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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808402/role-of-adiantum-philippense-l-on-glucose-uptake-in-isolated-pancreatic-cells-and-inhibition-of-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cell-line
#1
Tania Paul, Kishori G Apte, Pradeep B Parab, Biswadeep Das
BACKGROUND: Adiantum philippense (AP) is a pteridophyte that shows antihyperglycemic activity in vivo diabetic model, but the mechanism of action is unknown. OBJECTIVE: AP was found to play a pivotal role in minimizing the high blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneously, it was observed that it could maintain the normal lipid profile even in diabetic condition. To investigate its insulin-like activity along with its inhibitory role on adipocyte differentiation became the objective of our present study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808394/antiproliferative-activity-of-haematoxylum-brasiletto-h-karst
#2
J Bello-Martínez, M Jiménez-Estrada, J L Rosas-Acevedo, L P Avila-Caballero, M Vidal-Gutierrez, C Patiño-Morales, E Ortiz-Sánchez, R E Robles-Zepeda
BACKGROUND: Haematoxylum brasiletto is a tree that grows in Central America, commonly known as "Palo de Brasil," which is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and gastric ulcers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to isolate the compounds responsible for antiproliferative activity of H. brasiletto. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanol extract of H. brasiletto was performed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation assay to measure the antiproliferative activity on six human cancer cell lines (A549, LS180, HeLa, SiHa, MDA-MB-231, and NCI-H1299) and one human noncancer cell line (ARPE-19)...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808378/rutamarin-an-active-constituent-from-ruta-angustifolia-pers-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-in-the-ht29-colon-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#3
Shafinah Ahmad Suhaimi, Sok Lai Hong, Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek
BACKGROUND: Ruta angustifolia Pers. is a perennial herb that is cultivated worldwide, including Southeast Asia, for the treatment of various diseases as traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify an active principle of R. angustifolia and to investigate its effect on the HT29 cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of R. angustifolia Pers...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803917/sca1-cells-from-the-heart-possess-a-molecular-circadian-clock-and-display-circadian-oscillations-in-cellular-functions
#4
Bastiaan C Du Pré, Evelyne J Demkes, Dries A M Feyen, Pieterjan Dierickx, Sandra Crnko, Bart J M Kok, Joost P G Sluijter, Pieter A Doevendans, Marc A Vos, Toon A B Van Veen, Linda W Van Laake
Stem cell antigen 1-positive (SCA1(+)) cells (SPCs) have been investigated in cell-based cardiac repair and pharmacological research, although improved cardiac function after injection has been variable and the mode of action remains unclear. Circadian (24-hr) rhythms are biorhythms regulated by molecular clocks that play an important role in (patho)physiology. Here, we describe (1) the presence of a molecular circadian clock in SPCs and (2) circadian rhythmicity in SPC function. We isolated SPCs from human fetal heart and found that these cells possess a molecular clock based on typical oscillations in core clock components BMAL1 and CRY1...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798665/maternal-diabetes-alters-expression-of-micrornas-that-regulate-genes-critical-for-neural-tube-development
#5
Seshadri Ramya, Sukanya Shyamasundar, Boon Huat Bay, S Thameem Dheen
Maternal diabetes is known to cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos and neuropsychological deficits in infants. Several metabolic pathways and a plethora of genes have been identified to be deregulated in developing brain of embryos by maternal diabetes, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to regulate genes involved in brain development and maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal diabetes alters the expression of miRNAs that regulate genes involved in biological pathways critical for neural tube development and closure during embryogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771545/augmented-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-signaling-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-induces-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis-through-angiotensin-ii-and-interleukin-6
#6
Sei-Ichiro Ohkura, Soichiro Usui, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Noriko Takuwa, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Yasuo Okamoto, Yutaka Inagaki, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Teppei Kitano, Masayuki Takamura, Takashi Wada, Shuichi Kaneko, Yoh Takuwa
Cardiac fibroblasts, together with cardiomyocytes, occupy the majority of cells in the myocardium and are involved in myocardial remodeling. The lysophospholipid mediator sphigosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates functions of cardiovascular cells through multiple receptors including S1PR1-S1PR3. S1PR1 but not other S1P receptors was upregulated in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic hearts. Therefore, we investigated a role of S1PR1 in fibroblasts for cardiac remodeling by employing transgenic mice that overexpressed S1PR1 under the control of α-smooth muscle actin promoter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757162/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-human-liver-model-by-ipsc-derived-parenchymal-and-non-parenchymal-cells
#7
Yuta Koui, Taketomo Kido, Toshimasa Ito, Hiroki Oyama, Shin-Wei Chen, Yuki Katou, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Atsushi Miyajima
During liver development, hepatoblasts and liver non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) such as liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) constitute the liver bud where they proliferate and differentiate. Accordingly, we reasoned that liver NPCs would support the maturation of hepatocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which usually exhibit limited functions. We found that the transforming growth factor β and Rho signaling pathways, respectively, regulated the proliferation and maturation of LSEC and HSC progenitors isolated from mouse fetal livers...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751217/human-placenta-expresses-both-peripheral-and-neuronal-isoform-of-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#8
Laetitia Laurent, Kathy Deroy, Joey St-Pierre, Francine Côté, J Thomas Sanderson, Cathy Vaillancourt
The role of placental serotonin has been an active topic of research notably because of its crucial role in brain development. However, which cell types synthesize serotonin in human placenta remains unknown. Moreover, it is not known if the two tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms (TPH1 and TPH2), the rate-limiting enzymes in serotonin biosynthesis, are expressed in placenta. Human placentas were obtained in first trimester or at term, and trophoblast cells were isolated and purified using a magnetic cell sorter and placed in primary culture...
September 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749819/engraftment-and-repopulation-potential-of-late-gestation-fetal-rat-hepatocytes
#9
Joan M Boylan, Heather Francois-Vaughan, Philip A Gruppuso, Jennifer A Sanders
BACKGROUND: The limited availability of donor organs has led to a search for alternatives to liver transplantation to restore liver function and bridge patients to transplantation. We have shown that the proliferation of late gestation (embryonic day 19; ED19) fetal rat hepatocytes is mitogen-independent, and that mechanisms regulating of mRNA translation, cell cycle progression and gene expression differ from those of adult rat hepatocytes. In the present study, we investigated whether E19 fetal hepatocytes can engraft and repopulate an injured adult liver...
July 27, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749737/improved-chondrogenic-potential-and-proteomic-phenotype-of-porcine-chondrocytes-grown-in-optimized-culture-conditions
#10
Sehwon Koh, Molly Purser, Richard Wysk, Jorge A Piedrahita
For successful cartilage tissue engineering, the ability to generate a high number of chondrocytes in vitro while avoiding terminal differentiation or de-differentiation is critical. The ability to accomplish this by using the abundant and easily sampled costal cartilage could provide a practical alternative to the use of articular cartilage and mesenchymal stem cells. Chondrocytes isolated from pig costal cartilage were expanded in either serum-free medium with FGF2 (SFM) or fetal bovine serum-containing medium (SCM), under either high (21%) or low (5%) oxygen conditions...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745643/isolation-and-culture-of-primary-mouse-keratinocytes-from-neonatal-and-adult-mouse-skin
#11
Fengwu Li, Christopher A Adase, Ling-Juan Zhang
The keratinocyte (KC) is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. Epidermal KCs play a critical role in providing skin defense by forming an intact skin barrier against environmental insults, such as UVB irradiation or pathogens, and also by initiating an inflammatory response upon those insults. Here we describe methods to isolate KCs from neonatal mouse skin and from adult mouse tail skin. We also describe culturing conditions using defined growth supplements (dGS) in comparison to chelexed fetal bovine serum (cFBS)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735098/cholangiocytes-cell-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ridola, Maria Consiglia Bragazzi, Vincenzo Cardinale, Guido Carpino, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
BACKGROUND: Due to significant limitations to the access to orthotropic liver transplantation, cell therapies for liver diseases have gained large interest worldwide. SCOPE OF REVIEW: To revise current literature dealing with cell therapy for liver diseases. We discussed the advantages and pitfalls of the different cell sources tested so far in clinical trials and the rationale underlying the potential benefits of transplantation of human biliary tree stem cells (hBTSCs)...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733347/ultrastructural-characteristics-and-immune-profile-of-equine-mscs-from-fetal-adnexa
#13
Eleonora Iacono, Luisa Pascucci, Barbara Rossi, Cinzia Bazzucchi, Aliai Lanci, Monica Ceccoli, Barbara Merlo
Both in human and equine species, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from amniotic membrane (AM) and Wharton's jelly (WJ), may be particularly useful for immediate use or in later stages of life, after cryopreservation in cell bank. The aim of this study was to compare equine AM- and WJ-MSCs in vitro features, that may be relevant for their clinical employment. MSCs were more easily isolated from WJ, even if MSCs derived from AM exhibited more rapid proliferation (P<0.05). Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation were more prominent in MSCs derived from WJ...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721719/imprinted-nanovelcro-microchips-for-isolation-and-characterization-of-circulating-fetal-trophoblasts-toward-noninvasive-prenatal-diagnostics
#14
Shuang Hou, Jie-Fu Chen, Min Song, Yazhen Zhu, Yu Jen Jan, Szu Hao Chen, Tzu-Hua Weng, Dean-An Ling, Shang-Fu Chen, Tracy Ro, An-Jou Liang, Tom Lee, Helen Jin, Man Li, Lian Liu, Yu-Sheng Hsiao, Peilin Chen, Hsiao-Hua Yu, Ming-Song Tsai, Margareta D Pisarska, Angela Chen, Li-Ching Chen, Hsian-Rong Tseng
Circulating fetal nucleated cells (CFNCs) in maternal blood offer an ideal source of fetal genomic DNA for noninvasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD). We developed a class of nanoVelcro microchips to effectively enrich a subcategory of CFNCs, i.e., circulating trophoblasts (cTBs) from maternal blood, which can then be isolated with single-cell resolution by a laser capture microdissection (LCM) technique for downstream genetic testing. We first established a nanoimprinting fabrication process to prepare the LCM-compatible nanoVelcro substrates...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720118/inhibiting-function-of-human-fetal-dermal-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-bioactivities-of-keloid-fibroblasts
#15
Ya Jiao, Xiao Wang, Jixun Zhang, Yongjun Qi, Hongmin Gong, Duyin Jiang
BACKGROUND: Keloid is one kind of benign skin disease caused by hyperplasia of fibroblasts and collagen fibrils. It is refractory due to the lack of an effective treatment at present, which puts pressure on seeking a new therapeutic regimen. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal skin are considered to play a crucial role in scarless healing. Nevertheless, the efficacy of them in keloid disorders remains poorly understood. METHODS: Keloid fibroblasts (KFs), human adult dermal fibroblasts (ADFs), and human fetal dermal mesenchymal stem cells (FDMSCs) were isolated to single cells and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715613/isolation-and-characterization-of-canine-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-the-treatment-of-neurological-disorders-in-dogs
#16
Connor Long, Lee Lankford, Priyadarsini Kumar, Robert Grahn, Dori L Borjesson, Diana Farmer, Aijun Wang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder that affects humans and dogs. The prognosis of SCI depends on the severity of the injury and can include varying levels of motor and sensory deficits including devastating paraplegia and quadriplegia. Placental mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) have been shown to improve wound healing and possess neuroprotective and immunomodulatory capabilities, but have not yet been clinically tested for the treatment of SCI. This study established a protocol to isolate fetal PMSCs from canine placentas and characterized their paracrine secretion profile and ability to stimulate neurons in vitro to assess their potential as a treatment option for neurological disorders in dogs...
July 17, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713710/the-healing-effect-of-conditioned-media-and-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-in-laryngotracheal-stenosis-a-comparison-in-experimental-dog-model
#17
Kamyar Iravani, Arash Sobhanmanesh, Mohammad Javad Ashraf, Seyed Basir Hashemi, Davood Mehrabani, Shahrokh Zare
BACKGROUND: Differences in causes, severities, areas of stenosis, and the association with swallowing and phonation of larynx and trachea can result into Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS).This study evaluated the healing effect of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) in experimentally induced LTS dog model. METHODS: Seven dogs were enrolled. BMSCs were isolated from proximal humerus and shoulder of a dog and cultured in media containing alpha minimal essential medium, fetal bovine serum, penicillin and streptomycin, and L-glutamine...
May 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708036/amniotic-fluid-cells-show-higher-pluripotency-related-gene-expression-than-allantoic-fluid-cells
#18
Debora Kehl, Melanie Generali, Sabrina Görtz, Diego Geering, Jaroslav Slamecka, Simon P Hoerstrup, Ulrich Bleul, Benedikt Weber
Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701751/secretome-of-in-vitro-cultured-human-embryos-contains-extracellular-vesicles-that-are-uptaken-by-the-maternal-side
#19
Elisa Giacomini, Riccardo Vago, Ana Maria Sanchez, Paola Podini, Natasa Zarovni, Valentina Murdica, Roberta Rizzo, Daria Bortolotti, Massimo Candiani, Paola Viganò
Communication between embryo and maternal endometrium occurs during a specific time frame in which implantation is possible. Here we demonstrate for the first time that conditioned media from non-manipulated human embryos cultured in vitro for 3 days or up to the blastocyst stage contain extracellular vesicles (EVs) with a diameter of 50 to 200 nm and bearing the traditional microvesicle and exosome marker proteins CD63, CD9 and ALIX. The embryonic origin of these EVs has been confirmed by the presence of stemness gene transcripts and their enrichment in the non-classical HLA-G protein...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698620/human-platelet-lysate-versus-fetal-calf-serum-these-supplements-do-not-select-for-different-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#20
Eduardo Fernandez-Rebollo, Birgit Mentrup, Regina Ebert, Julia Franzen, Giulio Abagnale, Torsten Sieben, Alina Ostrowska, Per Hoffmann, Pierre-François Roux, Björn Rath, Michele Goodhardt, Jean-Marc Lemaitre, Oliver Bischof, Franz Jakob, Wolfgang Wagner
Culture medium of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is usually supplemented with either human platelet lysate (HPL) or fetal calf serum (FCS). Many studies have demonstrated that proliferation and cellular morphology are affected by these supplements - it is therefore important to determine if they favor outgrowth of different subpopulations and thereby impact on the heterogeneous composition of MSCs. We have isolated and expanded human bone marrow-derived MSCs in parallel with HPL or FCS and demonstrated that HPL significantly increases proliferation and leads to dramatic differences in cellular morphology...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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