Singhal, R Sharma, M Jain, L Vyas
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection remains one of the most common infections, both in the community and in the hospital. The causative pathogen profile varies from region to region, but Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains the most common causative pathogen. The sensitivity of uropathogens to different drugs varies in different areas, and changes with time. This necessitates periodic studies of the causative uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. AIM: To investigate the profile of common uropathogens and assess their antibiotic sensitivity patterns to commonly used antimicrobial agents...
January 2014: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
Aishwarya Anand Rao, Minal Patkari, Panga Jaipal Reddy, Rajneesh Srivastava, Namita Pendharkar, Srikanth Rapole, Sarika Mehra, Sanjeeva Srivastava
UNLABELLED: Multi-drug tolerance is an important phenotypic property that complicates treatment of infectious diseases and reshapes drug discovery. Hence a systematic study of the origins and mechanisms of resistance shown by microorganisms is imperative. Since soil-dwelling bacteria are constantly challenged with a myriad of antibiotics, they are potential reservoirs of resistance determinants that can be mobilized into pathogens over a period of time. Elucidating the resistance mechanisms in such bacteria could help future antibiotic discoveries...
January 31, 2014: Journal of Proteomics
Silvia Pilco Quesada, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Felix Guillermo Reyes Reyes
Aquaculture has become an important source of fish available for human consumption. In order to achieve greater productivity, intensive fish cultivation systems are employed, which can cause greater susceptibility to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Antimicrobial substances are compounds used in livestock production with the objectives of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and treatment or prevention of diseases. It is well recognized that the issues of antimicrobial use in food animals are of global concern about its impact on food safety...
September 2013: Journal of Food Science
Alexandre Campeggi, Idir Ouzaid, Evanguelos Xylinas, Philippe Lesprit, Andras Hoznek, Dimitri Vordos, Claude-Clément Abbou, Laurent Salomon, Alexandre de la Taille
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence, and clinical and bacterial features of iatrogenic prostatitis within 1 month after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer. METHODS: From January 2006 to December 2009, 3000 patients underwent a 21-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy at Henri Mondor Hospital (Créteil, France) and were prospectively followed. All patients had a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis for 7 days...
February 2014: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
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