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W M Hajjar, S A Bin Abdulqader, S S Aldayel, A W Alfardan, N I Alzaidy
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ diseases. The demand for organs has exceeded the available supply, which becomes a major obstacle worldwide. Identifying the factors affecting this gap will help in overcoming this obstacle. The purpose of the work was to study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of organ donation and to determine the knowledge of brain death among social media users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among social media users living in Saudi Arabia...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Nayan Lamba, Daniel Holsgrove, Marike L Broekman
BACKGROUND: Since the turn of the last century, the prospect of head transplantation has captured the imagination of scientists and the general public. Recently, head transplant has regained attention in popular media, as neurosurgeons have proposed performing this procedure in 2017. Given the potential impact of such a procedure, we were interested in learning the history of the technical hurdles that need to be overcome, and determine if it is even technically possible to perform such a procedure on humans today...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
F Hénon, J Le Nobin, A Ouzzane, A Villers, G Strecker, S Bouyé
OBJECTIVES: Report the reasons that lead families to refuse organ donation during their close solicitation by hospital coordination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted between 2012 and 2015, including 148 (34%) refusal of organ donation among 426 patients identified in a state of brain death. A questionnaire of the family was completed for each interview. Collected data concerned patient characteristics, cause of death, description of the interview and reasons for refusal...
October 4, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Irayda Jakušovaitė, Žydrunė Luneckaitė, Eimantas Peičius, Živilė Bagdonaitė, Olga Riklikienė, Edgaras Stankevičius
The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death...
2016: Medicina
Angela Philippus, David Mellick, Therese O'Neil-Pirozzi, Thomas Bergquist, Yelena Guller Bodien, Angelle M Sander, Laura E Dreer, Joseph Giacino, Thomas Novack
OBJECTIVES: To (1) identify demographic characteristics of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who attend religious services, (2) understand the relationship between attending religious services and psychosocial outcomes and (3) examine the independent contribution of religious service attendance to psychosocial outcomes while controlling for demographic characteristics, functional status and geographic location at 1, 5 and 10-years post injury. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study using secondary data analysis of the TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database (NDB)...
September 13, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Meron Awraris Gebrewold, Fikre Enquselassie, Redda Teklehaimanot, Seid Ali Gugssa
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where the burden of epilepsy is highest among school age children and teenagers, and where people with epilepsy (PWE) and their relatives suffers from high level of perceived stigma, there had not been any study that assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PWE. This study aims to assess and understand the social and demographic determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PLW in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to identify twenty schools from three sub cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
September 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
Greg Yanke, Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
The case of Jahi McMath has reignited a discussion concerning how society should define death. Despite pronouncing McMath brain dead based on the American Academy of Neurology criteria, the court ordered continued mechanical ventilation to accommodate the family's religious beliefs. Recent case law suggests that the potential for a successful challenge to the neurologic criteria of death provisions of the Uniform Determination of Death Act are greater than ever in the majority of states that have passed religious freedom legislation...
December 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Nazli Hossain, Nusrat Shah, Tahira Shah, Sidra Binte Lateef
OBJECTIVE: To study the perceptions of medical students about factors responsible for physicians'migration. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from April to May 2015. METHODOLOGY: Aself-administered structured questionnaire was used including demographic details, attitudes about push and pull factors of migration, and reasons for migrating or not migrating abroad...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Rajesh Panwar, Sujoy Pal, Nihar R Dash, Peush Sahni, Aarti Vij, Mahesh C Misra
BACKGROUND: Knowledge, sociocultural views, and awareness about organ donation in the general population are important for the success of deceased organ donation. There is an urgent need to gather this information in order to find out the reasons for poor organ donation rates in India. METHODS: A 30-item questionnaire was designed in the English and Hindi language and was administered to the lay people in order to assess their knowledge, views, and attitude regarding brain death and organ donation...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Paul K Crane, Laura E Gibbons, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Emily Trittschuh, James B Leverenz, C Dirk Keene, Joshua Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, David A Bennett, Sue Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, Eric B Larson
IMPORTANCE: The late effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are of great interest, but studies characterizing these effects are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with an increased risk for clinical and neuropathologic findings of Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and other dementias. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study analyzed data from the Religious Orders Study (ROS), Memory and Aging Project (MAP), and Adult Changes in Thought study (ACT)...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Katherine M Piderman, Jason S Egginton, Cory Ingram, Ann Marie Dose, Timothy J Yoder, Laura A Lovejoy, Spence W Swanson, James T Hogg, Maria I Lapid, Aminah Jatoi, Megan S Remtema, Beba S Tata, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf
Individuals with brain cancer face many challenges, including threats to cognition, personality, and sensory and motor functioning. These can alter one's sense of identity and result in despair. Chaplain-led spiritual interviews were conducted with 19 patients with brain cancer as part of a larger spiritual legacy intervention called "Hear My Voice." The majority was female (58%), married (68%) and had aggressive/advanced tumors (63%). Participants were 22-68 years of age and expressed the following religious affiliations: Protestant (42%), Catholic (21%), Muslim (5%), and none (32%)...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
Katherine Gómez-Rázuri, José Ballena-López, Franco León-Jiménez
OBJECTIVES: To explore the myths regarding organ donation at a national hospital in Lambayeque, Peru during 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative-phenomenological study was performed using 24 unstructured in-depht interview of health personnel, potential recipients and relatives of potential donors. Sampling was intentional opinion-based, completed by theoretical saturation in each group. An interview guide was used, which was assessed by five experts, and data triangulation was performed...
March 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Jordan Kiper, Richard Sosis
Group violence, despite much study, remains enigmatic. Its forms are numerous, its proximate causes myriad, and the interrelation of its forms and proximate causes poorly understood. We review its evolution, including preadaptations and selected propensities, and its putative environmental and psychological triggers. We then reconsider one of its forms, ethnoreligious violence, in light of recent discoveries in the behavioral and brain sciences. We find ethnoreligious violence to be characterized by identity fusion and by manipulation of religious traditions, symbols, and systems...
2016: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
M Arias
All human experiences, including mystical and religious ones, are the result of brain functional activity. Thanks to the study of cases of ecstatic epilepsy with structural (MRI) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET, SPECT) and neurophysiological technologies (recording and stimulation with intracranial electrodes), we now have a better knowledge of certain mental states which involve pleasant and affective symptoms and clarity of mind. These ecstatic experiences are thought to be caused by the activation of the anterior insular cortex and some neuronal networks (basically related to mirror neurons and salience) participating in introspection, social cognition, memory, and emotional processes...
June 20, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Zoe Arvanitakis, Ana W Capuano, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
BACKGROUND: Few data on the pathology of cerebral vessel disease, dementia, and cognition are available. We examined the association of cerebral atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis neuropathology with probable and possible Alzheimer's disease dementia and cognitive function. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included men and women aged 65 years or older who had yearly clinical assessments and had agreed to brain autopsy at the time of death, as part of one of two cohort studies of ageing (The Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project)...
August 2016: Lancet Neurology
Sharon Lauricella
A spiritual-yet not religious-practice, meditation has been touted as beneficial to boosting the immune system, lowering blood pressure, alleviating migraines, and increasing gray matter in parts of the brain. While scientific research on meditation is beginning to quantify its benefits, there is increasing concern among the scientific community that news outlets glorify the potential benefits of meditation. This paper considers coverage of meditation in mainstream print media by analyzing 764 articles printed in English from worldwide media outlets from 1979 to 2014...
October 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Shahar Arzy, Roey Schurr
Religious experiences have long been documented in patients with epilepsy, though their exact underlying neural mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we had the rare opportunity to record a delusional religious conversion in real time in a patient with right temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing continuous video-EEG. In this patient, a messianic revelation experience occurred several hours after a complex partial seizure of temporal origin, compatible with postictal psychosis (PIP). We analyzed the recorded resting-state EEG epochs separately for each of the conventional frequency bands...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Edward J Modestino, Partrick O'Toole, AnnaMarie Reinhofer
Recent studies suggest changes in religious cognition in a subgroup of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD e.g., Butler et al., 2011). It is unclear whether this deficit extends to both doctrinal and experiential categorization forms of religious cognition. Kapogiannis et al. (2009b) dissociated experiential and doctrinal religious knowledge to different neural networks using fMRI. We examined Kapogiannis' dissociation against the background of PD side of onset (LOPD, ROPD), assessing performance both On- and Off-medication...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Derek D Ayeh, Hyo Jung Tak, John D Yoon, Farr A Curlin
CONTEXT: Families of critically ill patients occasionally request that physicians continue life-sustaining treatment (LST), sometimes giving religious reasons. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether U.S. physicians are more likely to accommodate requests for LST that are based on religious reasons. METHODS: In 2010, we surveyed 1156 practicing U.S. physicians from specialties likely to care for adult patients with advanced illness. The questionnaire included two randomized experimental vignettes: one where a family asked that LST be continued for a patient that met brain death criteria and a second where the son of an elderly patient with cancer insists on continuing LST...
June 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak, Nurul Kabir, Ghulam Abbas, Suhaimi Draman, Noor Hashida Hashim, Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli
The loss of the ability for learning and memory is a prominent feature of dementia, which affects millions of individuals all over the world, due to either neurodegenerative diseases or brain injury. Although a lot of information is known about the pathology involved, treatment remains elusive at best. The Black Seed of Nigella sativa has been historically and religiously used for thousands of years for preventing and treating many different kinds of diseases. This review article looks at Nigella sativa and its potential role in facilitating learning and memory...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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