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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407290/update-on-causes-of-family-refusal-for-organ-donation-and-the-related-factors-reporting-the-changes-over-6-years
#1
M Mojtabaee, F Ghorbani, M Mohsenzadeh, F S Beigee
INTRODUCTION: After significant improvement of the family consent rate to organ donation (OD) in recent years, owing to an increase in cultural activities and social awareness, a plateau has been reached. This study was performed to detect the causes for this plateau. METHODS: We reviewed exact causes of family refusal after providing a list of failed potential donors from July 2015 to December 2016. The expert coordinators responsible for handling the failed cases chose the cause of refusal from the previously prepared list...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357760/do-spanish-medical-students-understand-the-concept-of-brain-death
#2
Antonio Ríos, A López-Navas, A López-López, F J Gómez, J Iriarte, R Herruzo, G Blanco, F J Llorca, A Asunsolo, P Sánchez, P R Gutiérrez, A Fernández, M T de Jesús, L Martínez Alarcón, M Del Olivo, L Fuentes, J R Hernández, J Virseda, J Yelamos, J A Bondía, A M Hernández, M A Ayala, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the level of understanding of the brain death concept among medical students in universities in Spain. METHODS: This cross-sectional sociological, interdisciplinary, and multicenter study was performed on 9598 medical students in Spain. The sample was stratified by geographical area and academic year. A previously validated self-reported measure of brain death knowledge (questionnaire Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante sobre la Donación y Transplante de Organos) was completed anonymously by students...
January 1, 2018: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239048/drug-and-alcohol-treatment-providers-views-about-the-disease-model-of-addiction-and-its-impact-on-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Anthony I Barnett, Wayne Hall, Craig L Fry, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Adrian Carter
ISSUES: Addiction treatment providers' views about the disease model of addiction (DMA), and their contemporary views about the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), remain an understudied area. We systematically reviewed treatment providers' attitudes about the DMA/BDMA, examined factors associated with positive or negative attitudes and assessed their views on the potential clinical impact of both models. APPROACH: Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Sociological Abstracts were systematically searched...
December 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206661/the-need-and-opportunity-for-donation-after-circulatory-death-worldwide
#4
Martí Manyalich, Helen Nelson, Francis L Delmonico
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global shortage of organ donors will not be resolved solely by relying on deceased donation following a brain death determination (DBD). Expansion of deceased donation after circulatory death (DCD) will be needed to address the shortfall of organs for transplantation. Approximately 120 000 organ transplants are performed each year; however, the WHO estimates that this number of transplants only resolves 10% of the annual worldwide transplant need. RECENT FINDINGS: The report addresses the opportunity of DCD expansion by evaluating the DCD potential that is not being realized, the utility of DCD enabling DBD to emerge in some clinical situations, by the effectiveness of a donor registry in achieving DCD, and by the current clinical research of heart, lung, and liver transplantation from DCD...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184514/brain-tumor-associated-psychosis-and-spirituality-a-case-report
#5
Lars Levi Dutschke, Sarah Steinau, Roland Wiest, Sebastian Walther
This case report describes a patient with a dysembryogenic neuroepithelial tumor localized in the posterior thalamus and internal capsule, which presented with psychosis including religiously determined severe self-mutilation, auditory hallucinations, and rituals. The patient's history includes periodic religiousness over decades of her life suggesting that spirituality in this case might be a symptom of tumor progression. Our case reports on the topology-related effect of lesions on different brain networks involved in the phenomenology of the patient's psychotic symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174049/neural-responses-to-one-s-own-name-under-mortality-threat
#6
Xiaoyue Fan, Shihui Han
Recent behavioral research has shown evidence for greater inclination to avoid symbolic cues of mortality threats in nonbelievers than Christians. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying religious influences on behavioral tendency to avoid mortality threats remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis of distinct arousal/attention-related brain responses to self-related information under mortality in in nonbelievers and Christians. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from Christians and nonbelievers while they viewed their own names and a stranger's name (i...
November 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159461/severe-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-requiring-dialysis-aggravated-by-prolonged-fasting-and-intermittent-high-fat-load-in-a-ramadan-fasting-month-in-a-patient-with-cptii-homozygous-mutation
#7
P Phowthongkum, C Ittiwut, V Shotelersuk
BACKGROUND: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPTII) deficiency is a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder that can present antenatally as congenital brain malformations, or postnatally with lethal neonatal, severe infantile, or the most common adult myopathic forms. No case of severe hyperammonemia without liver dysfunction has been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We described a 23-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with seizures and was found to have markedly elevation of serum ammonia...
November 21, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156855/differences-in-leptin-ghrelin-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-between-religious-fasting-and-normal-fasting
#8
Özge Telci Çaklılı, Banu İşbilen, Gülcan Yavuz, Selcan Tülü, Banu Mesçi, Aytekin Oğuz
Background/aim: Leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affect hunger, satiety feelings, and food intake. We hypothesized that during Ramadan, if the brain knows that the body will be hungry until sunset, there may be differences between leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 levels in Ramadan and non-Ramadan fasting. Materials and methods: This study had two phases. In the first phase, the participants were asked to skip the dawn meal of Ramadan (suhur), so that 12 h of fasting could be achieved. Participants ceased food intake at midnight, and at noon blood was drawn...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#9
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148066/predicting-the-use-of-corporal-punishment-child-aggression-parent-religiosity-and-the-bdnf-gene
#10
Reut Avinun, Maayan Davidov, David Mankuta, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Corporal punishment (CP) has been associated with deleterious child outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding its underpinnings. Although several factors have been linked with parents' CP use, genetic influences on CP have rarely been studied, and an integrative view examining the interplay between different predictors of CP is missing. We focused on the separate and joint effects of religiosity, child aggression, parent's gender, and a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene...
November 17, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138749/auris-system-providing-vibrotactile-feedback-for-hearing-impaired-population
#11
Felipe Alves Araujo, Fabricio Lima Brasil, Allison Candido Lima Santos, Luzenildo de Sousa Batista Junior, Savio Pereira Fonseca Dutra, Carlos Eduardo Coelho Freire Batista
Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc.) are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103318/prospective-parents-perspectives-on-antenatal-decision-making-for-the-anticipated-birth-of-a-periviable-infant
#12
Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds, Teresa A Savage, Robert E Kimura, Sarah J Kilpatrick, Miriam Kuppermann, William Grobman, Karen Kavanaugh
OBJECTIVE: To examine prospective parents' perceptions of management options and outcomes in the context of threatened periviable delivery, and the values they apply in making antenatal decisions during this period. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of 46 antenatal interviews conducted at three tertiary-care hospitals with 54 prospective parents (40 pregnant women, 14 partners) who had received counseling for threatened periviable delivery (40 cases). RESULTS: Participants most often recalled being involved in resuscitation, cerclage, and delivery mode decisions...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095071/n-n-dimethyltryptamine-and-the-pineal-gland-separating-fact-from-myth
#13
David E Nichols
The pineal gland has a romantic history, from pharaonic Egypt, where it was equated with the eye of Horus, through various religious traditions, where it was considered the seat of the soul, the third eye, etc. Recent incarnations of these notions have suggested that N,N-dimethyltryptamine is secreted by the pineal gland at birth, during dreaming, and at near death to produce out of body experiences. Scientific evidence, however, is not consistent with these ideas. The adult pineal gland weighs less than 0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084334/association-between-brain-gene-expression-dna-methylation-and-alteration-of-ex-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-transverse-relaxation-in-late-life-cognitive-decline
#14
Lei Yu, Robert J Dawe, Patricia A Boyle, Chris Gaiteri, Jingyun Yang, Aron S Buchman, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Importance: Alteration of ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation is associated with late-life cognitive decline even after controlling for common neuropathologic conditions. However, the underlying neurobiology of this association is unknown. Objective: To investigate the association between brain gene expression, DNA methylation, and alteration of magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation in late-life cognitive decline. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data came from 2 community-based longitudinal cohort studies of aging and dementia, the Religious Orders Study, which began in 1993, and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, which began in 1997...
October 30, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067599/legislative-enforcement-of-nonconsensual-determination-of-neurological-brain-death-in-muslim-patients-a-violation-of-religious-rights
#15
Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
Death is defined in the Quran with a single criterion of irreversible separation of the ruh (soul) from the body. The Quran is a revelation from God to man, and the primary source of Islamic knowledge. The secular concept of death by neurological criteria, or brain death, is at odds with the Quranic definition of death. The validity of this secular concept has been contested scientifically and philosophically. To legitimize brain death for the purpose of organ donation and transplantation in Muslim communities, Chamsi-Pasha and Albar (concurring with the US President's Council on Bioethics) have argued that irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness and breathing (apneic coma) in brain death defines true death in accordance with Islamic sources...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701940/reduced-pain-sensation-and-reduced-bold-signal-in-parietofrontal-networks-during-religious-prayer
#16
Else-Marie Elmholdt, Joshua Skewes, Martin Dietz, Arne Møller, Martin S Jensen, Andreas Roepstorff, Katja Wiech, Troels S Jensen
Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674721/attitude-of-the-saudi-community-towards-heart-donation-transplantation-and-artificial-hearts
#17
Waleed AlHabeeb, Fakhr AlAyoubi, Adel Tash, Leenah AlAhmari, Khalid F AlHabib
To understand the attitudes of the Saudi population towards heart donation and transplantation. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards organ transplantation and donation was conducted across 18 cities in Saudi Arabia between September 2015 and March 2016.  Results: A total of 1250 respondents participated in the survey. Of these, approximately 91% agree with the concept of organ transplantation but approximately 17% do not agree with the concept of heart transplantation; 42...
July 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631279/nurses-attitudes-and-knowledge-regarding-organ-and-tissue-donation-and-transplantation-in-a-provincial-hospital-a-descriptive-and-multivariate-analysis
#18
Maria Del Mar Lomero, María F Jiménez-Herrera, Maria José Rasero, Alberto Sandiumenge
The attitudes and knowledge of nursing personnel regarding organ and tissue donation can influence the decision to donate. This study aimed to determine these two factors among nurses at a district hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A survey was carried out using a 35 item questionnaire. Results were subjected to descriptive and comparative statistical analyses using bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine the relation between demographic data and attitudes toward donation. The completion rate was 68.2%, with 98...
September 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606625/-terrorism-and-human-behavior
#19
S J Leistedt
OBJECTIVES: Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. METHODS: Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases...
June 9, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584907/acute-psychoactive-and-toxic-effects-of-d-metel-on-mice-explained-by-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#20
Yonghong Fu, Zhihong Si, Pumin Li, Minghui Li, He Zhao, Lei Jiang, Yuexiao Xing, Wei Hong, Lingyu Ruan, Jun-Song Wang
Datura metel L. (D. metel) is one well-known folk medical herb with wide application and also the most abused plants all over the world, mainly for spiritual or religious purpose, over-dosing of which often produces poisonous effects. In this study, mice were orally administered with the extract of D. metel once a day at doses for 10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for consecutive 4 days, (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach aided with histopathological inspection and biochemical assays were used for the first time to study the psychoactive and toxic effects of D...
August 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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