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Denise Dekker, Ralf Krumkamp, Daniel Eibach, Nimako Sarpong, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Michael Frimpong, Elina Fechtner, Sven Poppert, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Justin Im, Florian Marks, Hagen Frickmann, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cause the majority of bloodstream infections in Ghana, however the mode of transmission and source of invasive NTS in Africa are poorly understood. This study compares NTS from water sources and invasive bloodstream infections in rural Ghana. METHODS: Blood from hospitalised, febrile children and samples from drinking water sources were analysed for Salmonella spp. Strains were serotyped to trace possible epidemiological links between human and water-derived isolates...
January 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Carolyn M Bondarenka, John A Bosso
Background: Focus on antimicrobial use and infection prevention from accrediting or regulatory bodies such as the Joint Commission, as well as regulatory agencies such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Centers for Disease Control, has highlighted the need for continuing development of antimicrobial stewardship programs at healthcare facilities across the country. Methods: Our institution utilized the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology guidelines to direct the evaluation of its antimicrobial use and develop a successful antimicrobial stewardship program...
July 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
Mamta Choudhary, Binod Kumar Choudhary, Smita Bhoyar, Satyajit B Kale, S P Chaudhari, B C Bera, Ashok Jain, S B Barbuddhe
Leclercia adecarboxylata, a Gram-negative bacillus of family Enterobacteriaceae, is an uncommonly identified pathogen isolated from environmental and clinical specimens. Most of the human infections are polymicrobial and commonly occur in immunocompromised hosts, although nosocomial infections in immunocompetent hosts have been documented. Here, we describe the case of isolation of Leclercia species as polymicrobial infection from bovine suffering from respiratory distress in Chhattisgarh state of India. The isolates were identified by their phenotypes, 16S rDNA sequencing and by MALDI TOF-MS...
October 24, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Y Ge, H Z Guan, S Y Fan, R Zhu, X J Ma, T S Li
Objective: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of 20 patients with neurobrucellosis (NB) . Methods: The epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment data of patients diagnosed with NB from 2010 to 2016 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Twelve (60%) patients reported the history of contact with infected animals and intake of raw milk product. The common manifestations included headache (85%, 17/20), fatigue (85%, 17/20), fever (80%, 16/20), weight loss (70%, 15/20), the signs included pathological reflection (70%, 15/20), decreased muscle strength(45%, 9/20)...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Agam Vora, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is looming large especially in context of antibiotic resistance that is confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. A reflection to this trend has been the rising phenomenon of MICs as shown the respiratory pathogens towards conventional antibiotics including macrolides or β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Respiratory fluoroquinolones offer broad yet potent cover of respiratory pathogens leading to their obvious choice for empirical therapy for clinical persisters or high risk cases with prior history of antibiotics not-withstanding the clinical concerns in tropical countries...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
B Preethi, V Shanthi, K Ramanathan
Salmonella enterica serovars causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 2500 different serotypes of Salmonella were identified to date. In particular, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is the most important serotype of Salmonella transmitted from animals to humans in most parts of the world. They are associated with an estimated 1 million deaths annually. Quinolones are an important class of broad-spectrum antimicrobials has been utilized in the treatment option for over 40 years...
July 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Li-Min Wang, Xiao-Liang Qiao, Liang Ai, Jing-Jing Zhai, Xue-Xia Wang
Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are usual cause of upper respiratory tract infection cases. The present study aims the isolation of bacterial strains which are resistant to the commonly prescribed antibiotics. In total, 900 throat swabs were obtained from the patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections residing in three different localities. The maximum number of isolates (64 %) were obtained from locality-1 (L-1), whereas lowest isolates were found in second locality (L-2)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
T Malla, B Sathian, K Karmacharya Malla, S Adhikari
Background Urine culture is usually not a part of work-up for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia; hence its prevalence remains unknown. Objective This study was done to determine the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in asymptomatic newborns with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and to evaluate which other laboratory parameters are associated with UTIs. Method A prospective observational study where jaundiced newborns otherwise clinically well, were evaluated for UTI. The study was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from June 2012 -April 2013...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
James A Angus, Christine E Wright
Trovafloxacin, a fluroquinolone antibiotic, was recently found to be an inhibitor of pannexin-1 channels through which ATP is released as "find-me" signals in apoptotic Jurkat cells. Our interest in the role of pannexin-1 channels in α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction led us to the novel finding reported here. Concentration-response curves to methoxamine and phenylephrine were competitively antagonised by trovafloxacin (1-30µM) with a pKB of 5.54 and 5.32, respectively, in rat mesenteric small arteries isolated for myography...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Abdul Naeem, Syed Lal Badshah, Mairman Muska, Nasir Ahmad, Khalid Khan
Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases...
March 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cheryl R Durand, Mohammad Alsharhan, Kristine C Willett
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), and review eravacycline and other agents in the pipeline for management of cIAI. The increasing incidence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria has led to the need for additional antibiotics with activity against these organisms. There are 2 newly approved antibiotics, ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolazane/tazobactam for treatment of cIAI...
November 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
Hyun Yong Jeong, Haeun Kim, Sunghoon Kwon, Sungweon Ryoo
BACKGROUND: This study used the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay (MTBDRsl, Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany), an assay for anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing, for the detection of resistance of 40 tuberculosis strains to fluroquinolones (FLQ), injectable drugs (amikacin or capreomycin) and ethambutol to identify multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients previously identified by solid drug susceptibility test (DST). METHODS: These tuberculosis strains were analysed by both DNA sequencing and conventional drug susceptibility testing on solid medium...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Dandan Li, Tiansheng Wang, Su Shen, Sheng Cheng, Junxian Yu, Yang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Huilin Tang
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem especially in developing countries, the comparative efficacy and safety of fluroquinolones (FQs) for adult patients with newly diagnosed, sputum-positive tuberculosis remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the benefits and risks of FQs-containing (addition/substitution) regimens in this population. METHODS: A network meta-analysis was performed to compare FQs (C: ciprofloxacin; O: ofloxacin; Lo: levofloxacin; M: moxifloxacin; G: gatifloxacin) addition/substitution regimen with standard HRZE regimen (ie isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) in newly diagnosed, sputum-positive tuberculosis...
2015: PloS One
Danielle M Schulte, Ajay Sethi, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Dennis G Maki, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Candida species are major causes of healthcare-associated infections with colonization preceding infection. Understanding risk factors for colonization by Candida species is important in prevention. However, data on risk factors for colonization by Candida species alone or with other healthcare-associated pathogens is limited. METHODS: From 2002 to 2006, 498 patients were enrolled into a prospective cohort study at our institution. Surveillance perirectal, nasal and skin swab samples were obtained upon enrollment...
2015: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Joshua M Swift, Joan T Smith, Juliann G Kiang
Ionizing radiation exposure combined with wound injury increases animal mortalities than ionizing radiation exposure alone. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is in the fluroquinolone family of synthetic antibiotic that are available from the strategic national stockpile for emergency use and is known to inhibit bacterial sepsis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ciprofloxacin as a countermeasure to combined injury mortality and determine the signaling proteins involved in energy machinery. B6D2F1/J female mice were randomly assigned to receive either 9...
June 2015: Radiation Research
Saiprasad Vilas Patil, Anoop Laxminarayan Hajare, Manjusha Patankar, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) contribute to more than 75% of health care seeking in primary health care facilities in India. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are managed frequently by β-lactam, macrolide and fluroquinolone class of antibiotics. However, these recommended classes of antibiotic have shown resistance in community settings. Antibiotic combinations may provide broader spectrum not only in terms of coverage but also to overcome multiple resistance mechanisms overcoming individual class limitations...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Deyu Huang, Ying Zhao, Yueping Jiang, Zhongbin Li, Wucai Yang, Guofeng Chen
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of cirrhosis. Based on our current understanding of SBP, the most common etiologies for SBP in cirrhosis are Enterobacter and Streptococcal species. Th e Aeromonas species are ubiquitous in fresh or sea water. Aeromonas caviae is never identified as etiology in cases of SBP. A patient, who had a history of liver cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 1 year, presented with diarrhea. He had diarrhea 1 week later returned from coastal city...
March 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
D Choudhury, A Das Talukdar, A P Maurya, M Dutta Choudhury, D Dhar Chanda, A Chakravarty, A Bhattacharjee
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading opportunistic pathogen and its ability to acquire resistance against series of antimicrobial agents confine treatment option for nosocomial infections. Increasing resistance to fluroquinolone (FQ) agents has further worsened the scenario. The major mechanism of resistance to FQs includes mutation in FQs target genes in bacteria (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerases) and overexpression of antibiotic efflux pumps. OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the role of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance in nosocomial isolates of P...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Elizabeth P Shen, Yi-Ting Hsieh, Hsiao-Sang Chu, Shan-Chwen Chang, Fung-Rong Hu
PURPOSE: To determine the association of type III secretion system (T3SS) genotype with antibiotic susceptibility, serotypes, and clinical manifestation of centrally located Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. METHODS: Clinical characteristics of P. aeruginosa keratitis cases from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed. Each strain was serotyped and genotyped for T3SS exotoxin genes. Antibiotic sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined with agar dilution method...
January 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Vishak K Acharya, Mahesha Padyana, Unnikrishnan B, Anand R, Preethm R Acharya, Divya Jyoti Juneja
BACKGROUND: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the most common respiratory tract infection in day to day practice. The knowledge of organism commonly causative of CAP helps in early empirical treatment initiation. AIM: To study the microbiological profile of patients with community acquired pneumonia and to study drug sensitivity pattern. METHODS: Hospital based cross sectional study among 100 patients with CAP was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Southern India...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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