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radiation chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210619/a-useful-tool-as-a-medical-checkup-in-a-general-population-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis
#1
Mika Enomoto, Hisashi Adachi, Ako Fukami, Eita Kumagai, Sachiko Nakamura, Yume Nohara, Shoko Kono, Erika Nakao, Nagisa Morikawa, Tomoko Tsuru, Akiko Sakaue, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Accumulation of visceral fat leads to metabolic syndrome and increases risks of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, which should be recognized and improved at the early stage in general population. Accurate measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) is commonly performed by the abdominal cross-sectional image measured by computed tomography scan, which is, however, limited due to the radiation exposure. The bioelectrical impedance analysis (OMRON, HDS-2000 DUALSCAN(R)) has been recently developed to measure VFA, which is more easily accessible modality...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182184/surface-plasmon-polariton-induced-hot-carrier-generation-for-photocatalysis
#2
Wonmi Ahn, Daniel C Ratchford, Pehr E Pehrsson, Blake S Simpkins
Non-radiative plasmon decay in noble metals generates highly energetic carriers under visible light irradiation, which opens new prospects in the fields of photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetection. While localized surface plasmon-induced hot carrier generation occurs in diverse metal nanostructures, inhomogeneities typical of many metal-semiconductor plasmonic nanostructures hinder predictable control of photocarrier generation and therefore reproducible carrier-mediated photochemistry. Here, we generate traveling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the interface between a noble metal/titanium dioxide (TiO2) heterostructure film and aqueous solution, enabling simultaneous optical and electrochemical interrogation of plasmon-mediated chemistry in a system whose resonance may be continuously tuned via the incident optical excitation angle...
February 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165081/vibrational-branching-ratios-and-radiative-lifetimes-in-the-laser-cooling-of-albr
#3
Yufeng Gao, Mingjie Wan
The feasibility of laser cooling of the AlBr molecule is investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry. Potential energy curves, permanent dipole moments, and transition dipole moments for the ground state X(1)Σ(+) and the first two excited states (a(3)Π and A(1)Π) are calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction plus Davidson corrections (MRCI+Q) method with the ACVQZ basis set; the spin-orbit coupling effects are also taken into account in electronic structure calculations at the MRCI level...
February 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151534/targeted-nanoparticles-for-tumour-radiotherapy-enhancement-the-long-dawn-of-a-golden-era
#4
Elisabetta Gargioni, Florian Schulz, Annette Raabe, Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Thorsten Rieckmann, Kai Rothkamm
Despite considerable progress in (I) our understanding of the aetiopathology of head and neck cancer and (II) the precise delivery of radiotherapy, long-term survival rates for many patients with head and neck cancer remain disappointingly low. Over the past years, gold nanoparticles (NP) have emerged as promising radiation dose enhancers. In a recent study published in Nanoscale, Popovtzer et al. have used gold NP coated with an antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in an attempt to enhance radiation-induced tumour cell killing in a head and neck cancer xenograft model...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140563/abrupt-size-partitioning-of-multimodal-photoluminescence-relaxation-in-monodisperse-silicon-nanocrystals
#5
Samuel L Brown, Joseph B Miller, Rebecca J Anthony, Uwe R Kortshagen, Andrei Kryjevski, Erik K Hobbie
Intrinsic constraints on efficient photoluminescence (PL) from smaller alkene-capped silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) put limits on potential applications, but the root cause of such effects remains elusive. Here, plasma-synthesized colloidal SiNCs separated into monodisperse fractions reveal an abrupt size-dependent partitioning of multilevel PL relaxation, which we study as a function of temperature. Guided by theory and simulation, we explore the potential role of resonant phonon interactions with "minigaps" that emerge in the electronic density of states (DOS) under strong quantum confinement...
February 1, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138685/actinide-ion-extraction-using-room-temperature-ionic-liquids-opportunities-and-challenges-for-nuclear-fuel-cycle-applications
#6
Prasanta Kumar Mohapatra
Studies on the extraction of actinide ions from radioactive feeds have great relevance in nuclear fuel cycle activities, mainly in the back end processes focused on reprocessing and waste management. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based diluents are becoming increasingly popular due to factors such as more efficient extraction vis-à-vis molecular diluents, higher metal loading, higher radiation resistance, etc. The fascinating chemistry of the actinide ions in RTIL based solvent systems due to complex extraction mechanisms makes it a challenging area of research...
January 31, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134238/charge-transfer-to-ground-state-ions-produces-free-electrons
#7
D You, H Fukuzawa, Y Sakakibara, T Takanashi, Y Ito, G G Maliyar, K Motomura, K Nagaya, T Nishiyama, K Asa, Y Sato, N Saito, M Oura, M Schöffler, G Kastirke, U Hergenhahn, V Stumpf, K Gokhberg, A I Kuleff, L S Cederbaum, K Ueda
Inner-shell ionization of an isolated atom typically leads to Auger decay. In an environment, for example, a liquid or a van der Waals bonded system, this process will be modified, and becomes part of a complex cascade of relaxation steps. Understanding these steps is important, as they determine the production of slow electrons and singly charged radicals, the most abundant products in radiation chemistry. In this communication, we present experimental evidence for a so-far unobserved, but potentially very important step in such relaxation cascades: Multiply charged ionic states after Auger decay may partially be neutralized by electron transfer, simultaneously evoking the creation of a low-energy free electron (electron transfer-mediated decay)...
January 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124034/low-fouling-and-functional-poly-carboxybetaine-coating-via-a-photo-crosslinking-process
#8
Hsiu-Wen Chien, Po-Hsiu Cheng, Shao-Yung Chen, Jiashing Yu, Wei-Bor Tsai
Antifouling modification technology is developed for many biomedical applications such as blood-contact devices and biosensors. In this work, a photo-reactive polymer containing zwitterionic carboxybetaine groups was prepared by copolymerization of two kinds of methacrylic acids with carboxybetaine and azidoaniline. The carboxybetaine moiety is for low fouling and the azidophenyl moiety is for photo-crosslinking. The synthesized copolymers were coated onto polymeric substrates, and then covalently immobilized on the substrates by exposure to UV radiation...
January 26, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088137/forces-on-nuclei-moving-on-autoionizing-molecular-potential-energy-surfaces
#9
Nimrod Moiseyev
Autoionization of molecular systems occurs in diatomic molecules and in small biochemical systems. Quantum chemistry packages enable calculation of complex potential energy surfaces (CPESs). The imaginary part of the CPES is associated with the autoionization decay rate, which is a function of the molecular structure. Molecular dynamics simulations, within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, require the definition of a force field. The ability to calculate the forces on the nuclei in bio-systems when autoionization takes place seems to rely on an understanding of radiative damages in RNA and DNA arising from the release of slow moving electrons which have long de Broglie wavelengths...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079196/ultra-fast-charge-migration-competes-with-proton-transfer-in-the-early-chemistry-of-h2o%C3%AB
#10
Furong Wang, Uli Schmidhammer, Aurélien de La Lande, Mehran Mostafavi
Oxidation by the ultra-short lived radical cation of water, H2O˙(+), can potentially take place at the interface of water and numerous heterogeneous systems involved in radiation therapy, energy and environmental industries. The oxidation processes induced by H2O˙(+) can be mimicked in highly concentrated solutions where the nearest neighbors of H2O˙(+) may be molecules other than water. The reactivity of H2O˙(+) and D2O˙(+) is probed in hydrogenated and deuterated sulfuric acid solutions of various concentrations...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068078/enriching-nanoparticles-via-acoustofluidics
#11
Zhangming Mao, Peng Li, Mengxi Wu, Hunter Bachman, Nicolas Mesyngier, Xiasheng Guo, Sheng Liu, Francesco Costanzo, Tony Jun Huang
Focusing and enriching submicrometer and nanometer scale objects is of great importance for many applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Here, we present an acoustofluidic chip that can generate single vortex acoustic streaming inside a glass capillary through using low-power acoustic waves (only 5 V is required). The single vortex acoustic streaming that is generated, in conjunction with the acoustic radiation force, is able to enrich submicrometer- and nanometer-sized particles in a small volume...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067515/plutonium-and-americium-alpha-radiolysis-of-nitric-acid-solutions
#12
Gregory P Horne, Colin R Gregson, Howard E Sims, Robin M Orr, Robin J Taylor, Simon M Pimblott
The yield of HNO2, as a function of absorbed dose and HNO3 concentration, from the α-radiolysis of aerated HNO3 solutions containing plutonium or americium has been investigated. There are significant differences in the yields measured from solutions of the two different radionuclides. For 0.1 mol dm(-3) HNO3 solutions, the radiolytic yield of HNO2 produced by americium α-decay is below the detection limit, whereas for plutonium α-decay the yield is considerably greater than that found previously for γ-radiolysis...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063356/nanoparticles-for-radiooncology-mission-vision-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Leoni A Kunz-Schughart, Anna Dubrovska, Claudia Peitzsch, Alexander Ewe, Achim Aigner, Samuel Schellenburg, Michael H Muders, Silke Hampel, Giuseppe Cirillo, Francesca Iemma, Rainer Tietze, Christoph Alexiou, Holger Stephan, Kristof Zarschler, Orazio Vittorio, Maria Kavallaris, Wolfgang J Parak, Lutz Mädler, Suman Pokhrel
Cancer is one of the leading non-communicable diseases with highest mortality rates worldwide. About half of all cancer patients receive radiation treatment in the course of their disease. However, treatment outcome and curative potential of radiotherapy is often impeded by genetically and/or environmentally driven mechanisms of tumor radioresistance and normal tissue radiotoxicity. While nanomedicine-based tools for imaging, dosimetry and treatment are potential keys to the improvement of therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects, radiotherapy is an established technique to eradicate the tumor cells...
December 14, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048349/we-h-bra-04-biological-geometries-for-the-monte-carlo-simulation-toolkit-topasnbio
#14
A McNamara, J Perl, P Piersimoni, J Ramos-Mendez, B Faddegon, K Held, H Paganetti, J Schuemann
PURPOSE: New advances in radiation therapy are most likely to come from the complex interface of physics, chemistry and biology. Computational simulations offer a powerful tool for quantitatively investigating radiation interactions with biological tissue and can thus help bridge the gap between physics and biology. The aim of TOPAS-nBio is to provide a comprehensive tool to generate advanced radiobiology simulations. METHODS: TOPAS wraps and extends the Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047744/we-a-201-01-memorial-introduction
#15
C Marshall
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047091/we-a-201-02-modern-statistical-modeling
#16
A Niemierko
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046871/su-f-t-676-measurement-of-hydroxyl-radicals-in-radiolized-water-systems
#17
Z Ouyang, G Strack, E Sajo, W Ngwa
PURPOSE: Hydroxyl radicals can be produced within tissue by radiation therapy, and they are largely responsible for DNA damage and cell killing. Coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (3-CCA) and crystal violet are reported to react with hydroxyl radicals and can be used for fluorescence and absorbance measurements, respectively. This study assesses the ability of hydroxyl measurement for both 3-CCA and crystal violet in radiolized water systems in order to provide dosimetric information in radiation chemistry and radiation biology experiments...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046561/we-a-201-00-anne-and-donald-herbert-distinguished-lectureship-on-modern-statistical-modeling
#18
Joseph Deasy
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017738/validation-of-the-radiobiology-toolkit-topas-nbio-in-simple-dna-geometries
#19
Aimee McNamara, Changran Geng, Robert Turner, Jose Ramos Mendez, Joseph Perl, Kathryn Held, Bruce Faddegon, Harald Paganetti, Jan Schuemann
Computational simulations offer a powerful tool for quantitatively investigating radiation interactions with biological tissue and can help bridge the gap between physics, chemistry and biology. The TOPAS collaboration is tackling this challenge by extending the current Monte Carlo tool to allow for sub-cellular in silico simulations in a new extension, TOPAS-nBio. TOPAS wraps and extends the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit and the new extension allows the modeling of particles down to vibrational energies (∼2eV) within realistic biological geometries...
January 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013121/radiopharmaceutical-chemistry-of-targeted-radiotherapeutics-part-4-strategies-for-211-at-labeling-at-high-activities-and-radiation-doses-of-211-at-%C3%AE-particles
#20
Oscar R Pozzi, Michael R Zalutsky
INTRODUCTION: Alpha particles are radiation of high energy and short range, properties that can lead to radiolysis-mediated complications in labeling chemistry at the high radioactivity levels required for clinical application. In previous papers in this series, we have shown that radiation dose has a profound effect on the astatine species that are present in the labeling reaction and their suitability for the synthesis of N-succinimidyl 3-[(211)At]astatobenzoate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS) to the methanol solution used for initial isolation of (211)At after distillation, a process referred to as (211)At stabilization, on (211)At chemistry after exposure to high radiation doses...
March 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
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