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"Fluid optimization"

Daniel Gero, Olivier Gié, Martin Hübner, Nicolas Demartines, Dieter Hahnloser
PURPOSE: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery; nonetheless, it remains poorly defined. Our aim was to achieve an international consensus among leading colorectal surgeons on definition, prevention, and treatment of POI. METHODS: Thirty-five experts from five continents participated in a three-round Delphi process. Round 1 contained open-ended questions on POI and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Round 2 included closed-ended questions...
August 3, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Fujuan Chai, Linlin Sun, Yafei Ding, Xiaoqing Liu, Yajie Zhang, Thomas J Webster, Chunli Zheng
AIM: To develop dabigatran etexilate (DE)-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for the prevention of stroke and thromboembolism. MATERIALS & METHODS: SNEDDS were optimized by ternary phase diagrams and then further solidified into dispersible tablets. In vitro dissolution was analyzed by a phase distribution study. In situ absorption and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats. RESULTS: The phase distribution study showed that more than 60% of DE was retained in the oil phase...
July 2016: Nanomedicine
E Sayed, K A Yassen
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (Dex) is a useful adjuvant for general anesthesia. The aim was to evaluate the effects of Dex infusion during living donors liver transplantation (LDLT) on the general anesthetic requirements, hemodynamics, oxygen consumption (VO2), and CO2 production (VCO2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty LDLT recipients were allocated randomly to receive either Dex (0.2-0.7 μg/kg/h) or placebo (control [C]). Patient state index (PSI), SEDLine monitored anesthesia depth (25-50) with desflurane (Des) % and fentanyl altered accordingly...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Clara González-Chomón, Maite Silva, Angel Concheiro, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo
UNLABELLED: Combination of the ability of contact lenses (CLs) to act as a physical barrier against airborne antigen and to serve as a sustained depot of antihistaminic drugs may improve the efficiency of treatments of some ocular allergic diseases. The aim of this work was to develop CLs that exhibit affinity to olopatadine by mimicking the composition of the natural H1-receptor for which olopatadine behaves as a selective antagonist. Functional monomers that match the chemical groups of the receptor and application of the molecular imprinting technology led to hydrogels able to load high amounts of olopatadine and to sustain the release once in contact with lachrymal fluid...
September 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Sharon R Lewis, Andrew R Butler, Andrew Brammar, Amanda Nicholson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: Proximal femoral fracture (PFF) is a common orthopaedic emergency that affects mainly elderly people at high risk of complications. Advanced methods for managing fluid therapy during treatment for PFF are available, but their role in reducing risk is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and effectiveness of the following methods of perioperative fluid optimization in adult participants undergoing surgical repair of hip fracture: advanced invasive haemodynamic monitoring, such as transoesophageal Doppler and pulse contour analysis; a protocol using standard measures, such as blood pressure, urine output and central venous pressure; and usual care...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Vaibhav Tiwari, Shekhar Verma, Santosh K Verma, Jawahar S Dangi
The basic aim of the present research work is to deliver the diloxanide furoate (DF) at specific area using pectin microspheres. The microspheres were prepared by spray drying method and cross-linked by zinc acetate. Different concentrations of polymer (pectin 0.5-3%) and cross-linking agent (0-3% w/v in a mixture of ethanol:water) are taken to optimize the entrapment efficiency, swelling behavior, size and first 6h in-vitro release in simulated gastric fluids. Optimized formulation was characterized in the terms of in-vitro release, in-vivo drug disposition in various organs and in the blood of Sprague-Dawley albino rats and in-vivo gastrointestinal tract transit behavior using X-ray imaging method on albino rabbits...
April 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jamie C Harris, Allen Chen, Virgilia Macias, Brett Mahon, Bill Chiu, Srikumar Pillai
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) induces apoptosis in tumor cells with electric energy, allowing treatment of unresectable tumors. One potential application is metastatic osteosarcoma (OS) in the pediatric population. A 12-year-old underwent thoracotomy with resection of metastatic OS. IRE was applied to 1 resected tumor section. Using 2 probes, 100 pulses with width of 90 ms were delivered. Efficacy was measured by increase in current draw during treatment. The treated sample was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin and transmission electron microscopy...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
R Sharma, S E Deacon, D Nowak, S E George, M P Szymonik, A A S Tang, D C Tomlinson, A G Davies, M J McPherson, C Wälti
Biosensors with high sensitivity and short time-to-result that are capable of detecting biomarkers in body fluids such as serum are an important prerequisite for early diagnostics in modern healthcare provision. Here, we report the development of an electrochemical impedance-based sensor for the detection in serum of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), a pro-angiogenic chemokine implicated in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The sensor employs a small and robust synthetic non-antibody capture protein based on a cystatin scaffold that displays high affinity for human IL-8 with a KD of 35 ± 10 nM and excellent ligand specificity...
June 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Emmanuel Futier, Matthieu Biais, Thomas Godet, Lise Bernard, Christine Rolhion, Justine Bourdier, Dominique Morand, Bruno Pereira, Samir Jaber
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate fluid therapy during surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Few studies have examined the effects of particular types of fluids (crystalloid or colloid solutions) in surgical patients, especially with the goal of hemodynamic optimization. Isotonic saline is the most commonly used fluid worldwide but may be associated with potential nephrotoxicity. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions are widely used in surgical patients as a component of goal-directed fluid optimization strategies, but several large multicenter studies have suggested increased rates of acute kidney injury and adverse events with the use of HES in ICU patients...
2015: Trials
Sunil K Jain, Tanweer Haider, Amrish Kumar, Akhlesh Jain
Helicobacter pylori infection remains challenging as it mainly colonized beneath the deep gastric mucosa and adheres to epithelial cells of the stomach. Concanavalin-A (Con-A)-conjugated gastro-retentive poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) and clarithromycin (CLR) were prepared and evaluated under in vitro conditions. Solvent evaporation method was employed for preparation of nanoparticles and characterized for particle size distribution, surface morphology, percent drug entrapment, and in vitro drug release in simulated gastric fluid...
October 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Julie K M Thacker, William K Mountford, Frank R Ernst, Michelle R Krukas, Michael Monty G Mythen
OBJECTIVES: To study current perioperative fluid administration and associated outcomes in common surgical cohorts in the United States. BACKGROUND: An element of enhanced recovery care protocols, optimized perioperative fluid administration may be associated with improved outcomes; however, there is currently no consensus in the United States on fluid use or the effects on outcomes of this use. METHODS: The study included all inpatients receiving colon, rectal, or primary hip or knee surgery, 18 years of age or older, who were discharged from a hospital between January 1, 2008 and June, 30 2012 in the Premier Research Database...
March 2016: Annals of Surgery
Shelly Scheer, Rita Marie John
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease that is becoming increasingly recognized in the pediatric population. It may be the most common cause of treatable autoimmune encephalitis. The majority of cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are idiopathic in etiology, but a significant minority can be attributed to a paraneoplastic origin. Children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis initially present with a prodrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms, often with orofacial dyskinesias followed by progressively worsening seizures, agitation, and spasticity, which may result in severe neurologic deficits and even death...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
G Gruartmoner, J Mesquida, Can Ince
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In shock states, optimizing intravascular volume is crucial to promote an adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues. Our current practice in fluid management pivots on the Frank-Starling law of the heart, and the effects of fluids are measured according to the induced changes on stroke volume. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the boundaries of current macrohemodynamic approach to fluid administration, and to introduce the microcirculatory integration as a fundamental part of tissue perfusion monitoring...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Lais Helena Camacho Navarro, Joshua A Bloomstone, Jose Otavio Costa Auler, Maxime Cannesson, Giorgio Della Rocca, Tong J Gan, Michael Kinsky, Sheldon Magder, Timothy E Miller, Monty Mythen, Azriel Perel, Daniel A Reuter, Michael R Pinsky, George C Kramer
BACKGROUND: Perioperative fluid therapy remains a highly debated topic. Its purpose is to maintain or restore effective circulating blood volume during the immediate perioperative period. Maintaining effective circulating blood volume and pressure are key components of assuring adequate organ perfusion while avoiding the risks associated with either organ hypo- or hyperperfusion. Relative to perioperative fluid therapy, three inescapable conclusions exist: overhydration is bad, underhydration is bad, and what we assume about the fluid status of our patients may be incorrect...
2015: Perioperative Medicine
I K Moppett, M Rowlands, A Mannings, C G Moran, M D Wiles
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is a condition with high mortality and morbidity in elderly frail patients. Intraoperative fluid optimization may be associated with benefit in this population. We investigated whether intraoperative fluid management using pulse-contour analysis cardiac monitoring, compared with standard care in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia, would provide benefits in terms of reduced time until medically fit for discharge and postoperative complications. METHODS: Patients undergoing surgical repair of fractured neck of femur, aged >60 yr, receiving spinal anaesthesia were enrolled in this single-centre, blinded, randomized, parallel group trial...
March 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Yi-Ting Chen, Li-Ping Tuan, Hsiao-Wei Chen, I-An Wei, Min-Yuan Chou, Han-Min Chen, Yu-Chang Tyan, Sung-Fang Chen
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa), but has limited specificity for distinguishing early PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recently, proPSAs, comprised of native proPSA, as well as truncated proPSA forms, [-2] proPSA, [-5] proPSA, and [-7] proPSA, have been shown to be better diagnostic targets than PSA for PCa. Stable isotope labeling-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SIL/MRM-MS) has been frequently used to measure low-abundance biomarkers in tissues and biofluids, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity, and multiplexing capability...
January 6, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Gehan G El-Fandy, Sohaila H Omar, Ayman A El-Desouky, Hend H Kamel, Ahmed I Refaat
Perioperative fluid therapy has a direct bearing on patient outcome and accordingly should be tailored individually. Thus the efficacy of HES 130/0.4 was compared to modified fluid gelatin for volume expansion during major abdominal surgery guided by transesophageal Doppler (TED). Fifty adult patients ASA physical status I-II undergoing major abdominal surgery were anesthetized with standard technique. In addition to basal fluid requirement, patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups (25 patients each) to receive 200 cc of either 6% HES 130/0...
April 2014: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Carl Deirmengian, Keith Kardos, Patrick Kilmartin, Alexander Cameron, Kevin Schiller, Robert E Booth, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Synovial fluid biomarkers have demonstrated diagnostic accuracy surpassing the currently used diagnostic tests for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to directly compare the sensitivity and specificity of the synovial fluid α-defensin immunoassay to the leukocyte esterase (LE) colorimetric test strip. METHODS: Synovial fluid was collected from 46 patients meeting the inclusion criteria of this prospective diagnostic study...
January 2015: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Jan Benes, Jan Zatloukal, Alena Simanova, Ivan Chytra, Eduard Kasal
BACKGROUND: Perioperative goal directed therapy (GDT) can substantially improve the outcomes of high risk surgical patients as shown by many clinical studies. However, the approach needs initial investment and can increase the already very high staff workload. These economic imperatives may be at least partly responsible for weak adherence to the GDT concept. A few models are available for the evaluation of GDT cost-effectiveness, but studies of real economic data based on a recent clinical trial are lacking...
2014: BMC Anesthesiology
Matthew A Kirkman, Giuseppe Citerio, Martin Smith
PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In part due to the availability of more aggressive treatments, increasing numbers of patients with AIS are being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite the availability of consensus guidance for the general management of AIS, there is little evidence to support its ICU management. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary perspective, and our recommendations, on the ICU management of AIS...
May 2014: Intensive Care Medicine
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