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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229411/therapeutic-application-of-human-wharton-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-skin-injury-of-scid
#1
Vikram Sabapathy, Balasubramanian Sundaram, Sanjay Kumar
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are blossoming as a credible source for regenerative medical applications. The use of fetal MSCs is gaining momentum for therapeutic use. The ease of isolation, enhanced characteristics, and immunomodulation properties renders the utilization of fetal MSCs for numerous clinical applications. In this article, we will demonstrate a step-by-step protocol for isolation of Wharton's jelly MSCs (WJMSCs) from the human umbilical cord matrix, preparation of human platelet lysate, fabricating amniotic membrane scaffold and mice model to study skin regeneration using a combination of MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229410/therapeutic-application-of-placental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reprogrammed-neurospheres-in-spinal-cord-injury-of-scid
#2
Vikram Sabapathy, Franklin Jebaraj Herbert, Sanjay Kumar
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have stimulated much interest in the scientific community and hopes among the general public since their discovery in 1966 due to a variety of potential applications it has in the field of regenerative medicine. Copious amount of literature, as well as long-term animal and human clinical trials, indicates that MSCs can be successfully used for therapeutic purpose without any extreme adversities. MSCs have been isolated from adult and fetal tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228403/antenatal-betamethasone-attenuates-the-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-nitric-oxide-axis-in-isolated-proximal-tubule-cells
#3
Yixin Su, Jianli Bi, Victor M Pulgar, Mark C Chappell, James C Rose
We previously reported a sex-specific effect of antenatal treatment with betamethasone (Beta) on sodium (Na(+)) excretion in adult sheep whereby treated males but not females had an attenuated natriuretic response to Ang-(1-7). The present study determined the Na(+) uptake and nitric oxide (NO) response to low dose Ang-(1-7) (1 pM) in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) from adult male and female sheep antenatally exposed to Beta or vehicle. Data were expressed as % of basal uptake or area under the curve (AUC) for Na(+) or % of control for NO...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216268/dental-pulp-tissue-regeneration-using-dental-pulp-stem-cells-isolated-and-expanded-in-human-serum
#4
Evandro Piva, Susan A Tarlé, Jacques E Nör, Duohong Zou, Elizabeth Hatfield, Tyler Guinn, Emily J Eubanks, Darnell Kaigler
INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp-derived stem cells (DPSCs) have the potential to regenerate dentin and dental pulp tissue because of their differentiation capacity and angiogenic properties. However, for regenerative approaches to gain regulatory and clinical acceptance, protocols are needed to determine more feasible ways to cultivate DPSCs, namely, without the use of xenogeneic-derived components (animal sera) and exogenous growth factors. METHODS: In this study, human DPSCs were isolated from third molars and expanded in standard culture conditions containing fetal bovine serum (DPSCs-FBS) or conditions containing human serum (DPSCs-HS)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216147/differential-responses-of-human-fetal-brain-neural-stem-cells-to-zika-virus-infection
#5
Erica L McGrath, Shannan L Rossi, Junling Gao, Steven G Widen, Auston C Grant, Tiffany J Dunn, Sasha R Azar, Christopher M Roundy, Ying Xiong, Deborah J Prusak, Bradford D Loucas, Thomas G Wood, Yongjia Yu, Ildefonso Fernández-Salas, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis, Ping Wu
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes microcephaly in a subset of infants born to infected pregnant mothers. It is unknown whether human individual differences contribute to differential susceptibility of ZIKV-related neuropathology. Here, we use an Asian-lineage ZIKV strain, isolated from the 2015 Mexican outbreak (Mex1-7), to infect primary human neural stem cells (hNSCs) originally derived from three individual fetal brains. All three strains of hNSCs exhibited similar rates of Mex1-7 infection and reduced proliferation...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215928/human-platelet-lysate-is-a-successful-alternative-serum-supplement-for-propagation-of-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#6
Urban Švajger
BACKGROUND AIMS: Clinical protocols for dendritic cell (DC) generation from monocytes require the use of animal serum-free supplements. Serum-free media can also require up to 1% of serum supplementation. In addition, recommendations based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement) principle also recommend the use of non-animal sera in in vitro studies. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of platelet lysate (PL) for generation of optimally differentiated DCs from monocytes...
February 16, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215300/the-role-of-neurotrophins-in-inflammation-and-allergy
#7
S Manti, P Brown, M K Perez, G Piedimonte
Allergic inflammation is the result of a specific pattern of cellular and humoral responses leading to the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, which, in turn, results in physiological and structural changes affecting target tissues such as the airways and the skin. Eosinophil activation and the production of soluble mediators such as IgE antibodies are pivotal features in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. In the past few years, however, convincing evidence has shown that neurons and other neurosensory structures are not only a target of the inflammatory process but also participate in the regulation of immune responses by actively releasing soluble mediators...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215057/efficacy-of-human-platelet-rich-fibrin-exudate-vs-fetal-bovine-serum-on-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#8
Mahmoud A Saeed, Mohamed Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed E Helal, Ahmed R Zaher, Mohammed E Grawish
Background and Objectives: The imperative role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in regenerative therapy demands an in-vitro expansion which must deal with the safety and ethical problems associated with fetal bovine serum (FBS). The primary aim of this study was to compare the effects of human platelet rich fibrin (hPRF) exudate Vs FBS on proliferation and osteodifferentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). The secondary one was to determine the optimum concentration of hPRF exudate inducing hDPSCs proliferation and osteodifferentiation...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205414/avoidance-of-maternal-cell-contamination-and-overgrowth-in-isolating-fetal-chorionic-villi-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-term-placenta
#9
Varda S Sardesai, Abbas Shafiee, Nicholas M Fisk, Rebecca A Pelekanos
Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205023/low-serum-culture-with-novel-medium-promotes-maxillary-mandibular-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation-ability
#10
Fumio Suehiro, Masakazu Ishii, Izumi Asahina, Hiroshi Murata, Masahiro Nishimura
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-serum STK2 medium on the isolation and osteogenic differentiation of human maxillary/mandibular bone marrow stromal cells (MBMSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human MBMSCs were obtained from patients undergoing dental implant treatment. These cells were cultured in serum-free medium or STK2 medium containing 1  % fetal bovine serum (low-serum) or α-MEM containing 10  % fetal bovine serum (control)...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199170/antibody-repertoire-development-in-swine
#11
J E Butler, Nancy Wertz, Marek Sinkora
We describe the domestication of the species, explore its value to agriculture and bioscience, and compare its immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to those of other vertebrates. For encyclopedic information, we cite earlier reviews and chapters. We provide current gene maps for the heavy and light chain loci and describe their polygeny and polymorphy. B-cell and antibody repertoire development is a major focus, and we present findings that challenge several mouse-centric paradigms. We focus special attention on the role of ileal Peyer's patches, the largest secondary lymphoid tissues in newborn piglets and a feature of all artiodactyls...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191781/direct-isolation-and-characterization-of-human-nephron-progenitors
#12
Stefano Da Sacco, Matthew E Thornton, Astgik Petrosyan, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sargis Sedrakyan, Brendan H Grubbs, Roger E De Filippo, Laura Perin
Mature nephrons originate from a small population of uninduced nephrogenic progenitor cells (NPs) within the cap mesenchyme. These cells are characterized by the coexpression of SIX2 and CITED1. Many studies on mouse models as well as on human pluripotent stem cells have advanced our knowledge of NPs, but very little is known about this population in humans, since it is exhausted before birth and strategies for its direct isolation are still limited. Here we report an efficient protocol for direct isolation of human NPs without genetic manipulation or stepwise induction procedures...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#13
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177135/unveiling-and-initial-characterization-of-neural-crest-like-cells-in-mesenchymal-populations-from-the-human-periodontal-ligament
#14
L Ramírez-García, R Cevallos, K Gazarian
OBJECTIVE: To identify cells with neural crest properties in mesenchymal populations isolated from human periodontal ligament. BACKGROUND: Evidence from tracing experiments on animal embryos revealed proof that dental tissues are among the homing sites of craniofacial neural crest migratory cells. In humans, similar migratory cells were found in early embryos, but whether these cells are progeny of oral multipotent stem cells needs to be confirmed. Searching for the cells with neural crest characteristics in periodontal ligament mesenchymal populations can lead to a solution to the problem...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173875/restored-in-vivo-like-membrane-lipidomics-positively-influence-in-vitro-features-of-cultured-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-derived-from-human-placenta
#15
Alexandros Chatgilialoglu, Martina Rossi, Francesco Alviano, Paola Poggi, Chiara Zannini, Cosetta Marchionni, Francesca Ricci, Pier Luigi Tazzari, Valentina Taglioli, Philip C Calder, Laura Bonsi
BACKGROUND: The study of lipid metabolism in stem cell physiology has recently raised great interest. The role of lipids goes beyond the mere structural involvement in assembling extra- and intra-cellular compartments. Nevertheless, we are still far from understanding the impact of membrane lipidomics in stemness maintenance and differentiation patterns. In the last years, it has been reported how in vitro cell culturing can modify membrane lipidomics. The aim of the present work was to study the membrane fatty acid profile of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human fetal membranes (hFM-MSCs) and to correlate this to specific biological properties by using chemically defined tailored lipid supplements (Refeed®)...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166975/impact-of-a-killed-tritrichomonas-foetus-vaccine-on-clearance-of-the-organism-and-subsequent-fertility-of-heifers-following-experimental-inoculation
#16
Misty A Edmondson, Kellye S Joiner, Jennifer A Spencer, Kay P Riddell, Soren P Rodning, Julie A Gard, M Daniel Givens
Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually transmitted reproductive pathogen of cattle that causes transient infertility, early embryonic death, metritis, pyometra, and sporadic abortions. The objective of this research was to assess the impact on reproductive health of vaccinating naïve heifers with a killed T. foetus vaccine (TrichGuard) before experimental exposure followed by breeding. A total of 40 beef heifers were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. Heifers where then vaccinated with two doses of TrichGuard or sham vaccinated with 0...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145721/isolation-and-total-synthesis-of-hoshinolactam-an-antitrypanosomal-lactam-from-a-marine-cyanobacterium
#17
Hidetoshi Ogawa, Arihiro Iwasaki, Shimpei Sumimoto, Masato Iwatsuki, Aki Ishiyama, Rei Hokari, Kazuhiko Otoguro, Satoshi O Mura, Kiyotake Suenaga
In the search for new antiprotozoal substances, hoshinolactam, an antitrypanosomal lactam, was isolated from a marine cyanobacterium. The gross structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was determined by the first total synthesis. Hoshinolactam showed potent antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 3.9 nM without cytotoxicity against human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells (IC50 > 25 μM).
February 1, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144955/hypothyroidism-in-utero-stimulates-pancreatic-beta-cell-proliferation-and-hyperinsulinaemia-in-the-ovine-fetus-during-late-gestation
#18
Shelley E Harris, Miles J De Blasio, Melissa A Davis, Amy C Kelly, Hailey M Davenport, F B Peter Wooding, Dominique Blache, David Meredith, Miranda Anderson, Abigail L Fowden, Sean W Limesand, Alison J Forhead
Development of pancreatic beta cell mass before birth is essential for normal growth of the fetus and for long-term control of carbohydrate metabolism in postnatal life. Thyroid hormones are also important regulators of fetal growth, and the present study tested the hypotheses that thyroid hormones promote beta cell proliferation in the fetal ovine pancreatic islets, and that growth retardation in hypothyroid fetal sheep is associated with reductions in pancreatic beta cell mass and circulating insulin concentration in utero...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135618/comparative-study-on-characterization-and-wound-healing-potential-of-goat-capra-hircus-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-fetal-origin-amniotic-fluid-and-adult-bone-marrow
#19
M D Pratheesh, Pawan K Dubey, Nitin E Gade, Amar Nath, T B Sivanarayanan, D N Madhu, Anjali Somal, Indu Baiju, T R Sreekumar, V L Gleeja, Irfan A Bhatt, Vikash Chandra, Amarpal, Bhaskar Sharma, G Saikumar, G Taru Sharma
Caprine amniotic fluid (cAF) and bone marrow cells (cBM) were isolated, expanded and phenotypically characterized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) specific cell surface markers. Both cell types were compared for multilineage differentiation potential by flow cytometry using specific antibodies against lineage specific markers. Furthermore, in vitro expanded cAF-MSCs showed higher expression of trophic factors viz. VEGF and TGF-β1 as compared to cBM-MSCs. Full-skin thickness excisional wounds created on either side of the dorsal midline (thoracolumbar) of New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to subcutaneous injection of either fetal origin cAF-MSCs (n=4) or adult cBM-MSCs (n=4) or sterile PBS (control, n=4)...
January 3, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134670/noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-for-single-gene-disorders
#20
Stephanie Allen, Elizabeth Young, Benjamin Bowns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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