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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140933/t-spot-tb%C3%A2-performance-in-routine-pediatric-practice-in-a-low-tb-burden-setting
#2
Anna M Mandalakas, Heather Y Highsmith, Nadine M Harris, Anna Pawlicka, H Lester Kirchner
BACKGROUND: The T-SPOT.TB, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), is an indirect test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Due to sparse and conflicting evidence, IGRA use is limited in young and HIV-infected children. We determined the prevalence of invalid, borderline, positive, and negative results and associations with key demographic variables during routine pediatric use in a TB low-burden setting. METHODS: For pediatric samples received at Oxford Diagnostic Laboratories from 2010-2015, the associations between initial test outcome and demographics were estimated by bivariate analysis and logistic regression...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136358/is-secretion-of-ifn-gamma-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-in-youngest-children-sufficient-to-play-a-role-in-tb-diagnostics
#3
Teresa Bielecka, Anna Komorowska-Piotrowska, Katarzyna Krenke, Wojciech Feleszko, Marek Kulus
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether children ≤5 years of age, produce sufficient amounts of interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) in response to phytohaemagglutinin (mitogen), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens (TB antigens) in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-Tube test (QFT-GIT), (Cellestis Ltd., Australia). WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Is TB-antigen-induced IFN-ɣ response in children ≤5 years sufficient to consider QFT-GIT a possible tool for TB diagnostics? Study design, patient-subject selection, and methods: We recruited children 0-17 years old suspected of TB infection to this cross-sectional study, in whom QFT-GIT and TST were performed...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124891/the-diagnostic-value-of-tissue-button-technique-for-specimen-accusation-during-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-fine-needle-aspiration
#4
Oren Fruchter, Anna Breslavsky, Tatyana Brozgol, Anna Grossman, Kessi Mikhailova, Alexey Bugayov, Kassa Shimelis, Hananya Vaknine, Oleg Sukmanov
INTRODUCTION: The quality of tissue acquisition during Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a major determinant of the diagnostic yield of the procedure. In the tissue button (TB ) technique the retrieved cellular specimen is fixed in ethanol and subsequently scraped from slide using surgical blade into formaldehyde and processed like ordinary tissue biopsy thus potentially increasing its diagnostic value. OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic yield of a TB technique in patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA for various malignant and benign conditions...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121953/risk-of-tuberculosis-among-alabama-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitors-a-retrospective-study
#5
Matthew L Stoll, James Aaron Grubbs, Timothy Beukelman, Melissa L Mannion, Traci W Jester, Randy Q Cron, Marilyn J Crain
BACKGROUND: Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi) have dramatically improved the outlook for patients with inflammatory arthritides and bowel disease (IBD), but are associated with increased infection risks, including tuberculosis (TB). Pediatric inflammatory diseases are uncommon, and the risk of TB in children taking TNFi remains unclear. The objective of this study was to report the incidence of TB disease among TNFi recipients at a single pediatric medical center serving most of Alabama compared to that of the general population of Alabama children...
November 9, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119205/secretome-profile-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-monodrug-resistant-and-drug-susceptible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Chanyanuch Putim, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Ratikorn Gamngoen, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Sorasak Intorasoot, Usanee Anukool, Chayada Sitthidet Tharincharoen, Ponrut Phunpae, Chatchai Tayapiwatana, Watchara Kasinrerk, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bordin Butr-Indr
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117352/using-patient-pathway-analysis-to-design-patient-centered-referral-networks-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-tuberculosis-the-case-of-the-philippines
#7
Celine Garfin, Mariquita Mantala, Rajendra Yadav, Christy L Hanson, Mike Osberg, Aaron Hymoff, Julia Makayova
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the 8th leading cause of death in the Philippines. A recent prevalence survey found that there were nearly 70% more cases of tuberculosis than previously estimated. Given these new data, the National TB Program (NTP), operating through a decentralized health system, identified about 58% of the estimated new drug-sensitive (DS) TB patients in 2016. However, the NTP only identified and commenced treatment for around 17% of estimated new drug-resistant patients...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117347/quality-tuberculosis-care-in-indonesia-using-patient-pathway-analysis-to-optimize-public-private-collaboration
#8
Asik Surya, Budiarti Setyaningsih, Helmi Suryani Nasution, Cicilia Gita Parwati, Yullita E Yuzwar, Mike Osberg, Christy L Hanson, Aaron Hymoff, Pia Mingkwan, Julia Makayova, Agnes Gebhard, Wiendra Waworuntu
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the fourth leading cause of death in Indonesia. In 2015, the World Health Organization estimated that nearly two-thirds of the TB patients in Indonesia had not been notified, and the status of their care remained unknown. As such, Indonesia is home to nearly 20% of the world's "missing" TB patients. Understanding where patients go for care may enable strategic planning of services to better reach them. Methods: A patient pathway analysis (PPA) was conducted to assess the alignment between patient care seeking and the availability of TB diagnostic and treatment services at the national and subnational level in Indonesia...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116637/epidemiology-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#9
Anna S Dean, Helen Cox, Matteo Zignol
As we move into the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the End TB strategy 2016-2035 with a goal to end the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. Achieving the targets laid out in the Strategy will require strengthening of the whole TB diagnosis and treatment cascade, including improved case detection, the establishment of universal drug susceptibility testing and rapid treatment initiation. An estimated 3.9% of new TB cases and 21% of previously treated cases had rifampicin-resistant (RR) or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in 2015...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116218/improvement-in-clinical-outcome-and-infection-control-using-molecular-diagnostic-techniques-for-early-detection-of-mdr-tuberculous-spondylitis-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#10
Wenjie Wu, Jingtong Lyu, Peng Cheng, Yuan Cheng, Zehua Zhang, Litao Li, Yonghong Zheng, Jianzhong Xu
There has been limited research on the therapeutic efficacy of molecular diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis. We attempted to determine whether the utilization of molecular diagnosis to detect multidrug-resistant spinal tuberculosis can improve clinical outcomes. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted from February 2009 to June 2015. Ninety-two consecutive culture-confirmed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients with spinal tuberculosis who were diagnosed clinically and by imaging were enrolled in the study...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110864/pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patna-india-durations-delays-and-health-care-seeking-behaviour-among-patients-identified-through-household-surveys
#11
Nerges Mistry, Eunice Lobo, Shimoni Shah, Sheela Rangan, Yatin Dholakia
BACKGROUND: Delays in accessing effective health care plays a pivotal role in increasing Tuberculosis (TB) transmission within the community. Patna, North India, with high levels of poverty and weak public health system, faces huge challenges for achieving effective TB control. The study aims to determine delays that occur from onset of TB symptoms until initiation of pulmonary TB (PTB) treatment among patients in Patna. METHODS: Of the 109 self-reporting TB patients identified through an active household survey, 64 PTB patients were interviewed...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108749/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-quantiferon-tb-gold-plus-compared-with-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-and-t-spot-tb-on-active-tuberculosis-in-japan
#12
Jin Takasaki, Toshie Manabe, Eriko Morino, Yoshikazu Muto, Masao Hashimoto, Motoyasu Iikura, Shinyu Izumi, Haruhito Sugiyama, Koichiro Kudo
BACKGROUND: The QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) was introduced in 2015 as a new generation of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB). Examination of its diagnostic accuracy is crucial before it is launched in Japan. METHOD: We examined 99 patients with laboratory-confirmed active TB (patients) and 117 healthy volunteers with no risk of TB infection (controls) at a medical center in Tokyo, Japan. Blood samples were collected from both the patients and controls and tested using three types of IGRAs: the QFT-Plus, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT), and the T-SPOT...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105294/regional-differences-in-the-incidence-of-tuberculosis-among-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Bo Ram Yang, Young-Ae Kang, Heo Eun Young, Bo Kyung Koo, Nam-Kyong Choi, Seung-Sik Hwang, Chang-Hoon Lee
OBJECTIVE: There are regional differences in the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Although these differences might be explained by regional differences in the risk factors of TB, whether such risk factors are actually associated with the regional differences in the TB burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the risk factors of and regional differences in TB incidence. METHODS: A cohort study applying nationwide claims database in Republic of Korea included patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in 2009...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100330/protective-cellular-immunity-generated-by-cross-presenting-recombinant-overlapping-peptide-proteins
#14
Lili Cai, Jianbo Zhang, Renying Zhu, Weixing Shi, Xiaobing Xia, Mark Edwards, William Finch, Anthony Coombs, Ju Gao, Kangwen Chen, Sophie Owen, Shisong Jiang, Wenshu Lu
Priming of naive CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells by dendritic cells (DCs) requires effective antigen presentation on both MHC class I and II molecules. We have developed a novel technology to use recombinant overlapping peptides (ROP) that stimulate both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell immune responses. The single chain protein of a ROP is made up of overlapping peptides linked by the target sequence (LRMK) for cathepsin S, a protease found in the endosomes of DCs. We designed synthetic genes encoding ROPs derived from ovalbumin (OVA), tuberculosis protein (CFP10-ESAT6), human papilloma virus (HPV) protein (E7) and survivin, a protein commonly over-expressed in tumour cells...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099701/liver-function-disorders-in-patients-with-first-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#15
L Hryshchuk, O Okusok, T Boiko, H Lykhatska, L Radetska
The patients with pulmonary tuberculosis suffer from hepatic dysfunction due to both hepatotoxic affection with anti-TB drugs and other factors (hypoxia, antioxidant deficiency, intoxication). Therefore, the aim of the research was to study the markers of cytolytic and cholestatic syndromes in cases of hepatic dysfunction in the first diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before treatment and in two months of treatment with first-line antituberculous drugs. Three groups of persons were examined: the first group of almost healthy donors (control) - 31 persons...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099000/enhancing-the-role-of-private-practitioners-in-tuberculosis-prevention-and-care-activities-in-india
#16
REVIEW
Tanu Anand, Ranjith Babu, Anil G Jacob, Karuna Sagili, Sarabjit S Chadha
India accounts for the highest number of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. Hence, to impact the TB incidence world over, there is an urgent need to address and accelerate TB control activities in the country. Nearly, half of the TB patients first seek TB care in private sector. However, the participation of private practitioners (PPs) has been patchy in TB prevention and care and distrust exists between public and private sector. PPs usually have varied diagnostic and treatment practices that are inadequate and amplify the risk of drug resistance...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093504/mycobacterial-genomic-dna-from-used-xpert-mtb-rif-cartridges-can-be-utilised-for-accurate-second-line-genotypic-drug-susceptibility-testing-and-spoligotyping
#17
Rouxjeane Venter, Brigitta Derendinger, Margaretha de Vos, Samantha Pillay, Tanya Dolby, John Simpson, Natasha Kitchin, Ashley Ruiters, Paul D van Helden, Robin M Warren, Grant Theron
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a widely-used test for tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin-resistance. Second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), which is recommended by policymakers, typically requires additional specimen collection that delays effective treatment initiation. We examined whether cartridge extract (CE) from used Xpert TB-positive cartridges was, without downstream DNA extraction or purification, suitable for both genotypic DST (MTBDRplus, MTBDRsl), which may permit patients to rapidly receive a XDR-TB diagnosis from a single specimen, and spoligotyping, which could facilitate routine genotyping...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092717/routinely-detected-indicators-in-plasma-have-a-predictive-effect-on-the-identification-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-and-tuberculous-infections
#18
Ren-Tian Cai, Feng-Xue Yu, Zhen Tao, Xue-Qin Qian, Jun Chen, Hong-Zhou Lu
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to quickly distinguish non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection from tuberculosis (TB) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients because of many similarities between these diseases. A simple and effective way to determine the differences using routine blood tests is necessary in developing countries. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to recruit HIV-infected patients with either NTM infection or TB infection diagnosed for the first time according to mycobacterial culture and microscopic identification from May 2010 to March 2016...
November 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092064/perspectives-on-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-is-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-research-underfunded
#19
Soumia Brakta, Daria Lizneva, Kateryna Mykhalchenko, Adonis Imam, Walidah Walker, Michael P Diamond, Ricardo Azziz
Context: The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine-metabolic abnormality with a worldwide prevalence of 4%-21%, depending on diagnostic criteria. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the largest single funding agency in the world, invests nearly $30.0 billion annually in biomedical research. Evidence Acquisition: Utilizing the NIH RePorter system we searched for all grants awarded by the NIH for PCOS and three other disorders with comparable degrees of morbidity, and similar or lower mortality and prevalences (i...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091139/glutaraldehyde-test-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-and-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-an-area-with-high-tuberculosis-incidence
#20
Ben Hadj Hassine Ahmed, Marzouk Manel, Dhaou Mohamed, Boukadida Jalel
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary method for controlling TB is the rapid and accurate identification of infected individuals. Immune response exploitation represents one of the main methods used for early TB diagnosis; however, few studies have reported that whole blood originating from TB-infected patients gels faster in the presence of aldehyde than blood originating from healthy subjects, which is the focus of the current study...
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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