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Occupational therapy

Pierre Bories, Sébastien Lamy, Célestine Simand, Sarah Bertoli, Cyrille Delpierre, Sandra Malak, Luc Fornecker, Stéphane Moreau, Christian Récher, Antoine Nebout
Elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be treated with intensive chemotherapy, low-intensity therapy such as low-dose aracytine or hypomethylating agents, or best supportive care. The choice between these treatments is a function of many patient-related and physician-related factors. We investigated how physicians' behavioral characteristics, in particular their attitudes towards risk and uncertainty affect medical decision-making between intensive and non-intensive therapy in this setting. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey of hematologists collected data on medical decision-making for six clinical vignettes involving older acute myeloid leukemia patients that were representative of routine practice...
July 13, 2018: Haematologica
Annalisa Saracino, Mauro Zaccarelli, Patrizia Lorenzini, Alessandra Bandera, Giulia Marchetti, Francesco Castelli, Andrea Gori, Enrico Girardi, Cristina Mussini, Paolo Bonfanti, Adriana Ammassari, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte
BACKGROUND: Social determinants are known to be a driving force of health inequalities, even in high income countries. Aim of our study was to determine if these factors can limit antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, outcome and retention in care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Italy. METHODS: All ART naïve HIV+ patients (pts) of Italian nationality enrolled in the ICONA Cohort from 2002 to 2016 were included. The association of socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, risk factor for HIV infection, educational level, occupational status and residency area) with time to: ART initiation (from the first positive anti-HIV test), ART regimen discontinuation, and first HIV-RNA < 50 cp/mL, were evaluated by Cox regression analysis, Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test...
July 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Shunsuke Taito, Nobuaki Shime, Hideto Yasuda, Kohei Ota, Kazuhiro Sarada, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Masamitsu Sanui
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to clarify intensive care unit (ICU)-level factors facilitating out-of-bed mobilization defined as a range of activities from sitting on edge of bed up to walking in mechanically ventilated patients with orotracheal tubes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a survey of all intensive care units (ICUs) certified by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine (excluding pediatric ICUs) as training facilities for intensivists. RESULTS: We surveyed 294 ICUs, with a response rate of 57% (n = 168)...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Nicole Shaw, Danielle Hitch, Nikki Lyons, Khalid Alharthi, Briony Grant, Ben Laupert
BACKGROUND: Many occupational therapy students experience anxiety and distraction when entering a new setting at the beginning of a clinical placement. Orientation processes may provide students with the information they need to feel more comfortable in an unfamiliar clinical setting. The aim of this project was to evaluate a revised wayfinding video for first- and second-year occupational therapy students, with a particular focus on reducing anxiety. METHODS: A revised version of a wayfinding video (with a duration of 3 minutes and 40 seconds) was created by final-year occupational therapy students and then evaluated using a paper-based descriptive survey...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Teacher
Adriana Ávila, Iván De-Rosende-Celeiro, Gabriel Torres, Mirian Vizcaíno, Manuel Peralbo, Montserrat Durán
Nonpharmacologic therapies such as occupational therapy (OT) are promising for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, more research is needed to better understand the effectiveness of home-based OT programs. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of a home-based, high-intensity and multicomponent OT intervention on the activities of daily living of people with AD in Spain. The secondary objective was to examine its impact on the cognitive functions. A multiple-baseline intrasubject design was used...
July 11, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Michael Marcussen, Birgitte Nørgaard, Sidse Arnfred
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies describing the effects of interprofessional education (IPE) on undergraduate healthcare students' educational outcomes, compared with conventional clinical training in mental health. METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and EMBASE were searched for studies published in January 2001-August 2017. All retrieved papers were assessed for methodological quality; Kirkpatrick's model was employed to analyze and synthesize the included studies...
July 11, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Anne Olland, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz, Gilbert Massard
Lung transplantation has become an efficient life-saving treatment for patients with end stage respiratory disease. The increasing good outcome following lung transplantation may be explained by growing experience of transplant teams and availability of potent immunosuppressive drugs. Nevertheless, the latter carries an inherent risk for malignancy besides other common side effects such as systemic hypertension, diabetes and renal dysfunction. Malignancies occur in a smaller proportion of patients but explain for a large proportion of deaths following transplantation...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Paula W Rushton, Geneviève Daoust
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that occupational therapy students who receive wheelchair skills training education using a distributed-practice university-course approach versus a condensed-practice boot-camp approach results in greater improvements post-intervention in relevant outcomes. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group design. SETTING: A university occupational therapy program. PARTICIPANTS: Occupational therapy students (experimental group) and recent occupational therapy graduates (control group) (N = 58)...
July 11, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Emmanuel Ofori, Daryl Ramai, Febin John, Madhavi Reddy, Vishal Ghevariya
Advances in the field of endoscopy have allowed gastroenterologists to obtain detailed imaging of anatomical structures and to treat gastrointestinal diseases with endoscopic therapies. However, these technological developments have exposed endoscopists and staff to hazards such as musculoskeletal injuries, exposure to infectious agents, and ionizing radiation. We aimed to review the occupational hazards for the gastroenterologist and endoscopist. Using PubMed, Medline, Medscape, and Google Scholar, we identified peer-reviewed articles with the keywords "occupational hazards," "health hazards," "occupational health hazards," "endoscopy," "gastroenterologist," "infectious agents," "musculoskeletal injuries," and "radiation...
July 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Nicole Schiavone, David Szczepanik, John Koutras, Beth Pfeiffer, Laura Slugg
Participation is necessary for childhood development, however, children with disabilities participate in fewer activities than their nondisabled peers. This study identified strategies caregivers use to increase participation in home- and community-based activities for children with autism spectrum disorder. Survey responses of 44 caregivers were analyzed through open and axial coding to develop a central theme and five broad themes. Caregiver strategies which produce a participation outcome fell into five themes: (a) adapters/facilitators, (b) pragmatic considerations, (c) social reframing, (d) sensory adjustments, and (e) desperate measures...
July 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Huiying Liu, Vivian W Q Lou
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether and how cognitive impairment interacts with therapy intensity to affect functional improvements in older stroke patients over an eight-week post-discharge intervention delivered in a community setting. BACKGROUND: Cognitive status is an important predictor of success of community-based rehabilitation, but little has been known as to how cognitive impairment may affect outcomes through its interaction with the rehabilitation process...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Hideyuki Nakazawa, Sayaka Nishina, Hitoshi Sakai, Toshiro Ito, Fumihiro Ishida, Kiyoshi Kitano
Asplenia may yield an increased risk of fulminant sepsis with various pathogens. Human infection with Campylobacter fetus is rare, but it often presents with non-gastrointestinal tract infection among immunocompromised individuals. A 55-year-old abattoir worker presented with a fever. He had had splenectomy for follicular lymphoma and rituximab maintenance therapy by four months before the presentation. Blood cultures yielded C. fetus, and the administration of meropenem dissolved the bacteremia. Further maintenance therapy was withheld, and no recurrence of infection has been observed for seven years...
July 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
Catherine Swift, Clare Hocking, Annette Dickinson, Margaret Jones
BACKGROUND: When a parent has chronic pain, family communication can become strained. Clinicians are encouraged to identify and support families struggling with open communication. Occupational therapists are commonly involved in the provision of pain management services but their role in facilitating open communication in families affected by this condition has not been clearly articulated. OBJECTIVE: To develop a comprehensive understanding of what is being done and/or thought to be helpful for facilitating open communication in families affected by chronic pain, in order to articulate the role of occupational therapy in this area of care...
July 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
N D Paauw, A T Lely, J A Joles, A Franx, P G Nikkels, M Mokry, B B van Rijn
Background: Posttranslational modification of histone tails such as histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) is tightly coupled to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. To explore whether this is involved in placenta pathology, we probed genome-wide H3K27ac occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in healthy placentas and placentas from pathological pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Furthermore, we related specific acetylation profiles of FGR placentas to gene expression changes...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Jada M Selma, Anusuya Das, Anthony O Awojoodu, Tiffany Wang, Anjan P Kaushik, Quanjun Cui, Hannah Song, Molly E Ogle, Claire E Olingy, Emily G Pendleton, Kayvan F Tehrani, Luke J Mortensen, Edward A Botchwey
Introduction: Mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSCs), which normally reside in the bone marrow, are critical to bone health and can be recruited to sites of traumatic bone injury, contributing to new bone formation. The ability to control the trafficking of MSCs provides therapeutic potential for improving traumatic bone healing and therapy for genetic bone diseases such as hypophosphatasia. Methods: In this study, we explored the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling axis as a means to control the mobilization of MSCs into blood and possibly to recruit MSCs enhancing bone growth...
August 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Jo Van Herwegen, Maria Ashworth, Olympia Palikara
BACKGROUND: The current study examined parents' views about their child's educational provision for children with Williams syndrome (WS), Down syndrome (DS), and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). AIMS: This cross-syndrome comparison explored the specific and general difficulties that parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders experience about their child's educational provision. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Parents of children aged 4-18;11 years old, including 99 with WS, 88 with DS, and 82 with ASD completed a survey...
July 5, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Hans Rollema, Raymond S Hurst
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Two mechanisms underlie smoking cessation efficacies of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists: a "nicotine-like" agonist activity reduces craving by substituting for nicotine during a quit attempt, and a "nicotine-blocking" antagonist activity attenuates reinforcement by competing with inhaled nicotine during a relapse. To evaluate the contribution of each mechanism to clinical efficacy, we estimated the degree of agonist and antagonist activities of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline, cytisine, and the discontinued nAChR agonists dianicline, ABT-418, ABT-089, CP-601927, and CP-601932, relative to the functional effects of nicotine from smoking...
July 7, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Rod Morgan, Elizabeth A Madigan
The Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) is mandated for use in home healthcare. The purpose of this descriptive study was to compare occupational therapy (OT) OASIS rating of functional status items compared with registered nurse (RN) and physical therapy (PT) ratings. Functional status data were collected on 80 patients: 40 patients comparing RN with OT and 40 patients comparing PT with OT. RN and PT visits were made first and the OT visit followed. There were no items with perfect agreement. The highest agreement was for feeding (76...
July 2018: Home Healthcare Now
Gayle J Restall, Natalie J MacLeod Schroeder, Charmayne D Dubé
BACKGROUND: Occupational therapists value the principles of health and health care equity and often face challenges addressing inequities within the systems in which they work. PURPOSE: We present the Equity Lens for Occupational Therapy (ELOT), a framework to provide a practical starting point for reflecting on equity issues and the ways inequities are enacted in daily practice. KEY ISSUES: Building on an existing occupational therapy practice model and well-established program development and evaluation processes, we overlay an equity lens...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
Noelannah A Neubauer, Nolwenn Lapierre, Adriana Ríos-Rincón, Antonio Miguel-Cruz, Jacqueline Rousseau, Lili Liu
BACKGROUND: Occupational therapists use technologies to manage wandering-related risks to promote safety and independence among individuals with dementia living in the community. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to examine types of technologies used to manage wandering behaviour. METHOD: Using a modification of Arksey and O'Malley's methodology, we systematically searched peer-reviewed and grey literature on technologies used in home or supportive care environments for persons with dementia at risk for wandering...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
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