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advances in anatomy,embryology and cell biology

Ronaldo J F C do Amaral, Henrique V Almeida, Daniel J Kelly, Fergal J O'Brien, Cathal J Kearney
The ideal cell type to be used for cartilage therapy should possess a proven chondrogenic capacity, not cause donor-site morbidity, and should be readily expandable in culture without losing their phenotype. There are several cell sources being investigated to promote cartilage regeneration: mature articular chondrocytes, chondrocyte progenitors, and various stem cells. Most recently, stem cells isolated from joint tissue, such as chondrogenic stem/progenitors from cartilage itself, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have gained great attention due to their increased chondrogenic capacity over the bone marrow and subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
C D Ockleford
An unusual monolayer of cells lines the interface between the basal plate and the intervillous space in human term placenta but not the chorionic villi. Our recent descriptions of it are based on advanced microscopy, phenotyping and cytogenetic approaches. The papers show that the layer is partly epithelial (ectoderm) and partly endothelial (mesoderm): it is partly derived from the fetus and partly from the mother. This first accurate description of a naturally occurring human allo-epi-endothelium (monolayer of cells derived from two embryological germ layers and two individuals) is of interest in anatomy, obstetrics and gynaecology, developmental biology, histology and immunology...
December 2010: Placenta
S Kässmeyer, J Plendl, P Custodis, M Bahramsoltani
In the course of new blood vessel formation, two different processes--vasculogenesis and angiogenesis--have to be distinguished. The term vasculogenesis describes the de novo emergence of a vascular network by endothelial progenitors, whereas angiogenesis corresponds to the generation of vessels by sprouting from pre-existing capillaries. Until recently, it was thought that vasculogenesis is restricted to the prenatal period. During the last decade, one of the most fascinating innovations in the field of vascular biology was the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells and vasculogenesis in the adult...
February 2009: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Shigeru Kuratani
Based on recent advances in experimental embryology and molecular genetics, the morphogenetic program for the vertebrate cranium is summarized and several unanswered classical problems are reviewed. In particular, the presence of mesodermal segmentation in the head, the homology of the trabecular cartilage, and the origin of the dermal skull roof are discussed. The discovery of the neural-crest-derived ectomesenchyme and the roles of the homeobox genes have allowed the classical concept of head segmentation unchanged since Goethe to be re-interpreted in terms of developmental mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
January 2005: Zoological Science
Gianfranco Alpini, James M McGill, Nicholas F Larusso
The morbidity and mortality from chronic biliary diseases (i.e., the cholangiopathies) remains substantial. End-stage liver disease from biliary causes of cirrhosis (e.g., primary biliary cirrhosis [PBC], and primary sclerosing cholangitis) account for approximately one third of patients referred for liver transplantation. A single-topic conference sponsored by the American Association for the Studies of Liver Diseases entitled "The Pathobiology of Biliary Epithelia" brought together investigators to review the status of the field of cholangiocyte pathobiology, identify new areas of interest, and propose future directions...
May 2002: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
F A Guarraci, R J Frohardt, B S Kapp
The amygdala has long been implicated in conditioned fear. The mesencephalic dopaminergic system provides a rich innervation to the amygdala [J.H. Fallon, P. Ciofi, Distribution of monoamines within the amygdala, in: J.P. Aggleton (Ed.), The Amygdala: Neurobiological Aspects of Emotion, Memory and Mental Dysfunction, Wiley, New York, 1992, pp. 97-114; L.J. Freedman, M.D. Cassell, Distribution of dopaminergic fibers in the central division of the extended amygdala of the rat. Brain Research 633 (1994) 243-252; E...
May 8, 1999: Brain Research
C Viebahn, B Mayer, A Miething
Mesoderm formation is a hallmark of vertebrate gastrulation and, at the same time, one of the prime examples for epithelio-mesenchymal transformation. Recent advances in experimental embryology and molecular biology have clarified the role of growth factors and genes in this process; however, its microscopic anatomy in higher vertebrates is still far from clear. Therefore, the present study describes the morphology of mesoderm formation in the rabbit embryo, a species which may be representative for both the avian and the mammalian embryo in this respect...
1995: Acta Anatomica
J M Icardo
The subject of heart development has attracted the interest of many embryologists over the last two centuries. As a result, the main morphologic features of the developmental anatomy of the heart are already well established. Although there are still some controversial points, and there is probably much descriptive work yet to be done, emphasis is currently being placed on developmental mechanisms rather than simply on descriptive facts. The availability of new techniques and the overall advances in biological research are placing heart embryology in a new perspective...
December 1, 1988: Experientia
C M Chapman, J G Miller, L C Bush, J A Bruenger, W J Wysor, E T Meininger, F M Wolf, T V Fischer, A R Beaudoin, W E Burkel
ATLAS-plus [Advanced Tools for Learning Anatomical Structure] is a multimedia program used to assist in the teaching of anatomy at the University of Michigan Medical School. ATLAS-plus contains three courses: Histology, Embryology, and Gross Anatomy. In addition to the three courses, a glossary containing terms from the three courses is available. All three courses and the glossary are accessible in the ATLAS-plus environment. The ATLAS-plus environment provides a consistent set of tools and options so that the user can navigate easily and intelligently in and between the various courses and modules in the ATLAS-plus world...
1992: Proceedings
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