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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223180/biomechanical-aspects-of-axonal-damage-in-glaucoma-a-brief-review
#1
REVIEW
Cheri Stowell, Claude Burgoyne, Ernst R Tamm, C Ross Ethier
The biomechanical environment within the optic nerve head (ONH) is complex and is likely directly involved in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Unfortunately, our understanding of this process is poor. Here we describe factors that influence ONH biomechanics, including ONH connective tissue microarchitecture and anatomy; intraocular pressure (IOP); and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp). We note that connective tissue factors can vary significantly from one individual to the next, as well as regionally within an eye, and that the understanding of ONH biomechanics is hindered by anatomical differences between small-animal models of glaucoma (rats and mice) and humans...
February 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154888/permanent-knee-sensorimotor-system-changes-following-acl-injury-and-surgery
#2
John Nyland, Collin Gamble, Tiffany Franklin, David N M Caborn
The cruciate ligaments are components of the knee capsuloligamentous system providing vital neurosensory and biomechanical function. Since most historical primary ACL repair attempts were unsuccessful, reconstruction has become the preferred surgery. However, an increased understanding of the efficacy of lesion-site scaffolding, innovative suturing methods and materials, and evolving use of biological healing mediators such as platelet-rich plasma and stem cells has prompted reconsideration of what was once believed to be impossible...
February 2, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115648/drug-induced-taste-disorders-in-clinical-practice-and-preclinical-safety-evaluation
#3
Tao Wang, John Glendinning, Miriam Grushka, Thomas Hummel, Keith Mansfield
More than 200 medications can induce taste disorders in patients. They not only reduce quality of life for those affected, but can lead to malnutrition, severe dehydration and difficulty in maintaining a therapeutic regimen. Nevertheless, the impact of drug candidates on taste is rarely evaluated in preclinical toxicology studies during the early stage of drug development. Moreover, knowledge about how to investigate these adverse effect is scarce in the toxicology field. Here, we discuss the clinical status of drug-induced taste disorders in patients, with the goal of providing toxicologists with a broad understanding its prevalence, and how stressful and even dangerous it can be to affected patients...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109903/an-apposition-compound-eye-adapted-for-nocturnal-vision-in-the-moth-midge-clogmia-albipunctata-williston-diptera-psychodidae
#4
Lei-Po Jia, Ai-Ping Liang
Morphology and anatomy, dark/light adaptational changes and optics of the compound eyes of the nocturnal moth midge Clogmia albipunctata (Williston) are studied. Its apposition type of eye consists of approximately 260 well-separated ommatidia. Each ommatidium features a biconvex corneal lens covered by corneal nipples measuring around 17nm in height; a crystalline cone of the acone type; and an open (laterally fused) rhabdom formed by eight retinular cells (R1-R8). The corneal lens, whose biological significance is addressed, is composed of a thick yellow-coloured inner lens unit (ILU) surrounded by a thin, colourless outer lens unit (OLU)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079884/lack-of-collagen-xv-is-protective-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#5
Hiramani Dhungana, Mikko T Huuskonen, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Ritva Heljasvaara, Denis Vivien, Katja M Kanninen, Tarja Malm, Jari Koistinaho, Sighild Lemarchant
Collagens are key structural components of basement membranes, providing a scaffold for other components or adhering cells. Collagens and collagen-derived active fragments contribute to biological activities such as cell growth, differentiation and migration. Here, we report that collagen XV knock-out (ColXV KO) mice are resistant to experimental ischemic stroke. Interestingly, the infarcts of ColXV KO mice were as small as those of wild-type (WT) mice thrombolysed with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), the actual treatment for ischemic stroke...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011754/logic-programming-to-infer-complex-rna-expression-patterns-from-rna-seq-data
#6
Tyler Weirick, Giuseppe Militello, Yuliya Ponomareva, David John, Claudia Döring, Stefanie Dimmeler, Shizuka Uchida
To meet the increasing demand in the field, numerous long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) databases are available. Given many lncRNAs are specifically expressed in certain cell types and/or time-dependent manners, most lncRNA databases fall short of providing such profiles. We developed a strategy using logic programming to handle the complex organization of organs, their tissues and cell types as well as gender and developmental time points. To showcase this strategy, we introduce 'RenalDB' (http://renaldb.uni-frankfurt...
December 22, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979878/implications-of-telomeres-and-telomerase-in-endometrial-pathology
#7
REVIEW
D K Hapangama, A Kamal, G Saretzki
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are linear and are protected by nucleoprotein complexes known as telomeres. The complex structural anatomy and the diverse functions of telomeres as well as the unique reverse transcriptase enzyme, telomerase that maintains telomeres are under intensive scientific scrutiny. Both are involved in many human diseases including cancer, but also in ageing and chronic disease such as diabetes. Their intricate involvement in many cellular processes and pathways is being dynamically deciphered in many organs including the endometrium...
December 15, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919760/proton-therapy-present-and-future
#8
REVIEW
Radhe Mohan, David Grosshans
In principle, proton therapy offers a substantial clinical advantage over conventional photon therapy. This is because of the unique depth-dose characteristics of protons, which can be exploited to achieve significant reductions in normal tissue doses proximal and distal to the target volume. These may, in turn, allow escalation of tumor doses and greater sparing of normal tissues, thus potentially improving local control and survival while at the same time reducing toxicity and improving quality of life. Protons, accelerated to therapeutic energies ranging from 70 to 250MeV, typically with a cyclotron or a synchrotron, are transported to the treatment room where they enter the treatment head mounted on a rotating gantry...
January 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882040/a-new-model-of-master-of-philosophy-in-physiological-sciences
#9
H R Ahmad, F M Arain, N A Khan
The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870925/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-student-tutors-as-near-peer-teachers-in-the-gross-anatomy-course
#10
J Walser, A Horneffer, W Oechsner, M Huber-Lang, S Gerhardt-Szep, A Boeckers
INTRODUCTION: Peer teaching is a well-established teaching method in medical education. During the 2012/13 winter term, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Ulm, Germany, introduced a longitudinal didactics program ("Train the Tutor": TtT) to train student tutors as near-peer teachers (NPT) in the dissection course (DC). Twenty-three of 38 tutors participated in the programme. Our study describes the educational concept and the NPTs' activities in the dissection course. METHODS: NPTs documented their activities on a daily basis in the form of semi-structured reports...
March 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857724/nanobiomaterials-for-neural-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Nuan Chen, Lingling Tian, Liumin He, Seeram Ramakrishna
Diseases and disorders associated with nervous system such as injuries by trauma and neurodegeneration are shown to be one of the most serious problems in medicine, requiring innovative strategies to trigger and enhance the nerve regeneration. Tissue engineering aims to provide a highly biomimetic environment by using a combination of cells, materials and suitable biological cues, by which the lost body part may be regenerated or even fully rebuilt. Electrospinning, being able to produce extracellular matrix (ECM)-like nanostructures with great flexibility in design and choice of materials, have demonstrated their great potential for fabrication of nerve tissue engineered scaffolds...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852218/rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-map-reveals-new-insights-into-mouse-salivary-gland-development-and-maturation
#12
Christian Gluck, Sangwon Min, Akinsola Oyelakin, Kirsten Smalley, Satrajit Sinha, Rose-Anne Romano
BACKGROUND: Mouse models have served a valuable role in deciphering various facets of Salivary Gland (SG) biology, from normal developmental programs to diseased states. To facilitate such studies, gene expression profiling maps have been generated for various stages of SG organogenesis. However these prior studies fall short of capturing the transcriptional complexity due to the limited scope of gene-centric microarray-based technology. Compared to microarray, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) offers unbiased detection of novel transcripts, broader dynamic range and high specificity and sensitivity for detection of genes, transcripts, and differential gene expression...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821521/from-cytoskeletal-dynamics-to-organ-asymmetry-a-nonlinear-regulative-pathway-underlies-left-right-patterning
#13
Gary McDowell, Suvithan Rajadurai, Michael Levin
Consistent left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fundamental aspect of the bodyplan across phyla, and errors of laterality form an important class of human birth defects. Its molecular underpinning was first discovered as a sequential pathway of left- and right-sided gene expression that controlled positioning of the heart and visceral organs. Recent data have revised this picture in two important ways. First, the physical origin of chirality has been identified; cytoskeletal dynamics underlie the asymmetry of single-cell behaviour and patterning of the LR axis...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795549/nanomedicines-for-renal-disease-current-status-and-future-applications
#14
REVIEW
Nazila Kamaly, John C He, Dennis A Ausiello, Omid C Farokhzad
Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788285/trend-toward-individualization-of-the-endocrine-and-exocrine-portions-of-the-giant-anteater-pancreas-myrmecophaga-tridactyla-xenarthra
#15
Luciana Pedrosa Iglesias, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Jéssica Borghesi, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Maria Angelica Miglino, Alan Perez Ferraz de Melo
Considering the physiological importance of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine organ, this study described the characteristics of the gross and microscopic morphology of this organ using 16 Myrmecophaga tridactyla individuals. The pancreas was located in the left antimere of the body, was pale in colour and exhibited an elongated shape with a central body and lobulated surface. It was positioned in the abdomen, following the curvatura ventriculi major of the stomach, and was attached to the initial portion of the duodenum...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787529/self-assembly-of-vascularized-tissue-to-support-tumor-explants-in-vitro
#16
Despina Bazou, Nir Maimon, Gabriel Gruionu, Lance L Munn
Testing the efficacy of cancer drugs requires functional assays that recapitulate the cell populations, anatomy and biological responses of human tumors. Although current animal models and in vitro cell culture platforms are informative, they have significant shortcomings. Mouse models can reproduce tissue-level and systemic responses to tumor growth and treatments observed in humans, but xenografts from patients often do not grow, or require months to develop. On the other hand, current in vitro assays are useful for studying the molecular bases of tumorigenesis or drug activity, but often lack the appropriate in vivo cell heterogeneity and natural microenvironment...
December 5, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774070/modeling-the-behavior-of-red-blood-cells-within-the-caudal-vein-plexus-of-zebrafish
#17
Tijana R Djukic, Swapna Karthik, Igor Saveljic, Valentin Djonov, Nenad Filipovic
Due to the important biological role of red blood cells (RBCs) in vertebrates, the analysis of reshaping and dynamics of RBCs motion is a critical issue in physiology and biomechanics. In this paper the behavior of RBCs within the immature capillary plexus during embryonic development of zebrafish has been analyzed. Relying on the fact that zebrafish embryos are small and optically transparent, it is possible to image the blood flow. In this way the anatomy of blood vessels is monitored along with the circulation throughout their development...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733103/acceleration-of-healing-of-traumatic-tympanic-membrane-perforation-in-rats-by-implanted-collagen-membrane-integrated-with-collagen-binding-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor
#18
Dan Zhang, Zhen Huang, Peng Sun, Haiping Huang, Yunmei Zhang, Jianwu Dai, Jisheng Liu, Qin Shi
Traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is very common in clinical practice. Several biomaterials have been reported to play a role in TM reparation, whereas their functional recovery is limited when used alone. Meanwhile, the administration of biofactors could promote functional recovery, but rapid distribution and short half-time obstruct their application. To study the effect of traumatic TM regeneration, we prepared collagen membrane (CM) integrated with collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factor (CBD-bFGF) and implanted into the injury site of perforated TM in Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729326/pet-and-mri-is-the-whole-greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts
#19
Robert J Gillies, Thomas Beyer
Over the past decades, imaging in oncology has been undergoing a "quiet" revolution to treat images as data, not as pictures. This revolution has been sparked by technological advances that enable capture of images that reflect not only anatomy, but also of tissue metabolism and physiology in situ Important advances along this path have been the increasing power of MRI, which can be used to measure spatially dependent differences in cell density, tissue organization, perfusion, and metabolism. In parallel, PET imaging allows quantitative assessment of the spatial localization of positron-emitting compounds, and it has also been constantly improving in the number of imageable tracers to measure metabolism and expression of macromolecules...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695942/the-development-of-anatomy-from-macroscopic-body-dissections-to-stem-cell-derived-organoids
#20
REVIEW
Beate Brand-Saberi, Holm Zaehres
Anatomy as a descriptive topic of research and instruction in medicine has been increasingly influenced by discoveries in molecular cell and developmental biology and most recently the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells and organoids. We summarize here how anatomy has been influenced by developmental and stem cell biologists, and how in vitro modelling of the three-dimensional body environment is emerging to understand structure and function of cells during differentiation processes in development and disease...
December 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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