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anatomy and cell biology

Qin Shi, Dan Zhang, Zhen Huang, Peng Sun, Haiping Huang, Yunmei Zhang, Jianwu Dai, Jisheng Liu
Traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is very common in clinical practice. Several biomaterials have been reported to play a role in TM reparation, whereas their functional recovery is limited when used alone. Meanwhile, the administration of bio-factors could promote functional recovery, but rapid distribution and short half-time obstruct their application. In order to study the effect on of traumatic TM regeneration, we prepared collagen membrane (CM) integrated with collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factor (CBD-bFGF) and implanted into the injury site of perforated TM in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
October 12, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Robert J Gillies, Thomas Beyer
Over the past decades, imaging in oncology has been undergoing a "quiet" revolution to treat images as data, not as pictures. This revolution has been sparked by technological advances that enable capture of images that reflect not only anatomy, but also of tissue metabolism and physiology in situ Important advances along this path have been the increasing power of MRI, which can be used to measure spatially dependent differences in cell density, tissue organization, perfusion, and metabolism. In parallel, PET imaging allows quantitative assessment of the spatial localization of positron-emitting compounds, and it has also been constantly improving in the number of imageable tracers to measure metabolism and expression of macromolecules...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Research
Beate Brand-Saberi, Holm Zaehres
Anatomy as a descriptive topic of research and instruction in medicine has been increasingly influenced by discoveries in molecular cell and developmental biology and most recently the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells and organoids. We summarize here how anatomy has been influenced by developmental and stem cell biologists, and how in vitro modelling of the three-dimensional body environment is emerging to understand structure and function of cells during differentiation processes in development and disease...
September 30, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Claire Mietton, Laurent Schaeffer, Nathalie Streichenberger, Vincent Cunin, Berrouz Kassai, Isabelle Poirot
OBJECTIVE: Botulinum toxin is one of the treatments available to treat spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) from 2 years of age. The long-term action of the toxin on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and muscle structure is still unknown. We formulated the hypothesis that repeated injections of botulinum toxin could modify muscle structure. The main aim of our 3-year monocentric descriptive study is to evaluate the long-term effect of repeated injections of botulinum toxin on the muscle and the neuromuscular junction in patients with CP...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Yue Fen Toh, Su Mei Yew, Chai Ling Chan, Shiang Ling Na, Kok Wei Lee, Chee-Choong Hoh, Wai-Yan Yee, Kee Peng Ng, Chee Sian Kuan
Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35...
2016: PloS One
Zhiguo Mao, Jiehan Chong, Albert C M Ong
The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) go back at least 500 years to the late 16 (th) century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21 (st) century...
2016: F1000Research
Wei Song, Qiang Xu, Yang Zhang, Yang Zhan, Wei Zheng, Liang Song
The ability to obtain comprehensive structural and functional information from intact biological tissue in vivo is highly desirable for many important biomedical applications, including cancer and brain studies. Here, we developed a fully integrated multimodal microscopy that can provide photoacoustic (optical absorption), two-photon (fluorescence), and second harmonic generation (SHG) information from tissue in vivo, with intrinsically co-registered images. Moreover, using a delicately designed optical-acoustic coupling configuration, a high-frequency miniature ultrasonic transducer was integrated into a water-immersion optical objective, thus allowing all three imaging modalities to provide a high lateral resolution of ~290 nm with reflection-mode imaging capability, which is essential for studying intricate anatomy, such as that of the brain...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kelly G Sullivan, Maya Emmons-Bell, Michael Levin
A key problem in evolutionary developmental biology is identifying the sources of instructive information that determine species-specific anatomical pattern. Understanding the inputs to large-scale morphology is also crucial for efforts to manipulate pattern formation in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. Recent studies have revealed a physiological system of communication among cells that regulates pattern during embryogenesis and regeneration in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Somatic tissues form networks using the same ion channels, electrical synapses, and neurotransmitter mechanisms exploited by the brain for information-processing...
July 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Tomoko G Fujii, Maki Ikebuchi, Kazuo Okanoya
Many species of animals communicate with others through vocalizations. Over time, these species have evolved mechanisms to respond to biologically relevant vocal sounds via adaptive behaviors. Songbirds provide a good opportunity to search for the neural basis of this adaptation, because they interact with others through a variety of vocalizations in complex social relationships. The nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) is a structure located in the ventromedial arcopallium, which is akin to the mammalian medial amygdala...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Martin Svoboda, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Georg Heinze, Markus Jaritz, Dietmar Pils, Dan Cacsire Castillo-Tong, Gudrun Hager, Theresia Thalhammer, Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Peter Birner, Ioana Braicu, Jalid Sehouli, Sandrina Lambrechts, Ignace Vergote, Sven Mahner, Philip Zimmermann, Robert Zeillinger, Diana Mechtcheriakova
BACKGROUND: Building up of pathway-/disease-relevant signatures provides a persuasive tool for understanding the functional relevance of gene alterations and gene network associations in multifactorial human diseases. Ovarian cancer is a highly complex heterogeneous malignancy in respect of tumor anatomy, tumor microenvironment including pro-/antitumor immunity and inflammation; still, it is generally treated as single disease. Thus, further approaches to investigate novel aspects of ovarian cancer pathogenesis aiming to provide a personalized strategy to clinical decision making are of high priority...
2016: BMC Genomics
Philip M P Poortmans, Meritxell Arenas, Lorenzo Livi
Decreasing the burden of radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer includes, next to complete omission, several ways to tailor the extent of RT. Possible options for this include lowering of the total dose, such as selective omission of the boost, hypofractionated RT to shorten the duration of treatment, the selective introduction of partial breast irradiation and anatomy based target volume contouring to decrease the size of the irradiated volumes. Elective regional nodal irradiation showed in several randomised trials and meta-analyses to significantly impact on local-regional control, disease-free survival, breast cancer mortality and overall survival...
August 10, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Fallon Durant, Daniel Lobo, Jennifer Hammelman, Michael Levin
Planaria are complex metazoans that repair damage to their bodies and cease remodeling when a correct anatomy has been achieved. This model system offers a unique opportunity to understand how large-scale anatomical homeostasis emerges from the activities of individual cells. Much progress has been made on the molecular genetics of stem cell activity in planaria. However, recent data also indicate that the global pattern is regulated by physiological circuits composed of ionic and neurotransmitter signaling...
April 2016: Regeneration
Alexander D Diehl, Terrence F Meehan, Yvonne M Bradford, Matthew H Brush, Wasila M Dahdul, David S Dougall, Yongqun He, David Osumi-Sutherland, Alan Ruttenberg, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Ceri E Van Slyke, Nicole A Vasilevsky, Melissa A Haendel, Judith A Blake, Christopher J Mungall
BACKGROUND: The Cell Ontology (CL) is an OBO Foundry candidate ontology covering the domain of canonical, natural biological cell types. Since its inception in 2005, the CL has undergone multiple rounds of revision and expansion, most notably in its representation of hematopoietic cells. For in vivo cells, the CL focuses on vertebrates but provides general classes that can be used for other metazoans, which can be subtyped in species-specific ontologies. CONSTRUCTION AND CONTENT: Recent work on the CL has focused on extending the representation of various cell types, and developing new modules in the CL itself, and in related ontologies in coordination with the CL...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
S Baxendale, T T Whitfield
The inner ear is a remarkably intricate structure able to detect sound, motion, and gravity. During development of the zebrafish embryo, the ear undergoes dynamic morphogenesis from a simple epithelial vesicle into a complex labyrinth, consisting of three semicircular canals and three otolithic sensory organs, each with an array of differentiated cell types. This microcosm of biology has led to advances in understanding molecular and cellular changes in epithelial patterning and morphogenesis, through to mechanisms of mechanosensory transduction and the origins of reflexive behavior...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Daniel N Itzhak, Stefka Tyanova, Jürgen Cox, Georg Hh Borner
Subcellular localization critically influences protein function, and cells control protein localization to regulate biological processes. We have developed and applied Dynamic Organellar Maps, a proteomic method that allows global mapping of protein translocation events. We initially used maps statically to generate a database with localization and absolute copy number information for over 8700 proteins from HeLa cells, approaching comprehensive coverage. All major organelles were resolved, with exceptional prediction accuracy (estimated at >92%)...
2016: ELife
M-Y Gui, X-L Ni, H-B Wang, W-Z Liu
Flowers are the main sexual reproductive organs in plants. The shapes, colours and scents of corolla of plant flowers are involved in attracting insect pollinators and increasing reproductive success. The process of corolla senescence was investigated in Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae) in this study. In the research methods of plant anatomy, cytology, cell chemistry and molecular biology were used. The results showed that at the flowering stage cells already began to show distortion, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane degradation and tonoplast dissolution and rupture...
September 2016: Plant Biology
Mercedes Lachen-Montes, Joaquín Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria
The anatomy of the olfactory system is highly complex, comprising a system of olfactory receptors, pathways for the transmission of olfactory information, and structures for the recognition, discrimination, and memorization of odors. During the last years, proteomics has emerged as a large-scale comprehensive approach to characterize and quantify specific olfactory related proteomes in different biological conditions such as olfactory learning, neurodegeneration, and ageing between others. The current work reviews recent applications of proteomics to olfaction with particular focus on quantitative proteome profiling studies performed on olfactory areas from laboratory animal models as well as proteomic characterizations performed on specific brain structures and fluids involved in human smell...
May 26, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Kenneth C Valkenburg, Sarah R Amend, Kenneth J Pienta
Mouse models are used extensively to study prostate cancer and other diseases. The mouse is an excellent model with which to study the prostate and has been used as a surrogate for discoveries in human prostate development and disease. Prostate micro-dissection allows consistent study of lobe-specific prostate anatomy, histology, and cellular characteristics in the absence of contamination of other tissues. Testosterone affects prostate development and disease. Androgen deprivation therapy is a common treatment for prostate cancer patients, but many prostate tumors become castration-resistant...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Callum M Johnston, Eileen T O'Toole, Mary Morphew, Andreas Hoenger, Peter Kohl
The field of cardiovascular research has benefitted from rapid developments in imaging technology over the last few decades. Accordingly, an ever growing number of large, multidimensional data sets have begun to appear, often challenging existing pre-conceptions about structure and function of biological systems. For tissue and cell structure imaging, the move from 2D section-based microscopy to true 3D data collection has been a major driver of new insight. In the sub-cellular domain, electron tomography is a powerful technique for exploration of cellular structures in 3D with unparalleled fidelity at nanometer resolution...
July 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Ibrahim T Ozbolat, Weijie Peng, Veli Ozbolat
Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting has been a powerful tool in patterning and precisely placing biologics, including living cells, nucleic acids, drug particles, proteins and growth factors, to recapitulate tissue anatomy, biology and physiology. Since the first time of cytoscribing cells demonstrated in 1986, bioprinting has made a substantial leap forward, particularly in the past 10 years, and it has been widely used in fabrication of living tissues for various application areas. The technology has been recently commercialized by several emerging businesses, and bioprinters and bioprinted tissues have gained significant interest in medicine and pharmaceutics...
August 2016: Drug Discovery Today
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