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anatomy and cell biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771958/cooperation-of-bmp-and-ihh-signaling-in-interdigital-cell-fate-determination
#1
Arunima Murgai, Sara Altmeyer, Stephanie Wiegand, Przemko Tylzanowski, Sigmar Stricker
The elaborate anatomy of hands and feet is shaped by coordinated formation of digits and regression of the interdigital mesenchyme (IM). A failure of this process causes persistence of interdigital webbing and consequently cutaneous syndactyly. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key inductive factors for interdigital cell death (ICD) in vivo. NOGGIN (NOG) is a major BMP antagonist that can interfere with BMP-induced ICD when applied exogenously, but its in vivo role in this process is unknown. We investigated the physiological role of NOG in ICD and found that Noggin null mice display cutaneous syndactyly and impaired interdigital mesenchyme specification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725688/biomimetic-neural-scaffolds-a-crucial-step-towards-optimal-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Jian Du, Huanwen Chen, Liming Qing, Xiuli Yang, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease that affects more than 20 million people in the United States alone and remains a major burden to society. The current gold standard treatment for critical-sized nerve defects is autologous nerve graft transplantation; however, this method is limited in many ways and does not always lead to satisfactory outcomes. The limitations of autografts have prompted investigations into artificial neural scaffolds as replacements, and some neural scaffold devices have progressed to widespread clinical use; scaffold technology overall has yet to be shown to be consistently on a par with or superior to autografts...
May 4, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684363/immunolabeling-of-cleared-human-pancreata-provides-insights-into-three-dimensional-pancreatic-anatomy-and-pathology
#3
Michaël Noë, Neda Rezaee, Kaushal Asrani, Michael Skaro, Vincent P Groot, Pei-Hsun Wu, Matthew T Olson, Seung-Mo Hong, Sung Joo Kim, Matthew J Weiss, Christopher L Wolfgang, Martin A Makary, Jin He, John L Cameron, Denis Wirtz, Nicholas J Roberts, G Johan A Offerhaus, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Laura D Wood, Ralph H Hruban
Visualizing pathologies in three dimensions (3D) can provide unique insights into the biology of human diseases. A rapid and easy-to-implement dibenzyl ether-based technique was used to clear thick sections of surgically resected human pancreatic parenchyma. Protocols were applicable to both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. The penetration of antibodies into dense pancreatic parenchyma was optimized using both gradually increasing antibody concentrations and centrifugal flow. Immunolabeling with antibodies against CK19 was visualized using both light sheet and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678862/natural-variation-within-a-species-for-traits-underpinning-c4-photosynthesis
#4
Gregory Reeves, Pallavi Singh, Timo A Rossberg, Deedi Sogbohossou, M Eric Schranz, Julian M Hibberd
Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 crops could substantially increase their yield by alleviating photorespiratory losses. This objective is challenging because the C4 pathway involves complex modifications to the biochemistry, cell biology and anatomy of leaves. Forward genetics has provided limited insight into the mechanistic basis of these properties, and there have been no reports of significant quantitative intra-specific variation of C4 attributes that would allow trait mapping. Here, we show that accessions of the C4 species Gynandropsis gynandra collected from locations across Africa and Asia exhibit natural variation in key characteristics of C4 photosynthesis...
April 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610538/new-approaches-in-cancer-biology-can-inform-the-biology-curriculum
#5
Lynda Jones, Diana Gordon, Mary Zelinski
Students tend to be very interested in medical issues that affect them and their friends and family. Using cancer as a hook, the ART of Reproductive Medicine: Oncofertility curriculum (free, online, and NIH sponsored) has been developed to supplement the teaching of basic biological concepts and to connect biology and biomedical research. This approach allows integration of up-to-date information on cancer and cancer treatment, cell division, male and female reproductive anatomy and physiology, cryopreservation, fertility preservation, stem cells, ethics, and epigenetics into an existing biology curriculum...
March 2018: American Biology Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580978/sheep-as-a-model-for-evaluating-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-msc-based-chondral-defect-repair
#6
REVIEW
Ena Music, Kathryn Futrega, Michael R Doran
Osteoarthritis results from the degradation of articular cartilage and is one of the leading global causes of pain and immobility. Cartilage has a limited capacity for self-repair. While repair can be enhanced through surgical intervention, current methods often generate inferior fibrocartilage and repair is transient. The development of tissue engineering strategies to improve repair outcomes is an active area of research. While small animal models such as rodents and rabbits are often used in early pre-clinical work, larger animals that better recapitulate the anatomy and loading of the human joint are required for late-stage preclinical evaluation...
March 23, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579400/biomolecular-ultrasound-and-sonogenetics
#7
David Maresca, Anupama Lakshmanan, Mohamed Abedi, Avinoam Bar-Zion, Arash Farhadi, George J Lu, Jerzy O Szablowski, Di Wu, Sangjin Yoo, Mikhail G Shapiro
Visualizing and modulating molecular and cellular processes occurring deep within living organisms is fundamental to our study of basic biology and disease. Currently, the most sophisticated tools available to dynamically monitor and control cellular events rely on light-responsive proteins, which are difficult to use outside of optically transparent model systems, cultured cells, or surgically accessed regions owing to strong scattering of light by biological tissue. In contrast, ultrasound is a widely used medical imaging and therapeutic modality that enables the observation and perturbation of internal anatomy and physiology but has historically had limited ability to monitor and control specific cellular processes...
March 26, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525999/using-the-zebrafish-embryo-to-dissect-the-early-steps-of-the-metastasis-cascade
#8
Gautier Follain, Naël Osmani, Cédric Fuchs, Guillaume Allio, Sébastien Harlepp, Jacky G Goetz
Most cancers end up with the death of patients caused by the formation of secondary tumors, called metastases. However, how these secondary tumors appear and develop is only poorly understood. A fine understanding of the multiple steps of the metastasis cascade requires in vivo models allowing high spatiotemporal analysis of the behavior of metastatic cells. Zebrafish embryos combine several advantages such as transparency, small size, stereotyped anatomy, and easy handling, making it a very powerful model for cell and cancer biology, and in vivo imaging analysis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429899/engineered-glycocalyx-regulates-stem-cell-proliferation-in-murine-crypt-organoids
#9
Sara H Rouhanifard, Aime Lopez Aguilar, Lu Meng, Kelley W Moremen, Peng Wu
At the base of the intestinal crypt, long-lived Lgr5+ stem cells are intercalated by Paneth cells that provide essential niche signals for stem cell maintenance. This unique epithelial anatomy makes the intestinal crypt one of the most accessible models for the study of adult stem cell biology. The glycosylation patterns of this compartment are poorly characterized, and the impact of glycans on stem cell differentiation remains largely unexplored. We find that Paneth cells, but not Lgr5+ stem cells, express abundant terminal N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc)...
April 19, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368213/molecular-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-choroidal-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Nathalie Strazielle, Martin Catala, Violeta Silva-Vargas, Fiona Doetsch, Britta Engelhardt
The barrier between the blood and the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located at the choroid plexuses. At the interface between two circulating fluids, these richly vascularized veil-like structures display a peculiar morphology explained by their developmental origin, and fulfill several functions essential for CNS homeostasis. They form a neuroprotective barrier preventing the accumulation of noxious compounds into the CSF and brain, and secrete CSF, which participates in the maintenance of a stable CNS internal environment...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354996/-analysis-of-specificity-of-shenque-cv-8-based-on-vascular-biology
#11
Jinfeng Jiang, Wangfang Xu, Xinggen Yu, Xiaojing Wu
To analyze the structural specificity of Shenque (CV 8) in terms of vascular biology from the three aspects of structure, tissue and molecular anatomies. On structural anatomy Shenque (CV 8) possessed defined vascular structure and was the only acupoint directly affected vascular intima. The basis of the specific therapeutic effects was owing to its relation with vessel and abundant microcirculation. Endothelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells were the tissue basis of the starting of therapeutic specificity...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289707/periodontal-materials-and-cell-biology-for-guided-tissue-and-bone-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Mihai Andrei, Anca Dinischiotu, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu, Daniela Ionita, Ioana Demetrescu
The present review is intended to find links between periodontal materials of the dentomaxillary apparatus and cell biology at the beginning of a century fraught with various forms of periodontal diseases and needing new treatment strategies. The manuscript has two different parts. The first describes the anatomy of tooth supporting structures, as well as related pathologies. The second part is related to cell and molecular biology in the context of periodontal regeneration.
March 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#13
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249943/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-the-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-cytoarchitecture-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#14
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217674/pollen-pistil-interaction-in-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-the-northernmost-species-of-the-mainly-tropical-family-annonaceae
#15
Juan M Losada, Jose I Hormaza, Jorge Lora
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pawpaw, Asimina triloba , is an underutilized fruit crop native to North America that belongs to the mainly tropical, early-divergent family Annonaceae. Asimina is the only genus within the Annonaceae with species adapted to cold climates. A thorough analysis of its reproductive biology, specifically pollen-pistil interaction during the progamic phase, is essential to understand both its adaptation to cold climates and how to optimize its fertilization and fruit set...
December 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201038/anatomical-alterations-in-plant-tissues-induced-by-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#16
REVIEW
Juan E Palomares-Rius, Carolina Escobar, Javier Cabrera, Alessio Vovlas, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion. Some of them can also shield themselves against plant defenses to sustain a relatively long lasting interaction while feeding. This paper is centered on cell types or organs that are newly induced in plants during PPN parasitism, including recent approaches to their study based on molecular biology combined with cell biology-histopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176590/nanocarrier-mediated-delivery-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-for-non-surgical-castration-of-male-animals
#17
Jakarwan Yostawonkul, Suvimol Surassmo, Katawut Namdee, Mattaka Khongkow, Chatwalee Boonthum, Sasithon Pagseesing, Nattika Saengkrit, Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Kaywalee Chatdarong, Suppawiwat Ponglowhapan, Teerapong Yata
The overpopulation of abandoned and stray companion animals has become a global crisis. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel nanomedicine-based antifertility compound for non-surgical castration of male animals. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract has been shown to exhibit anti-fertility property. α-mangostin (AM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (AM-NLC) was developed to improve male germ cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical properties of AM-NLC and determine the biological effects of AM-NLC on spermatogonia cells and testicular explants obtained from castrated testes...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164985/bio-soliton-model-that-predicts-non-thermal-electromagnetic-frequency-bands-that-either-stabilize-or-destabilize-living-cells
#18
J H Geesink, D K F Meijer
Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organization. A soliton model is able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields and is compatible with quantum coherence. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells...
2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#19
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
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