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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087649/identification-of-unique-essential-proteins-from-a-m-tuberculosis-f15-lam4-kzn-phage-secretome-library
#1
Thamsanqa Emmanuel Chiliza, Manormoney Pillay, Balakrishna Pillay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis disease (TB), the leading cause of death from bacterial infection worldwide. Although treatable, the resurgence of multi- and extensively-drug resistance TB is a major setback for the fight against TB globally. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new Mtb derived biomarkers for use in the design of new drugs and rapid point-of-care diagnostic or prognostic tools for management of TB transmission. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify unique Mtb secreted proteins from the extensively drug resistant Mtb F15/LAM4/KZN phage secretome library...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086955/evaluation-of-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-and-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-namibia
#2
Rooyen T Mavenyengwa, Emma Shaduka, Innocent Maposa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million people and infects around nine million worldwide annually. Its proper management, especially in resource-limited settings, has been hindered by the lack of rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tests. Sputum smear microscopy remains the cheapest, readily available diagnostic method but it only identifies less than half of the patients with a HIV/TB co-infection because the bacilli would have disseminated from the lungs to other areas of the body...
January 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086877/treating-the-invisible-gaps-and-opportunities-for-enhanced-tb-control-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#3
Naomi Tschirhart, Sein Sein Thi, Lei Lei Swe, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086856/the-addition-of-a-sagittal-image-fusion-improves-the-prostate-cancer-detection-in-a-sensor-based-mri-ultrasound-fusion-guided-targeted-biopsy
#4
Karsten Günzel, Hannes Cash, John Buckendahl, Maximilian Königbauer, Patrick Asbach, Matthias Haas, Jörg Neymeyer, Stefan Hinz, Kurt Miller, Carsten Kempkensteffen
BACKGROUND: To explore the diagnostic benefit of an additional image fusion of the sagittal plane in addition to the standard axial image fusion, using a sensor-based MRI/US fusion platform. METHODS: During July 2013 and September 2015, 251 patients with at least one suspicious lesion on mpMRI (rated by PI-RADS) were included into the analysis. All patients underwent MRI/US targeted biopsy (TB) in combination with a 10 core systematic prostate biopsy (SB). All biopsies were performed on a sensor-based fusion system...
January 13, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#5
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#6
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068347/microbiologically-confirmed-tuberculosis-factors-associated-with-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-and-time-to-treatment-initiation
#7
Judith Mwansa-Kambafwile, Boitumelo Maitshotlo, Andrew Black
BACKGROUND: The impact of new diagnostics on pre-treatment loss to follow up (Pre-treatment LTFU) has not been widely investigated. The reported rate of pre-treatment LTFU is however lower in studies where Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) has been used onsite as opposed to centrally. The use of the Xpert at point of care (POC) could have a role in reducing the pre-treatment LTFU rate among TB patients. We aimed to determine the pre-treatment LTFU rate and the time to treatment initiation as well as to describe associated factors in patients diagnosed with TB using POC Xpert or smear microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066611/performance-of-a-lateral-flow-immunochromatography-test-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-active-tuberculosis-in-a-large-multicentre-study-in-areas-with-different-clinical-settings-and-tuberculosis-exposure-levels
#8
Selene Manga, Rocio Perales, Maria Reaño, Lia D'Ambrosio, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Massimo Amicosante
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause an outsized burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, still missing efficient and largely accessible diagnostic tools determining an appropriate control of the disease. Serological tests have the potentially to impact TB diagnosis, in particular in extreme clinical settings. METHODS: The diagnostic performances of the TB-XT HEMA EXPRESS (HEMA-EXPRESS) immunochromatographic rapid test for active TB diagnosis, based on use of multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific antigens, have been evaluated in a large study multicentre TB case-finding study, in populations with different exposure level to TB...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065665/unbiased-identification-of-blood-based-biomarkers-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-by-modeling-and-mining-molecular-interaction-networks
#9
Awanti Sambarey, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Abhilash Mohan, Asma Ahmed, Soumya Nayak, Soumya Swaminathan, George D'Souza, Anto Jesuraj, Chirag Dhar, Subash Babu, Annapurna Vyakarnam, Nagasuma Chandra
Efficient diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is met with multiple challenges, calling for a shift of focus from pathogen-centric diagnostics towards identification of host-based multi-marker signatures. Transcriptomics offer a list of differentially expressed genes, but cannot by itself identify the most influential contributors to the disease phenotype. Here, we describe a computational pipeline that adopts an unbiased approach to identify a biomarker signature. Data from RNA sequencing from whole blood samples of TB patients were integrated with a curated genome-wide molecular interaction network, from which we obtain a comprehensive perspective of variations that occur in the host due to TB...
December 21, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063795/effect-of-new-tuberculosis-diagnostic-technologies-on-community-based-intensified-case-finding-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Gregory L Calligaro, Lynn S Zijenah, Jonathan G Peter, Grant Theron, Virginia Buser, Ruth McNerney, Wilbert Bara, Tsitsi Bandason, Ureshnie Govender, Michele Tomasicchio, Liezel Smith, Bongani M Mayosi, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Inadequate case detection results in high levels of undiagnosed tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Data for the effect of new diagnostic tools when used for community-based intensified case finding are not available, so we investigated whether the use of sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and the Determine TB LAM urine test in two African communities could be effective. METHODS: In a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group trial with individual randomisation stratified by country, we compared sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF, and if HIV-infected, the Determine TB LAM urine test (novel diagnostic group), with laboratory-based sputum smear microscopy (routine diagnostic group) for intensified case finding in communities with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence in Cape Town, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe...
January 4, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062210/hyperthermostable-binding-molecules-on-phage-assay-components-for-point-of-care-diagnostics-for-active-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Ning Zhao, John Spencer, Margaret A Schmitt, John D Fisk
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The low sensitivity, extended processing time, and high expense of current diagnostics are major challenges to the detection and treatment of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine transcarbamylase (Mtb OTC, Rv1656) has been identified in the urine of patients with active TB infection and is a promising target for point-of-care diagnostics. Specific binding proteins with low nanomolar affinities for Mtb OTC were selected from a phage display library built upon a hyperthermostable Sso7d scaffold...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061953/advances-in-basic-and-translational-tuberculosis-research-proceedings-of-the-first-meeting-of-report-international
#12
REVIEW
Carolina Geadas, Sonia K Stoszek, David Sherman, Bruno B Andrade, Sudha Srinivasan, Carol D Hamilton, Jerrold Ellner
RePORT International is a collaborative research network of investigators from multiple countries and institutions with the goal of establishing a bio-repository of specimens and clinical data for the study of active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). During the first meeting of RePORT International in Boston, Massachusetts, the results of research pertinent to TB control and eradication were presented, including advances in the research of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) persistence and drug resistance, TB diagnostics, drug and vaccine development...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060846/prediction-of-under-detection-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-experience-of-six-years-in-the-south-kivu-province
#13
Emmanuel André, Yvette Lufungulo Bahati, Eric Mulume Musafiri, Olivier Bahati Rusumba, Dimitri Van der Linden, Francis Zech
INTRODUCTION: In the field of tuberculosis (TB), and particularly in regard to paediatric TB (PedTB), clinical skills of health professionals play an important role in determining quality of care. In an era where novel diagnostic technologies and efficient treatment regimens are being made available for the poorest, we must not divert our attention from the importance of clinical skills, as this deliverable remains the cornerstone of individualized patient care and ultimately the best assurance for optimal use of resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#14
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057604/biological-markers-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#15
Bastien Mollo, Stéphane Jouveshomme, François Philippart, Benoît Pilmis
Tuberculosis is one of the main etiologies to evoke in the context of lymphocyte pleurisy. However, diagnosis is difficult and is based on mycobacteriology that is not enough sensitive and time-consuming, or on histology that requires invasive biopsy gesture. This literature review, carried out from Medline, summarizes the main meta-analyzes, reviews, and originator publications in English on biomarkers, classic and more innovative, studied for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Among the immuno-biochemical markers, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), isoenzyme of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) and total adenosine deaminase (ADA) seem the most relevant with respective sensitivities of 89% (87-91), 97...
January 5, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050691/yield-of-chest-x-ray-tuberculosis-screening-of-immigrants-during-the-european-refugee-crisis-of-2015-a-single-centre-experience
#16
Julius Matthias Weinrich, Roland Diel, Markus Sauer, Frank Oliver Henes, Karen Meywald-Walter, Gerhard Adam, Gerhard Schön, Peter Bannas
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB...
January 3, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043634/mycobacterial-excretory-secretory-31-protein-with-serine-protease-and-lipase-activities-an-immunogen-and-drug-target-against-tuberculosis-infection
#17
Bhaskar C Harinath
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared as a global emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993 and still remains one of the world's biggest threats. Worldwide, 9.6 million people have been estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2014: 5.4 million men, 3.2 million women, and 1.0 million children. To reduce this burden, detection and treatment gaps must be addressed and new tools developed (Global TB report 2015). METHODS: Seroreactivity of the purified excretory secretory (ES) antigens ES-31, ES-43, ES-41, and ES-6 have been assessed in pulmonary TB (fresh, relapse, chronic, and latent), extrapulmonary TB, and in human immunodeficiency virus-TB coinfection...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043633/development-of-escherichia-coli-and-mycobacterium-smegmatis-recombinants-expressing-major-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-antigenic-proteins
#18
Hanady A Amoudy, Hussain A Safar, Abu S Mustafa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate pathogenic bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of most tuberculosis (TB) cases. Until today, the only approved TB vaccine is Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), which has been used since 1921. While BCG provides fairly effective protection for infants and young children, its efficacy in adults is variable around the world. This could be due to several parameters including strains of the vaccine and exposure of individuals to different environmental bacterial infections...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043631/the-first-population-structure-and-comparative-genomics-analysis-of-mycobacterium-africanum-strains-from-ghana-reveals-higher-diversity-of-lineage-5
#19
Isaac D Otchere, Simon R Harris, Sanches L Busso, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Stephen Osei-Wusu, Kwadwo Koram, Julian Parkhill, Sebastien Gagneux, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) remains an important TB causing pathogen in West Africa; however, little is known about its population structure and actual diversity which may have implications for diagnostics and vaccines. We carried out comparative genomics analysis of candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and MAF using whole genome sequencing. METHODS: Clinical MTB complex strains (n=187) comprising L4 (n=22), L5 (n=126), and L6 (n=39) isolated over 8years from Ghana were whole genome sequenced...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043630/effective-testing-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-using-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-stool-specimens-in-immunocompetent-pakistani-children
#20
Zahra Hasan, Fehmina Arif, Sadia Shakoor, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Akbar Kanji, Mussarat Ashraf, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in children with pulmonary TB cases, by performing comparative testing of GA and stool samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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