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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516067/cognitomics-a-new-approach-for-the-evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-diseases-and-cognition-to-be-designed-based-on-normal-behavioral-tendencies-in-real-life-a-conceptual-framework
#1
EDITORIAL
Ata Pourabbasi, Bagher Larijani
The relationship between medical diseases and cognition has been a point of interest in the last decades. In recent years studies in this field have developed significantly applying various tools such as cognitive tests using psychometric assessments and brain imaging techniques. The main focus of cognitive function in this studies is the process through which this cognition is obtained. It seems a novel methodology is needed while assessing the impact of diseases such as diabetes on cognition based on heavenly religious teachings in which cognition is believed to be the main source of human bliss and not just some measurable quantitative components...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503141/addiction-as-an-attachment-disorder-white-matter-impairment-is-linked-to-increased-negative-affective-states-in-poly-drug-use
#2
Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Karl Koschutnig, Jürgen Fuchshuber, Sebastian Tscheschner, Maria Url, Jolana Wagner-Skacel, Eva Z Reininghaus, Ilona Papousek, Elisabeth M Weiss, Andreas Fink
Substance use disorders (SUD) have been shown to be linked to various neuronal and behavioral impairments. In this study, we investigate whether there is a connection between the integrity of white matter (WM) and attachment styles as well as different affective states including spirituality in a group of patients diagnosed for poly-drug use disorder (PUD) in comparison to non-clinical controls. A total sample of 59 right-handed men, comprising the groups of patients with PUD (n = 19), recreational drug-using individuals (RUC; n = 20) as well as non-drug using controls were recruited (NUC; n = 20)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441426/identification-of-genes-associated-with-dissociation-of-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathological-burden-multistep-analysis-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-data
#3
Charles C White, Hyun-Sik Yang, Lei Yu, Lori B Chibnik, Robert J Dawe, Jingyun Yang, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Daniel Felsky, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Konstantinos Arfanakis, William G Honer, Reisa A Sperling, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
INTRODUCTION: The molecular underpinnings of the dissociation of cognitive performance and neuropathological burden are poorly understood, and there are currently no known genetic or epigenetic determinants of the dissociation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: "Residual cognition" was quantified by regressing out the effects of cerebral pathologies and demographic characteristics on global cognitive performance proximate to death. To identify genes influencing residual cognition, we leveraged neuropathological, genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptional data available for deceased participants of the Religious Orders Study (n = 492) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (n = 487)...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401522/classic-hallucinogens-and-mystical-experiences-phenomenology-and-neural-correlates
#4
Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for expectancy bias, psilocybin can occasion complete mystical experiences in the majority of people studied...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392301/biological-and-cognitive-underpinnings-of-religious-fundamentalism
#5
Wanting Zhong, Irene Cristofori, Joseph Bulbulia, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
Beliefs profoundly affect people's lives, but their cognitive and neural pathways are poorly understood. Although previous research has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as critical to representing religious beliefs, the means by which vmPFC enables religious belief is uncertain. We hypothesized that the vmPFC represents diverse religious beliefs and that a vmPFC lesion would be associated with religious fundamentalism, or the narrowing of religious beliefs. To test this prediction, we assessed religious adherence with a widely-used religious fundamentalism scale in a large sample of 119 patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI)...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367379/the-sensed-presence-questionnaire-senpq-initial-psychometric-validation-of-a-measure-of-the-sensed-presence-experience
#6
Joseph M Barnby, Vaughan Bell
BACKGROUND: The experience of 'sensed presence'-a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence-is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353007/clarifying-values-and-preferences-for-care-near-the-end-of-life-the-role-of-a-new-lay-workforce
#7
Debra K Litzelman, Thomas S Inui, Kathleen M Schmitt-Wendholt, Anthony Perkins, Wilma J Griffin, Ann H Cottingham, Steven S Ivy
Community health workers (CHWs) can engage elderly persons in advance care planning (ACP) conversations. We report how trained CHWs used Go Wish cards (GW (R) cards) to identify patients' highest priority preferences and evaluated whether engaging in ACP conversations was associated with subsequent health care utilization. A one-year long, pre-post longitudinal design was used to evaluate our educational intervention using mixed-methods. 392 patients (mean of 73.3 years, 82% women, 48% African American, 43% Caucasian) enrolled in the Aging Brain Care (ABC) program and participated in ACP discussions with CHWs...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322202/genetic-epistasis-regulates-amyloid-deposition-in-resilient-aging
#8
Daniel Felsky, Jishu Xu, Lori B Chibnik, Julie A Schneider, Jo Knight, James L Kennedy, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager, Aristotle N Voineskos
INTRODUCTION: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interacts with important genetic Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors. Specifically, variants within the SORL1 gene determine BDNF's ability to reduce amyloid β (Aβ) in vitro. We sought to test whether functional BDNF variation interacts with SORL1 genotypes to influence expression and downstream AD-related processes in humans. METHODS: We analyzed postmortem brain RNA sequencing and neuropathological data for 441 subjects from the Religious Orders Study/Memory and Aging Project and molecular and structural neuroimaging data for 1285 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
March 17, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264580/-ethical-aspects-of-uterus-transplantation
#9
Roman Chmel, Marta Nováčková, Zlatko Pastor, Jan Matěcha, Miloš Čekal, Jiří Froněk
Uterus transplantation is an experimental treatment method with an ambition to become accepted treatment modality for women with absolute uterine factor infertility. The only legal alternative for these women to get parenthood is adoption which is accepted by most world societies and countries. Surrogate pregnancy is connected with many medical, ethical, legal, religious and social controversies in the great part of the world.Donors (in living donation), recipients, partners and also unborn children must be incorporated into the analysis of ethical risks and benefits of uterus transplantation...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235884/is-there-a-place-for-cpr-and-sustained-physiological-support-in-brain-dead-non-donors
#10
Stephen D Brown
This article addresses whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and sustained physiological support should ever be permitted in individuals who are diagnosed as brain dead and who had held previously expressed moral or religious objections to the currently accepted criteria for such a determination. It contrasts how requests for care would normally be treated in cases involving a brain-dead individual with previously expressed wishes to donate and a similarly diagnosed individual with previously expressed beliefs that did not conform to a brain-based conception of death...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078616/physician-power-to-declare-death-by-neurologic-criteria-threatened
#11
Ariane Lewis, Thaddeus Mason Pope
BACKGROUND: Three recent lawsuits that address declaration of brain death (BD) garnered significant media attention and threaten to limit physician power to declare BD. METHODS: We discuss these cases and their consequences including: the right to refuse an apnea test, accepted medical standards for declaration of BD, and the irreversibility of BD. RESULTS: These cases warrant discussion because they threaten to: limit physicians' power to determine death; incite families to seek injunctions to continue organ support after BD; and force hospitals to dispense valuable resources to dead patients in lieu of patients with reparable illnesses or injuries...
January 11, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065775/group-focused-morality-is-associated-with-limited-conflict-detection-and-resolution-capacity-neuroanatomical-evidence
#12
Kyle Nash, Thomas Baumgartner, Daria Knoch
Group-focused moral foundations (GMFs) - moral values that help protect the group's welfare - sharply divide conservatives from liberals and religiously devout from non-believers. However, there is little evidence about what drives this divide. Moral foundations theory and the model of motivated social cognition both associate group-focused moral foundations with differences in conflict detection and resolution capacity, but in opposing directions. Individual differences in conflict detection and resolution implicate specific neuroanatomical differences...
January 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063092/was-hawan-designed-to-fight-anxiety-scientific-evidences
#13
R K Romana, A Sharma, V Gupta, R Kaur, S Kumar, P Bansal
Anxiety is a psychiatric disorder with unknown neurobiology; however, neurotransmitters like gamma-amino butyric acid, norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) play crucial roles in mediating anxiety. Present drug modules pose dependence risk to the patient; hence, there is a great need to develop complementary therapies to fight this disorder. Aromatherapy has also been employed in ancient times for a number of mental disorders. Mahamrituanjay Mantra, Om triambkum yajamahe, sughandhim puushtivardhanam, urvarukmev vandhanaat, mrityu mokshay mamritaat!!!!, the part of veda enlightens that aroma gives rise to good health (sughandhim puushtivardhanam)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054711/nature-meets-nurture-in-religious-and-spiritual-development
#14
Pehr Granqvist, Frances Nkara
We consider nurture's (including culture's) sculpting influences on the evolved psychological predispositions that are expressed in religious and spiritual (R&S) development. An integrated understanding of R&S development requires a move away from the largely one-sided (nature-or-nurture) and additive (nature + nurture) accounts provided in the extant literature. R&S development has been understood as an expression of evolved cognitive modules (nature) on the one hand, and of socialization and social learning (nurture) on the other, or in similar albeit additive terms (e...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041787/brain-mechanisms-in-religion-and-spirituality-an-integrative-predictive-processing-framework
#15
REVIEW
Michiel van Elk, André Aleman
We present the theory of predictive processing as a unifying framework to account for the neurocognitive basis of religion and spirituality. Our model is substantiated by discussing four different brain mechanisms that play a key role in religion and spirituality: temporal brain areas are associated with religious visions and ecstatic experiences; multisensory brain areas and the default mode network are involved in self-transcendent experiences; the Theory of Mind-network is associated with prayer experiences and over attribution of intentionality; top-down mechanisms instantiated in the anterior cingulate cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex could be involved in acquiring and maintaining intuitive supernatural beliefs...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030554/procedures-and-frequencies-of-embalming-and-heart-extractions-in-modern-period-in-brittany-contribution-to-the-evolution-of-ritual-funerary-in-europe
#16
Rozenn Colleter, Fabrice Dedouit, Sylvie Duchesne, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Véronique Gendrot, Patrice Gérard, Henri Dabernat, Éric Crubézy, Norbert Telmon
The evolution of funeral practices from the Middle Ages through the Modern era in Europe is generally seen as a process of secularization. The study, through imaging and autopsy, of two mummies, five lead urns containing hearts, and more than six hundred skeletons of nobles and clergymen from a Renaissance convent in Brittany has led us to reject this view. In addition to exceptional embalming, we observed instances in which hearts alone had been extracted, a phenomenon that had never before been described, and brains alone as well, and instances in which each spouse's heart had been placed on the other's coffin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909606/knowledge-levels-and-attitudes-of-people-living-in-the-city-centre-of-nev%C3%A5-ehir-on-organ-donation-and-transplantation
#17
Mehmet Akif Yazar, Mehmet Barış Açıkgöz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the knowledge levels and attitudes of people living in Nevşehir on organ donation (OD) and transplantation. METHODS: Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to 414 people residing in Nevşehir between February and May 2016. The primary and secondary endpoints of the present study were to determine the attitudes and knowledge levels of participants on OD and transplantation, respectively...
October 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834117/reward-salience-and-attentional-networks-are-activated-by-religious-experience-in-devout-mormons
#18
Michael A Ferguson, Jared A Nielsen, Jace B King, Li Dai, Danielle M Giangrasso, Rachel Holman, Julie R Korenberg, Jeffrey S Anderson
High-level cognitive and emotional experience arises from brain activity, but the specific brain substrates for religious and spiritual euphoria remain unclear. We demonstrate using functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 19 devout Mormons that a recognizable feeling central to their devotional practice was reproducibly associated with activation in nucleus accumbens, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and frontal attentional regions. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded peak spiritual feelings by 1-3 s and was replicated in four separate tasks...
November 29, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788784/assessment-of-attitude-and-knowledge-of-personnel-in-the-intensive-care-unit-of-tabriz-university-of-medical-sciences-hospitals-toward-organ-donation
#19
K S Nia, A Tagizadieh, M Pouraghaei, H Soleimanpour, F Kakaie, S Sanaie, A Mahmoodpoor
BACKGROUND: The increasing gap between organ supply and demand remains a worldwide problem and can be attributed to several reasons. Because health care workers play an important role in management of brain dead patients, we performed a survey to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of personnel in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences hospitals toward organ donation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was included personnel from 8 university affiliated ICUs in Northwest of Iran from May to July 2014...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742313/knowledge-attitudes-and-beliefs-toward-organ-donation-among-social-media-users
#20
W M Hajjar, S A Bin Abdulqader, S S Aldayel, A W Alfardan, N I Alzaidy
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ diseases. The demand for organs has exceeded the available supply, which becomes a major obstacle worldwide. Identifying the factors affecting this gap will help in overcoming this obstacle. The purpose of the work was to study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of organ donation and to determine the knowledge of brain death among social media users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among social media users living in Saudi Arabia...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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