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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339504/complement-pathway-gene-activation-and-rising-circulating-immune-complexes-characterize-early-disease-in-hiv-associated-tuberculosis
#1
Hanif Esmail, Rachel P Lai, Maia Lesosky, Katalin A Wilkinson, Christine M Graham, Stuart Horswell, Anna K Coussens, Clifton E Barry, Anne O'Garra, Robert J Wilkinson
The transition between latent and active tuberculosis (TB) occurs before symptom onset. Better understanding of the early events in subclinical disease will facilitate the development of diagnostics and interventions that improve TB control. This is particularly relevant in the context of HIV-1 coinfection where progression of TB is more likely. In a recent study using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) on 35 asymptomatic, HIV-1-infected adults, we identified 10 participants with radiographic evidence of subclinical disease, significantly more likely to progress than the 25 participants without...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334998/examining-human-paragonimiasis-as-a-differential-diagnosis-to-tuberculosis-in-the-gambia
#2
Richard Morter, Ifedayo Adetifa, Martin Antonio, Fatima Touray, Bouke C de Jong, Charlotte M Gower, Florian Gehre
OBJECTIVE: Paragonimiasis is a foodborne trematode infection of the lungs caused by Paragonimus spp., presenting clinically with similar symptoms to active tuberculosis (TB). Worldwide, an estimated 20.7 million people are infected with paragonimiasis, but relatively little epidemiological data exists for Africa. Given a recently reported case, we sought to establish whether paragonimiasis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for human TB in The Gambia, West Africa...
January 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332659/a-case-of-hepatic-tuberculosis-a-tuberculoma
#3
Sameer Khanijo, Pragati Tandon
Tuberculosis (TB) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its eradication in the United States has stalled for the first time in decades. Isolated hepatic TB is an extremely uncommon form of extrapulmonary TB. Here we present a case of a tuberculous liver abscess and suggest that TB should be considered in patients who fail to respond to antibiotics and prompt diagnostic intervention.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332654/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenitis-a-pilot-study
#4
Baijayantimala Mishra, Vinaykumar Hallur, Bijayini Behera, C Preetam, Priti Nanda Mishra, Jyotirmayee Turuk, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra
Tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLA) contributes to 30-40% of extrapulmonary TB cases in the immunocompetent individuals and 40-50% in people with HIV. Current diagnostic methods for TBLA like Gene-Xpert or PCR are costly and conventional methods like fine needle aspiration cytology, histopathology lack sensitivity and specificity. Culture which is considered as gold standard require high turnaround time. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been developed as a novel technique for nucleic acid amplification and has shown promising results in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332619/clinical-characteristics-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-infections-in-bamako-mali
#5
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331743/preliminary-investigation-of-human-exhaled-breath-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-by-multidimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-and-machine-learning
#6
Marco Beccaria, Theodore R Mellors, Jacky S Petion, Christiaan A Rees, Mavra Nasir, Hannah K Systrom, Jean W Sairistil, Marc-Antoine Jean-Juste, Vanessa Rivera, Kerline Lavoile, Patrice Severe, Jean W Pape, Peter F Wright, Jane E Hill
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health malady that claims almost 1.8 million lives annually. Diagnosis of TB represents perhaps one of the most challenging aspects of tuberculosis control. Gold standards for diagnosis of active TB (culture and nucleic acid amplification) are sputum-dependent, however, in up to a third of TB cases, an adequate biological sputum sample is not readily available. The analysis of exhaled breath, as an alternative to sputum-dependent tests, has the potential to provide a simple, fast, and non-invasive, and ready-available diagnostic service that could positively change TB detection...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330384/detection-of-apparent-cell-free-m-tuberculosis-dna-from-plasma
#7
E S Click, W Murithi, G S Ouma, K McCarthy, M Willby, S Musau, H Alexander, E Pevzner, J Posey, K P Cain
New diagnostics are needed to improve clinicians' ability to detect tuberculosis (TB) disease in key populations such as children and persons living with HIV and to rapidly detect drug resistance. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in plasma is a diagnostic target in new obstetric and oncologic applications, but its utility for diagnosing TB is not known. Here we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA can be detected in plasma of persons with sputum smear-positive TB, even in the absence of mycobacteremia...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327734/clinical-study-of-extrapulmonary-head-and-neck-tuberculosis-in-an-urban-setting
#8
S Monga, J N Malik, S Jan, S Bahadur, S Jetley, H Kaur
Tuberculosis (TB) of the head and neck region is quite common in endemic countries, but is still misdiagnosed due to its varied presentation and different sites of involvement. The aims of the present study were to present the diversities of presentation of head and neck tuberculosis with the diagnostic predicaments faced during evaluation and to assess treatment response to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). We analysed 48 patients with head and neck tuberculosis who presented to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology in our tertiary care urban hospital over a period of two years from 2013 to 2015 and recorded their data, which included presenting complaints, local and systemic examination findings, investigation results and treatment outcomes...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327531/isolated-pancreatic-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#9
Pankaj Singhai, Ravi Gadhadh, Sangeeta Joshi, Shruti Krishnan, Aparna
Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, pancreatic TB is rare. When present, pancreatic TB is frequently associated with miliary TB, often in immunocompromised hosts. Pancreatic TB may present as a pancreatic abscess, acute or chronic pancreatitis, and cystic or solid pancreatic masses. This is a case of isolated Tubecular infection of the pancreas in an immunocompetent patient, who presented with a discrete pancreatic abscess, and was subsequently diagnosed with isolated pancreatic TB. This case suggests that clinicians should have a heightened suspicion of pancreatic TB when faced with discrete pancreatic lesions, especially in patients from areas where the infection is endemic...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318136/pleural-tuberculosis-medical-thoracoscopy-greatly-increases-the-diagnostic-accuracy
#10
Angelo Gianni Casalini, Pier Anselmo Mori, Maria Majori, Miriam Anghinolfi, Enrico Maria Silini, Letizia Gnetti, Federica Motta, Sandra Larini, Sara Montecchini, Roberta Pisi, Adriana Calderaro
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a standardised work-up in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) that included fibreoptic bronchoscopy and medical thoracoscopy. A consecutive series of 52 pleural TB patients observed during the period 2001-2015 was evaluated retrospectively. 20 females, mean (range) age 39.7 (18-74) years, and 32 males, mean (range) age 45.75 (21-83) years, were included (28 non-EU citizens (53.8%)). The diagnosis of TB infections was established by identification (using stains, culture or molecular tests) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the pleura, sputum and/or bronchial specimens, or by evidence of caseous granulomas on pleural biopsies...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311240/potential-immunological-biomarkers-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-endemic-setting-ethiopia
#11
Takele Teklu, Kwon Keehwan, Biniam Wondale, Milkessa HaileMariam, Mengistu Legesse, Girmay Medhin, Aboma Zewude, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
Accurate diagnosis and early treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) are vital to prevent and control TB. The lack of specific biomarkers hinders these efforts. This study's purpose was to screen immunological markers that discriminate M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection outcomes in an endemic setting of Ethiopia. Whole blood from 90 participants was stimulated using the ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigen cocktail. The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-based QuantiFERON diagnostic test was used to distinguish between LTBI and uninfected control cases...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306028/unique-mtb-protein-found-in-urine-of-tb-patients-discovery-of-a-unique-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-through-proteomic-analysis-of-urine-from-patients-with-active-tuberculosis
#12
Nira Pollock, Rakesh Dhiman, Nada Daifalla, Maha Farhat, Antonio Campos-Neto
Identification of pathogen-specific biomarkers present in patients' serum or urine samples can be a useful diagnostic approach. In efforts to discover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) biomarkers we identified by mass spectroscopy a unique 21-mer Mtb peptide sequence (VVLGLTVPGGVELLPGVALPR) present in the urines of TB patients from Zimbabwe. This peptide has 100% sequence homology with the protein TBCG_03312 from the C strain of Mtb (a clinical isolate identified in New York, NY, USA) and 95% sequence homology with Mtb oxidoreductase (MRGA423_21210) from the clinical isolate MTB423 (identified in Kerala, India)...
January 3, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305543/genotyping-multi-drug-resistant-m-tuberculosis-from-primary-sputum-and-decontaminated-sediment-with-an-integrated-microfluidic-amplification-microarray
#13
Yvonne Linger, Christopher Knickerbocker, David Sipes, Julia Golova, Molly Franke, Roger Calderon, Leonid Lecca, Nitu Thakore, Rebecca Holmberg, Peter Qu, Alexander Kukhtin, Megan B Murray, Christopher G Cooney, Darrell P Chandler
There is a growing awareness that molecular diagnostics for detect-to-treat applications will soon need a highly multiplexed mutation detection and identification capability. In this study, we converted an open-amplicon MDR-TB microarray hybridization test into an entirely closed-amplicon consumable (an amplification microarray) and evaluated its performance on matched sputum and sediment extracts. Reproducible genotyping (LoD) was achieved with ∼25 MTB genomes (100 fg of MTB DNA) per reaction; the estimated shelf life of the test was least 18 months when stored at 4°C...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305538/false-positive-xpert-mtb-rif-results-in-re-tested-patients-with-previous-tuberculosis-frequency-profile-and-prospective-clinical-outcomes
#14
Grant Theron, Rouxjeane Venter, Liezel Smith, Aliasgar Esmail, Philippa Randall, Vishesh Sood, Suzette Oelfese, Greg Calligaro, Robin Warren, Keertan Dheda
Introduction: Globally, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the most widely-used PCR test for tuberculosis (TB). Positive results in previously-treated patients, which are due to old DNA or active disease, are a diagnostic dilemma.Materials and methods: We prospectively re-tested sputum from 238 patients, irrespective of current symptoms, who were previously-diagnosed as Xpert-positive and treated successfully. Patients who re-tested as Xpert-positive, culture-negative were exhaustively investigated (repeated culture, chest radiography, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, long-term clinical follow-up)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305460/delays-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-bone-and-joint-tuberculosis-in-the-united-kingdom
#15
C Broderick, S Hopkins, D J F Mack, W Aston, R Pollock, J A Skinner, S Warren
AIMS: Tuberculosis (TB) infection of bones and joints accounts for 6.7% of TB cases in England, and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Public Health England reports that patients with TB experience delays in diagnosis and treatment. Our aims were to determine the demographics, presentation and investigation of patients with a TB infection of bones and joints, to help doctors assessing potential cases and to identify avoidable delays. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all adults with positive TB cultures on specimens taken at a tertiary orthopaedic centre between June 2012 and May 2014...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305096/automated-real-time-detection-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-a-lab-on-a-disc-by-recombinase-polymerase-amplification
#16
I L G Law, J F C Loo, H C Kwok, H Y Yeung, C C H Leung, M Hui, S Y Wu, H S Chan, Y W Kwan, H P Ho, S K Kong
With the emergence of multi- and extensive-drug (MDR/XDR) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), tuberculosis (TB) persists as one of the world's leading causes of death. Recently, isothermal DNA amplification methods received much attention due to their ease of translation onto portable point-of-care (POC) devices for TB diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to devise a simple yet robust detection method for M. tb. Amongst the numerous up-and-coming isothermal techniques, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) was chosen for a real-time detection of TB with or without MDR...
January 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303284/-current-approach-to-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention-of-tuberculosis
#17
Martina Vašáková
Tuberculosis is world-wide spread infectious disease with persistant high incidence, mainly in the densely populated countries with low income. Czech Republic belongs to the countries with highly efficient control of tuberculosis and continuously decreasing incidence of the disease. High-risk population for tuberculosis in the Czech Republic are the homeless people, who together with migrants from the countries with high incidence of tuberculosis represent reservoir of infection for our population. Treatment of tuberculosis is long-term, combined and controlled...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297451/cxcr3-ligands-in-pleural-fluid-as-markers-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#18
W Chung, Y Jung, K Lee, J Park, S Sheen, K Park
SETTING: A tertiary care academic medical centre. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) ligands in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). DESIGN: We recruited 336 patients with pleural effusion due to various causes. Concentrations of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9 and CXCL11 were determined using enzyme immunoassays; adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was measured in pleural fluid and serum...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297446/the-second-sputum-sample-complicates-tuberculosis-diagnosis-for-women-a-qualitative-study-from-malawi
#19
M Kumwenda, B-T Nyang'wa, B Chikuse, T Biseck, S Maosa, A Chilembwe, A Dimba, J Mpunga, C Shaw, M Brouwer
SETTING: District hospital and peripheral health care facilities in Balaka District, Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers encountered by women in submitting a second sputum sample. DESIGN: Focus-group discussions and semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Women encounter barriers at several levels: personal, cultural, socio-economic and health care system. Personal, cultural and socio-economic barriers include the fear of a tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, the perception and condition of the patient, the distance and cost of travel to a health care facility, the subordinate position of women in household decision-making and the social support that women receive...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297441/tackling-tuberculosis-in-sub-saharan-africa-edctp-achievements-and-the-road-ahead
#20
M A Surette, P Beattie, T Nyirenda, O F Olesen
The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was established in 2003 to accelerate the development of medical interventions for tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria, with a particular focus on Phase II and III clinical trials. Between 2003 and 2015, the first EDCTP programme committed €65.6 million to research on TB and TB-HIV co-infection. The programme made a significant contribution to the first three elements of the DOTS TB control strategy, which mobilised European and African funding for TB-related research and generated important evidence on TB diagnostics and treatment regimens...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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