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anatomy and cell biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289707/periodontal-materials-and-cell-biology-for-guided-tissue-and-bone-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Mihai Andrei, Anca Dinischiotu, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu, Daniela Ionita, Ioana Demetrescu
The present review is intended to find links between periodontal materials of the dentomaxillary apparatus and cell biology at the beginning of a century fraught with various forms of periodontal diseases and needing new treatment strategies. The manuscript has two different parts. The first describes the anatomy of tooth supporting structures, as well as related pathologies. The second part is related to cell and molecular biology in the context of periodontal regeneration.
December 28, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249943/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-the-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-cytoarchitecture-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#3
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217674/pollen-pistil-interaction-in-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-the-northernmost-species-of-the-mainly-tropical-family-annonaceae
#4
Juan M Losada, Jose I Hormaza, Jorge Lora
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pawpaw, Asimina triloba, is an underutilized fruit crop native to North America that belongs to the mainly tropical, early-divergent family Annonaceae. Asimina is the only genus within the Annonaceae with species adapted to cold climates. A thorough analysis of its reproductive biology, specifically pollen-pistil interaction during the progamic phase, is essential to understand both its adaptation to cold climates and how to optimize its fertilization and fruit set...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201038/anatomical-alterations-in-plant-tissues-induced-by-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#5
REVIEW
Juan E Palomares-Rius, Carolina Escobar, Javier Cabrera, Alessio Vovlas, Pablo Castillo
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) interact with plants in different ways, for example, through subtle feeding behavior, migrating destructively through infected tissues, or acting as virus-vectors for nepoviruses. They are all obligate biotrophic parasites as they derive their nutrients from living cells which they modify using pharyngeal gland secretions prior to food ingestion. Some of them can also shield themselves against plant defenses to sustain a relatively long lasting interaction while feeding. This paper is centered on cell types or organs that are newly induced in plants during PPN parasitism, including recent approaches to their study based on molecular biology combined with cell biology-histopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176590/nanocarrier-mediated-delivery-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-for-non-surgical-castration-of-male-animals
#6
Jakarwan Yostawonkul, Suvimol Surassmo, Katawut Namdee, Mattaka Khongkow, Chatwalee Boonthum, Sasithon Pagseesing, Nattika Saengkrit, Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Kaywalee Chatdarong, Suppawiwat Ponglowhapan, Teerapong Yata
The overpopulation of abandoned and stray companion animals has become a global crisis. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel nanomedicine-based antifertility compound for non-surgical castration of male animals. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract has been shown to exhibit anti-fertility property. α-mangostin (AM)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (AM-NLC) was developed to improve male germ cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical properties of AM-NLC and determine the biological effects of AM-NLC on spermatogonia cells and testicular explants obtained from castrated testes...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164985/bio-soliton-model-that-predicts-non-thermal-electromagnetic-frequency-bands-that-either-stabilize-or-destabilize-living-cells
#7
J H Geesink, D K F Meijer
Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organization. A soliton model is able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by endogenous and exogenous electromagnetic fields and is compatible with quantum coherence. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells...
2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#8
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065171/alleviatory-effects-of-silicon-on-the-foliar-micromorphology-and-anatomy-of-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seedlings-under-simulated-acid-rain
#10
Shuming Ju, Liping Wang, Cuiying Zhang, Tingchao Yin, Siliang Shao
Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059181/magnetoreception-a-sense-without-a-receptor
#11
Gregory C Nordmann, Tobias Hochstoeger, David A Keays
Evolution has equipped life on our planet with an array of extraordinary senses, but perhaps the least understood is magnetoreception. Despite compelling behavioral evidence that this sense exists, the cells, molecules, and mechanisms that mediate sensory transduction remain unknown. So how could animals detect magnetic fields? We introduce and discuss 3 concepts that attempt to address this question: (1) a mechanically sensitive magnetite-based magnetoreceptor, (2) a light-sensitive chemical-based mechanism, and (3) electromagnetic induction within accessory structures...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018484/infrapatellar-fat-pad-stem-cells-from-developmental-biology-to-cell-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Ronaldo J F C do Amaral, Henrique V Almeida, Daniel J Kelly, Fergal J O'Brien, Cathal J Kearney
The ideal cell type to be used for cartilage therapy should possess a proven chondrogenic capacity, not cause donor-site morbidity, and should be readily expandable in culture without losing their phenotype. There are several cell sources being investigated to promote cartilage regeneration: mature articular chondrocytes, chondrocyte progenitors, and various stem cells. Most recently, stem cells isolated from joint tissue, such as chondrogenic stem/progenitors from cartilage itself, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have gained great attention due to their increased chondrogenic capacity over the bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988065/heterogeneity-of-salmonella-host-interactions-in-infected-host-tissues
#13
REVIEW
Dirk Bumann, Olivier Cunrath
Infected host tissues have complex anatomy, diverse cell types, and dynamic inflammation. Traditional infection biology approaches largely ignore this complex host environment and its impact on pathogens, but recent single-cell technologies unravel extensively heterogeneous host-pathogen interactions in vivo. Salmonella are major model pathogens in this field due to the availability of excellent mouse disease models and facile molecular biology. The results show how Salmonella stochastically vary their virulence, exploit differential nutrient availability, experience and respond to widely varying stresses, and have disparate fates ranging from vigorous proliferation to eradication within the same host tissue...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985032/organ-on-a-chip-systems-for-women-s-health-applications
#14
REVIEW
Janna Nawroth, Julia Rogal, Martin Weiss, Sara Y Brucker, Peter Loskill
Biomedical research, for a long time, has paid little attention to the influence of sex in many areas of study, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to animal models and clinical studies on human subjects. Many studies solely rely on male cells/tissues/animals/humans, although there are profound differences in male and female physiology, which can significantly impact disease mechanisms, toxicity of compounds, and efficacy of pharmaceuticals. In vitro systems have been traditionally very limited in their capacity to recapitulate female-specific physiology and anatomy such as dynamic sex-hormone levels and the complex interdependencies of female reproductive tract organs...
October 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978429/large-scale-three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-an-entire-caenorhabditis-elegans-larva-using-autocuts-sem
#15
Xixia Li, Gang Ji, Xi Chen, Wei Ding, Lei Sun, Wei Xu, Hua Han, Fei Sun
Large scale, high resolution three dimensional (3D) ultrastructural reconstruction of cells and tissues has become increasingly important to our understanding of complex biological systems. There have been a few partial 3D ultra-structures of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) reported, however 3D reconstruction of a whole nematode has never been achieved. Here, we independently developed a technique called automatic collector of ultrathin sections scanning electron microscopy and using this methodology, generated a 3D reconstruction of an entire C...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972947/the-peritoneum-health-disease-and-perspectives-regarding-tissue-engineering-and-cell-therapies
#16
Ronaldo J F C do Amaral, Kátia D Arcanjo, Márcia C El-Cheikh, Felipe L de Oliveira
There are several pathologies associated with the peritoneum, such as mesothelioma and peritonitis. Moreover, the peritoneum is widely used in ultrafiltration procedures, i.e., peritoneal dialysis, presenting advantages over hemodialysis. On the other hand, ultrafiltration failure may lead to dialysis-induced fibrosis and hypervolemia. Therefore, the pathophysiological study of this tissue is of extreme biomedical importance. Studies investigating the biology of the cells dwelling in the peritoneum wall provide evidence of their plasticity and progenitor features...
October 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963045/bodies-of-children-in-the-institute-of-anatomy-in-halle-saale-germany-between-1920-and-1945
#17
F Winter, D Stoevesandt, R Schultka, M Viebig, K Moeller, F Steger, H Kielstein
At the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Halle (Saale) 74 children's bodies of unknown historical provenance are being held in storage. The aim of this study was the evaluation of their identities, the circumstances of their acquisition, as well as the documentation of their individual characteristics. For these purposes, all bodies were comprehensively examined and photo-documented. Furthermore, CT-scans of 29 bodies were performed and information was collected from various local and national archives...
September 27, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874722/ameliorative-effects-of-melatonin-on-dark-induced-leaf-senescence-in-gardenia-gardenia-jasminoides-ellis-leaf-morphology-anatomy-physiology-and-transcriptome
#18
Daqiu Zhao, Rong Wang, Jiasong Meng, Zhiyuan Li, Yanqing Wu, Jun Tao
Cut gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) foliage is widely used as a vase material or flower bouquet indoors; however, insufficient indoor light accelerates its senescence, which shortens its viewing time. In this study, applying melatonin to delay gardenia leaf senescence when exposed to extremely low light condition (darkness), and the results showed that 1.0 mM was the effective concentration. At this concentration, chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fv/F0 and Y(II)) increased, while the carotenoid and flavonoid contents decreased...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#19
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856135/plant-science-view-on-biohybrid-development
#20
REVIEW
Tomasz Skrzypczak, Rafał Krela, Wojciech Kwiatkowski, Shraddha Wadurkar, Aleksandra Smoczyńska, Przemysław Wojtaszek
Biohybrid consists of a living organism or cell and at least one engineered component. Designing robot-plant biohybrids is a great challenge: it requires interdisciplinary reconsideration of capabilities intimate specific to the biology of plants. Envisioned advances should improve agricultural/horticultural/social practice and could open new directions in utilization of plants by humans. Proper biohybrid cooperation depends upon effective communication. During evolution, plants developed many ways to communicate with each other, with animals, and with microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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