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anatomy research international

Reshanne R Reeder
Visually perceiving a stimulus activates a pictorial representation of that item in the brain, but how pictorial is the representation of a stimulus in the absence of visual stimulation? Here I address this question with a review of the literatures on visual imagery (VI), visual working memory (VWM), and visual preparatory templates, all of which require activating visual information in the absence of sensory stimulation. These processes have historically been studied separately, but I propose that they can provide complimentary evidence for the pictorial nature of their contents...
October 7, 2016: Vision Research
H M A Ahmed, M A Versiani, G De-Deus, P M H Dummer
Knowledge of root and root canal morphology is a prerequisite for effective nonsurgical and surgical endodontic treatments. The external and internal morphological features of roots are variable and complex, and several classifications have been proposed to define the various types of canal configurations that occur commonly. More recently, improvements in nondestructive digital image systems, such as cone-beam and micro-computed tomography, as well as the use of magnification in clinical practice, have increased the number of reports on complex root canal anatomy...
August 31, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
John Y K Lee, John T Pierce, Sukhmeet K Sandhu, Dmitriy Petrov, Andrew I Yang
OBJECTIVE Endoscopic surgery has revolutionized surgery of the ventral skull base but has not yet been widely adopted for use in the cerebellopontine angle. Given the relatively normal anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN), the authors hypothesized that a fully endoscopic microvascular decompression (E-MVD) might provide pain outcomes equivalent to those of microscopic MVD (M-MVD) but with fewer complications. METHODS The authors conducted a single-institution, single-surgeon retrospective study with patients treated in the period of 2006-2013...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Nikolai Bogduk
Among other important features of the functional anatomy of the spine, described in this chapter, is the remarkable difference between the design and function of the cervical spine and that of the lumbar spine. In the cervical spine, the atlas serves to transmit the load of the head to the typical cervical vertebrae. The axis adapts the suboccipital region to the typical cervical spine. In cervical intervertebrtal discs the anulus fibrosus is not circumferential but is crescentic, and serves as an interosseous ligament in the saddle joint between vertebral bodies...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
David G Herbert, Adnan Moussalli
This paper represents the second part of our revisionary studies on the rhytidid fauna of southern Africa. The species discussed belong to the taxon Nata s.l. in which we recognise two genus-level lineages, Nata s.s. and Natella with six (three new) and one species respectively. We update the species-level taxonomy extensively in the light of new molecular and morphological data, and provide a comprehensive revision of all species, including keys. Detailed comparative morphological observations are provided for the distal reproductive tract, pulmonary cavity, mantle edge, radula and suprapedal gland...
2016: Zootaxa
Jonathan S Akins, Jaxon J Vallely, Patricia E Karg, Kara Kopplin, Amit Gefen, Prerna Poojary-Mazzotta, David M Brienza
Deep tissue injuries (DTI) are severe forms of pressure ulcers that start internally and are difficult to diagnose. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the currently preferred imaging modality to measure anatomical features associated with DTI, but is not a clinically feasible risk assessment tool. B-mode ultrasound (US) is proposed as a practical, alternative technology suitable for bedside or outpatient clinic use. The goal of this research was to confirm US as an imaging modality for acquiring measurements of anatomical features associated with DTI...
September 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Marcello Costa
This is a very personal reminiscence of the long period of Enteric Nervous System research in which I have been involved. I started to work on the gut in the early 60s really because in Turin when I arrived from Argentina, where my family migrated temporarily after the WWII, nobody was seriously working on the brain. In Anatomy they were studying the neural "intramural plexuses" and that for me was close enough to the nervous system. I grew up in the mountains near Turin near the French border where our ex-family house still bears our name...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Torgeir Moberget, Richard B Ivry
The past 25 years have seen the functional domain of the cerebellum extend beyond the realm of motor control, with considerable discussion of how this subcortical structure contributes to cognitive domains including attention, memory, and language. Drawing on evidence from neuroanatomy, physiology, neuropsychology, and computational work, sophisticated models have been developed to describe cerebellar function in sensorimotor control and learning. In contrast, mechanistic accounts of how the cerebellum contributes to cognition have remained elusive...
April 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Zahra Moradi, Mehdi Besharat, Bagher Minaiee, Jale Aliasl, Zohreh Parsa Yekta, Mohsen Nasiri Toosi
CONTEXT: Bowel obstruction is one of the most common causes of acute abdomen. Because of heterogeneity of patients' population and variety of causes, therapeutic strategies are not standardized, so treatment of intestinal obstruction is a surgical challenge in many cases. A traditional medicine approach could help detect some issues that were ignored by modern medicine. One of the major schools of medicine, with a history of several thousand years, is Iranian traditional medicine. In this regard, Avicenna, who lived in the medieval period, has had a great influence on the medical knowledge of the world by writing an encyclopedia of medicine entitled "Qanun of Medicine...
February 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Adam Ostrzenski, Pawel Krajewski, Kern Davis
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is any new anatomical structure present within the labia majora. STUDY DESIGN: A case serial study was executed on eleven consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Stratum-by-stratum dissections of the labia majora were performed. Twenty-two anatomic dissections of labia majora were completed. Eosin and Hematoxylin agents were used to stain newly discovered adipose sac's tissues of the labia majora and the cylinder-like structures, which cover condensed adipose tissues...
September 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Kun Yang, Yunkang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research progress in the surgical treatment of sternoclavicular joint dislocation. METHODS: The literature on the treatment of sternoclavicular joint dislocation was reviewed, summarized, and analyzed. RESULTS: At present, the main therapy of sternoclavicular joint dislocation is operation, including the sternoclavicular joint reconstruction, the inner end of the clavicle resection, and internal fixation of the sternoclavicular joint...
January 2016: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
R Newsome, M J Green, N J Bell, M G G Chagunda, C S Mason, C S Rutland, C J Sturrock, H R Whay, J N Huxley
Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL; sole hemorrhage, sole ulcer, and white line disease) cause a large proportion of lameness in dairy cattle, yet their etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Untreated CHDL may be associated with damage to the internal anatomy of the foot, including to the caudal aspect of the distal phalanx upon which bone developments have been reported with age and with sole ulcers at slaughter. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether bone development was associated with poor locomotion and occurrence of CHDL during a cow's life...
June 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Robert T Furbank
The year 2016 marks 50 years since the publication of the seminal paper by Hatch and Slack describing the biochemical pathway we now know as C4 photosynthesis. This review provides insight into the initial discovery of this pathway, the clues which led Hatch and Slack and others to these definitive experiments, some of the intrigue which surrounds the international activities which led up to the discovery, and personal insights into the future of this research field. While the biochemical understanding of the basic pathways came quickly, the role of the bundle sheath intermediate CO2 pool was not understood for a number of years, and the nature of C4 as a biochemical CO2 pump then linked the unique Kranz anatomy of C4 plants to their biochemical specialization...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ryszard W Gryglewski
Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians...
2015: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Curtis Colleton, David Brewster, Anne Chester, David O Clarke, Peter Heining, Andrew Olaharski, Michael Graziano
The use of minipigs in preclinical safety testing of pharmaceuticals is considered an alternative to the more traditional dog and nonhuman primate (NHP) nonrodent species. Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of minipigs are similar enough to humans to consider them as valid nonrodent models for pharmaceutical safety testing. Since the utilization of minipigs was last assessed over 5 years ago, the Preclinical Safety Leadership Group (DruSafe) of the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development conducted this survey to provide an updated assessment of the utility, perceived value, and impediments to the use of minipigs in preclinical safety testing...
April 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Ching-Wei Wang, Cheng-Ta Huang, Jia-Hong Lee, Chung-Hsing Li, Sheng-Wei Chang, Ming-Jhih Siao, Tat-Ming Lai, Bulat Ibragimov, Tomaž Vrtovec, Olaf Ronneberger, Philipp Fischer, Tim F Cootes, Claudia Lindner
Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark...
July 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Mara L Schuler, Otho Mantegazza, Andreas P M Weber
C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy...
July 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
August Heidland, Eberhard Ritz, Florian Lang
The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place...
February 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
A W Postema, T M De Reijke, O Ukimura, W Van den Bos, A R Azzouzi, E Barret, D Baumunk, A Blana, A Bossi, M Brausi, J A Coleman, S Crouzet, J Dominguez-Escrig, S Eggener, R Ganzer, S Ghai, I S Gill, R T Gupta, T O Henkel, M Hohenfellner, J S Jones, F Kahmann, C Kastner, K U Köhrmann, G Kovacs, R Miano, R J van Moorselaar, N Mottet, L Osorio, B R Pieters, T J Polascik, A R Rastinehad, G Salomon, R Sanchez-Salas, M Schostak, L Sentker, K J Tay, I M Varkarakis, A Villers, J Walz, J J De la Rosette
PURPOSE: To reach standardized terminology in focal therapy (FT) for prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A four-stage modified Delphi consensus project was undertaken among a panel of international experts in the field of FT for PCa. Data on terminology in FT was collected from the panel by three rounds of online questionnaires. During a face-to-face meeting on June 21, 2015, attended by 38 experts, all data from the online rounds were reviewed and recommendations for definitions were formulated...
October 2016: World Journal of Urology
Jenny Reynolds, Sandra Carroll, Chrysty Sturdivant
BACKGROUND: The standard procedure to assess an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who is suspected of aspirating on oral feedings is a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The VFSS has been used for more than 30 years to assess dysphagia and is considered the gold standard. However, there are challenges to the VFSS, including radiation exposure, transport to radiology, usage of barium, limited positioning options, and cost. An alternative approach is fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), which uses a flexible endoscope passed transnasally into the pharynx to assess anatomy, movement/sensation of structures, swallow function, and response to therapeutic interventions...
February 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
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