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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#1
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065171/alleviatory-effects-of-silicon-on-the-foliar-micromorphology-and-anatomy-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seedlings-under-simulated-acid-rain
#3
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Tingchao Yin, Siliang Shao
Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059181/magnetoreception-a-sense-without-a-receptor
#4
Gregory C Nordmann, Tobias Hochstoeger, David A Keays
Evolution has equipped life on our planet with an array of extraordinary senses, but perhaps the least understood is magnetoreception. Despite compelling behavioral evidence that this sense exists, the cells, molecules, and mechanisms that mediate sensory transduction remain unknown. So how could animals detect magnetic fields? We introduce and discuss 3 concepts that attempt to address this question: (1) a mechanically sensitive magnetite-based magnetoreceptor, (2) a light-sensitive chemical-based mechanism, and (3) electromagnetic induction within accessory structures...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018484/infrapatellar-fat-pad-stem-cells-from-developmental-biology-to-cell-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Ronaldo J F C do Amaral, Henrique V Almeida, Daniel J Kelly, Fergal J O'Brien, Cathal J Kearney
The ideal cell type to be used for cartilage therapy should possess a proven chondrogenic capacity, not cause donor-site morbidity, and should be readily expandable in culture without losing their phenotype. There are several cell sources being investigated to promote cartilage regeneration: mature articular chondrocytes, chondrocyte progenitors, and various stem cells. Most recently, stem cells isolated from joint tissue, such as chondrogenic stem/progenitors from cartilage itself, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have gained great attention due to their increased chondrogenic capacity over the bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988065/heterogeneity-of-salmonella-host-interactions-in-infected-host-tissues
#6
REVIEW
Dirk Bumann, Olivier Cunrath
Infected host tissues have complex anatomy, diverse cell types, and dynamic inflammation. Traditional infection biology approaches largely ignore this complex host environment and its impact on pathogens, but recent single-cell technologies unravel extensively heterogeneous host-pathogen interactions in vivo. Salmonella are major model pathogens in this field due to the availability of excellent mouse disease models and facile molecular biology. The results show how Salmonella stochastically vary their virulence, exploit differential nutrient availability, experience and respond to widely varying stresses, and have disparate fates ranging from vigorous proliferation to eradication within the same host tissue...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985032/organ-on-a-chip-systems-for-women-s-health-applications
#7
REVIEW
Janna Nawroth, Julia Rogal, Martin Weiss, Sara Y Brucker, Peter Loskill
Biomedical research, for a long time, has paid little attention to the influence of sex in many areas of study, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to animal models and clinical studies on human subjects. Many studies solely rely on male cells/tissues/animals/humans, although there are profound differences in male and female physiology, which can significantly impact disease mechanisms, toxicity of compounds, and efficacy of pharmaceuticals. In vitro systems have been traditionally very limited in their capacity to recapitulate female-specific physiology and anatomy such as dynamic sex-hormone levels and the complex interdependencies of female reproductive tract organs...
October 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978429/large-scale-three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-an-entire-caenorhabditis-elegans-larva-using-autocuts-sem
#8
Xixia Li, Gang Ji, Xi Chen, Wei Ding, Lei Sun, Wei Xu, Hua Han, Fei Sun
Large scale, high resolution three dimensional (3D) ultrastructural reconstruction of cells and tissues has become increasingly important to our understanding of complex biological systems. There have been a few partial 3D ultra-structures of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) reported, however 3D reconstruction of a whole nematode has never been achieved. Here, we independently developed a technique called automatic collector of ultrathin sections scanning electron microscopy and using this methodology, generated a 3D reconstruction of an entire C...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972947/the-peritoneum-health-disease-and-perspectives-regarding-tissue-engineering-and-cell-therapies
#9
Ronaldo J F C do Amaral, Kátia D Arcanjo, Márcia C El-Cheikh, Felipe L de Oliveira
There are several pathologies associated with the peritoneum, such as mesothelioma and peritonitis. Moreover, the peritoneum is widely used in ultrafiltration procedures, i.e., peritoneal dialysis, presenting advantages over hemodialysis. On the other hand, ultrafiltration failure may lead to dialysis-induced fibrosis and hypervolemia. Therefore, the pathophysiological study of this tissue is of extreme biomedical importance. Studies investigating the biology of the cells dwelling in the peritoneum wall provide evidence of their plasticity and progenitor features...
October 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963045/bodies-of-children-in-the-institute-of-anatomy-in-halle-saale-germany-between-1920-and-1945
#10
F Winter, D Stoevesandt, R Schultka, M Viebig, K Moeller, F Steger, H Kielstein
At the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Halle (Saale) 74 children's bodies of unknown historical provenance are being held in storage. The aim of this study was the evaluation of their identities, the circumstances of their acquisition, as well as the documentation of their individual characteristics. For these purposes, all bodies were comprehensively examined and photo-documented. Furthermore, CT-scans of 29 bodies were performed and information was collected from various local and national archives...
September 27, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874722/ameliorative-effects-of-melatonin-on-dark-induced-leaf-senescence-in-gardenia-gardenia-jasminoides-ellis-leaf-morphology-anatomy-physiology-and-transcriptome
#11
Daqiu Zhao, Rong Wang, Jiasong Meng, Zhiyuan Li, Yanqing Wu, Jun Tao
Cut gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) foliage is widely used as a vase material or flower bouquet indoors; however, insufficient indoor light accelerates its senescence, which shortens its viewing time. In this study, applying melatonin to delay gardenia leaf senescence when exposed to extremely low light condition (darkness), and the results showed that 1.0 mM was the effective concentration. At this concentration, chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fv/F0 and Y(II)) increased, while the carotenoid and flavonoid contents decreased...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#12
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856135/plant-science-view-on-biohybrid-development
#13
REVIEW
Tomasz Skrzypczak, Rafał Krela, Wojciech Kwiatkowski, Shraddha Wadurkar, Aleksandra Smoczyńska, Przemysław Wojtaszek
Biohybrid consists of a living organism or cell and at least one engineered component. Designing robot-plant biohybrids is a great challenge: it requires interdisciplinary reconsideration of capabilities intimate specific to the biology of plants. Envisioned advances should improve agricultural/horticultural/social practice and could open new directions in utilization of plants by humans. Proper biohybrid cooperation depends upon effective communication. During evolution, plants developed many ways to communicate with each other, with animals, and with microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855098/the-bioelectric-code-an-ancient-computational-medium-for-dynamic-control-of-growth-and-form
#14
REVIEW
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
August 27, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831703/the-role-played-by-modified-bioinspired-surfaces-in-interfacial-properties-of-biomaterials
#15
REVIEW
Thais T Paterlini, Lucas F B Nogueira, Camila B Tovani, Marcos A E Cruz, Rafael Derradi, Ana P Ramos
The success of a biomaterial relies on an appropriate interaction between the surface of that biomaterial and the surrounding environment; more specifically, the success of a biomaterial depends on how fluids, proteins, and cells interact with the foreign material. For this reason, the surface properties of biomaterial, such as composition, charge, wettability, and roughness, must be optimized for a desired application to be achieved. In this review we highlight different bioinspired approaches that are used to manipulate and fine-tune the interfacial properties of biomaterials...
October 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808974/isolation-purification-and-culture-of-primary-murine-sensory-neurons
#16
Sarah Katzenell, Jorge R Cabrera, Brian J North, David A Leib
Cultured primary neurons have been of extraordinary value for the study of neuronal anatomy, cell biology, and physiology. While use of neuronal cell lines has ease and utility, there are often caveats that arise due to their mitotic nature. This methods article presents detailed methodology for the preparation, purification, and culture of adult murine sensory neurons for the study of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infections. While virology is the application for our laboratory, these cultures also have broad utility for neurobiologists and cell biologists...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790453/perianal-fistulizing-crohn-s-disease-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Julián Panés, Jordi Rimola
Perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease has a major negative effect on patient quality of life and is a predictor of poor long-term outcomes. Factors involved in the pathogenesis of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease include an increased production of transforming growth factor β, TNF and IL-13 in the inflammatory infiltrate that induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases, leading to tissue remodelling and fistula formation. Care of patients with perianal Crohn's disease requires a multidisciplinary approach...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665491/feasibility-of-dynamic-adaptive-passive-scattering-proton-therapy-with-computed-tomography-image-guidance-in-the-lung
#18
Shunsuke Moriya, Hidenobu Tachibana, Kenji Hotta, Naoki Nakamura, Takeji Sakae, Tetsuo Akimoto
PURPOSE: Hypo-fractionated proton beam therapy (PBT) is an approach that has been increasingly explored over the past decade. It requires high geometric accuracy for targeting of the PBT beams. However, image-guided PBT is currently commonly performed with kV X-ray images of bony anatomy. A dynamic adaptive passive scattering PBT system using computed tomography-based three-dimensional image guidance was developed, and its effectiveness was then evaluated retrospectively in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640452/role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease-a-matter-of-fat
#19
Bénédicte Gaborit, Coralie Sengenes, Patricia Ancel, Alexis Jacquier, Anne Dutour
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a small but very biologically active ectopic fat depot that surrounds the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, thermogenic capacity, unique transcriptome, secretory profile, and simply measurability, epicardial fat has drawn increasing attention among researchers attempting to elucidate its putative role in health and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular crosstalk between epicardial adipocytes and cells of the vascular wall or myocytes is high and suggests a local role for this tissue...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638930/-different-adipose-tissue-depots-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-human
#20
REVIEW
Ran Wang, Xiao-Nan Li
Obesity is characterized by abnormal and excessive adipose tissue accumulated in the body. Compared with peripheral obesity (the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue), abdominal obesity (the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue) is associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and dyslipidemia. Adipose tissue is a highly heterogeneous endocrine organ. Adipose tissue depots differ significantly in anatomy, cell biology, glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in endocrine regulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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