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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331081/quantitative-fe-mri-determination-of-the-dynamics-of-psma-targeted-spions-discriminates-among-prostate-tumor-xenografts-based-on-their-psma-expression
#1
Laurel O Sillerud
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a quantitative MRI method for iron concentration magnetic resonance imaging suitable for measuring the delivery of targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to tumors. PURPOSE: To apply our newly developed [Fe]MRI method to the quantitative imaging in both space and time of the iron dynamics of anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) conjugated SPIONs within human prostate tumor xenografts in nude mice. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315404/interplay-between-rnaseh2-and-mov10-controls-line-1-retrotransposition
#2
Jongsu Choi, Sung-Yeon Hwang, Kwangseog Ahn
Long interspersed nuclear element 1 is an autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon that comprises ∼17% of the human genome. Its spontaneous retrotransposition and the accumulation of heritable L1 insertions can potentially result in genome instability and sporadic disorders. Moloney leukemia virus 10 homolog (MOV10), a putative RNA helicase, has been implicated in inhibiting L1 replication, although its underlying mechanism of action remains obscure. Moreover, the physiological relevance of MOV10-mediated L1 regulation in human disease has not yet been examined...
January 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315213/identification-of-transposable-elements-contributing-to-tissue-specific-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas
#3
Takafumi Chishima, Junichi Iwakiri, Michiaki Hamada
It has been recently suggested that transposable elements (TEs) are re-used as functional elements of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). This is supported by some examples such as the human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERVH) elements contained within lncRNAs and expressed specifically in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), as required to maintain hESC identity. There are at least two unanswered questions about all lncRNAs. How many TEs are re-used within lncRNAs? Are there any other TEs that affect tissue specificity of lncRNA expression? To answer these questions, we comprehensively identify TEs that are significantly related to tissue-specific expression levels of lncRNAs...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310734/differential-methylation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-offspring-of-physically-active-pregnant-women
#4
M R Marshall, N Paneth, J A Gerlach, L M Mudd, L Biery, D P Ferguson, J M Pivarnik
Several studies have suggested that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy may influence long-term health of offspring by altering the offspring epigenome. Whether maternal leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy might have this effect is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal LTPA during pregnancy and offspring DNA methylation. Participants were recruited from the Archive for Research on Child Health study. At enrollment, participants' demographic information and self-reported LTPA during pregnancy were determined...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309036/line-1-protein-localization-and-functional-dynamics-during-the-cell-cycle
#5
Paolo Mita, Aleksandra Wudzinska, Xiaoji Sun, Joshua Andrade, Shruti Nayak, David J Kahler, Sana Badri, John LaCava, Beatrix Ueberheide, Chi Y Yun, David Fenyö, Jef D Boeke
LINE-1/L1 retrotransposon sequences comprise 17% of the human genome. Among the many classes of mobile genetic elements, L1 is the only autonomous retrotransposon that still drives human genomic plasticity today. Through its co-evolution with the human genome, L1 has intertwined itself with host cell biology. However, a clear understanding of L1's lifecycle and the processes involved in restricting its insertion and intragenomic spread remains elusive. Here we identify modes of L1 proteins' entrance into the nucleus, a necessary step for L1 proliferation...
January 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309035/dissection-of-affinity-captured-line-1-macromolecular-complexes
#6
Martin S Taylor, Ilya Altukhov, Kelly R Molloy, Paolo Mita, Hua Jiang, Emily M Adney, Aleksandra Wudzinska, Sana Badri, Dmitry Ischenko, George Eng, Kathleen H Burns, David Fenyö, Brian T Chait, Dmitry Alexeev, Michael P Rout, Jef D Boeke, John LaCava
Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element active in human genomes. L1-encoded ORF1 and ORF2 proteins bind L1 RNAs, forming ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). These RNPs interact with diverse host proteins, some repressive and others required for the L1 lifecycle. Using differential affinity purifications, quantitative mass spectrometry, and next generation RNA sequencing, we have characterized the proteins and nucleic acids associated with distinctive, enzymatically active L1 macromolecular complexes...
January 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308092/long-interspersed-nuclear-element-1-expression-and-retrotransposition-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#7
Erica M Briggs, Susan Ha, Paolo Mita, Gregory Brittingham, Ilaria Sciamanna, Corrado Spadafora, Susan K Logan
Background: Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) is an autonomous retrotransposon that generates new genomic insertions through the retrotransposition of a RNA intermediate. Expression of LINE-1 is tightly repressed in most somatic tissues to prevent DNA damage and ensure genomic integrity. However, the reactivation of LINE-1 has been documented in cancer and the role of LINE-1 protein expression and retrotransposition has become of interest in the development, progression, and adaptation of many epithelial neoplasms, including prostate cancer...
2018: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301786/endogenous-line-1-long-interspersed-nuclear-element-1-reverse-transcriptase-activity-in-platelets-controls-translational-events-through-rna-dna-hybrids
#8
Hansjörg Schwertz, Jesse W Rowley, Gerald G Schumann, Ulrike Thorack, Robert A Campbell, Bhanu Kanth Manne, Guy A Zimmerman, Andrew S Weyrich, Matthew T Rondina
OBJECTIVE: One source of endogenous reverse transcriptase (eRT) activity in nucleated cells is the LINE-1/L1 (long interspersed nuclear element-1), a non-LTR retrotransposon that is implicated in the regulation of gene expression. Nevertheless, the presence and function of eRT activity and LINE-1 in human platelets, an anucleate cell, has not previously been determined. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We demonstrate that human and murine platelets possess robust eRT activity and identify the source as being LINE-1 ribonucleoprotein particles...
January 4, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301135/a-retrospective-analysis-of-dialysis-events-over-a-3-year-period-in-an-outpatient-dialysis-unit-in-the-state-of-kuwait
#9
Moustapha Ramadan, Gautam Hebbar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in the rates of dialysis events stratified by vascular access type and to describe the microbiological profile and sensitivity patterns of positive blood cultures over a 3-year period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The dialysis event data of 10751 chronic hemodialysis patients collected from March 2013 to February 2016 at an Outpatient Dialysis Unit in Kuwait were reviewed. The dialysis events studied were; use of intravenous (IV) antimicrobials, positive blood culture and signs of inflammation at the vascular access site...
January 4, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287712/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-coronary-artery-disease
#10
REVIEW
Lian Duan, Junyuan Hu, Xingjiang Xiong, Yongmei Liu, Jie Wang
Epigenetic studies have identified DNA methylation in coronary artery disease (CAD). How the critical genes interact at the cellular level to cause CAD is still unknown. The discovery of DNA methylation inspired researchers to explore relationships in genomic coding and disease phenotype. In the past two decades, there have been many findings regarding the relationship between DNA methylation and CAD development, and the DNA methylation of critical genes have been found to be significantly changed during CAD, including DNA methylation at homocysteine, Alu and long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements...
December 26, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259859/mthfr-promoter-hypermethylation-may-lead-to-congenital-heart-defects-in-down-syndrome
#11
Ambreen Asim, Sarita Agarwal, Inusha Panigrahi, Nazia Saiyed, Sonal Bakshi
Altered global methylation levels revealed LINE-1 methylation in young mothers of Down syndrome (DS) compared to controls suggesting the possibility of impaired DNA methylation causing abnormal segregation of chromosome 21. Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) is one of the major enzymes of the folate metabolism pathway. MTHFR gene polymorphism has been associated with maternal risk for DS. Studies have revealed that increased MTHFR promoter methylation results in the reduction of MTHFR protein activity further leading to increased risk of various diseases...
November 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247291/multidisciplinary-european-low-dose-initiative-melodi-strategic-research-agenda-for-low-dose-radiation-risk-research
#12
REVIEW
M Kreuzer, A Auvinen, E Cardis, M Durante, M Harms-Ringdahl, J R Jourdain, B G Madas, A Ottolenghi, S Pazzaglia, K M Prise, R Quintens, L Sabatier, S Bouffler
MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) is a European radiation protection research platform with focus on research on health risks after exposure to low-dose ionising radiation. It was founded in 2010 and currently includes 44 members from 18 countries. A major activity of MELODI is the continuous development of a long-term European Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on low-dose risk for radiation protection. The SRA is intended to identify priorities for national and European radiation protection research programs as a basis for the preparation of competitive calls at the European level...
December 15, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239145/line-1-retrotransposons-in-healthy-and-diseased-human-brain
#13
REVIEW
Nicole A Suarez, Angela Macia, Alysson R Muotri
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a transposable element with the ability to self-mobilize throughout the human genome. The L1 elements found in the human brain is hypothesized to date back 56 million years ago and has survived evolution, currently accounting for 17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition has been theorized to contribute to somatic mosaicism. This review focuses on the presence of L1 in the healthy and diseased human brain, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Throughout this exploration, we will discuss the impact L1 has on neurological disorders that can occur throughout the human lifetime...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237055/the-epigenetic-control-of-transposable-elements-and-imprinted-genes-in-newborns-is-affected-by-the-mode-of-conception-art-versus-spontaneous-conception-without-underlying-infertility
#14
C Choux, C Binquet, V Carmignac, C Bruno, C Chapusot, J Barberet, M Lamotte, P Sagot, D Bourc'his, P Fauque
STUDY QUESTION: Do assisted reproductive technologies alter DNA methylation and/or transcription of transposable elements and imprinted genes in cord blood and placenta? SUMMARY ANSWER: After ART, DNA methylation and/or transcription changes of some transposable elements and imprinted genes were found in placenta samples while transcription modifications for some transposable elements were also discovered in cord blood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Recent studies have confirmed the increased risk of placenta-related adverse pregnancy outcomes and the excess of imprinted disorders with abnormal methylation patterns after ART, which raises the issue of a potential ART-induced epigenetic risk...
December 11, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223657/the-evolutionary-field-hypothesis-non-mendelian-transgenerational-inheritance-mediates-diversification-and-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Corrado Spadafora
Epigenetics is increasingly regarded as a potential contributing factor to evolution. Building on apparently unrelated results, here I propose that RNA-containing nanovesicles, predominantly small regulatory RNAs, are released from somatic tissues in the bloodstream, cross the Weismann barrier, reach the epididymis, and are eventually taken up by spermatozoa; henceforth the information is delivered to oocytes at fertilization. In the model, a LINE-1-encoded reverse transcriptase activity, present in spermatozoa and early embryos, plays a key role in amplifying and propagating these RNAs as extrachromosomal structures...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216722/the-influence-of-orthodontic-non-extraction-treatment-on-the-change-in-the-inclination-and-position-of-incisors-in-the-europoid-race
#16
A Koniarova, E Sedlata Juraskova, M Spidlen, D Statelova
AIM: To detect post-treatment change in the inclination and position of incisors in cases treated with orthodontic non- extraction therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The group consisted of 102 patients without extractions in lower and upper dental arch during orthodontic treatment. Cephalogram examination evaluated the position of the lower incisor to point A by Downs-pogonion line (-1 to APo) and inclination of the lower incisor to mandibular line (-1 to ML), position of the upper incisor to nasion-pogonion line (+1 to NPo), inclination of the upper incisor to nasion-sella line (+1 to NS) and the size of the inter-incisival angle between upper and central lower incisor (-1 to +1)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212206/line-1-methylation-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-and-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-prostate-cancer-patients
#17
Yuyan Han, Junfeng Xu, Jeri Kim, Xifeng Wu, Jian Gu
Global DNA methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) in leukocytes has been suggested to be a risk factor for a few cancers. There has been no report of LINE-1 methylation in leukocytes as a risk factor for aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis and prognosis after treatments. In this study, we measured the leukocyte DNA methylation of LINE-1 in 795 PCa patients and compared the methylation levels across different clinical subgroups. We then determined the association of LINE-1 methylation in leukocytes with clinicopathological variables at diagnosis using logistic regression analysis and biochemical recurrence in patients receiving active treatments (prostatectomy and radiotherapy) using Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, pack year, D'Amico risk groups, and treatments...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211708/selective-silencing-of-euchromatic-l1s-revealed-by-genome-wide-screens-for-l1-regulators
#18
Nian Liu, Cameron H Lee, Tomek Swigut, Edward Grow, Bo Gu, Michael Bassik, Joanna Wysocka
Transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized not only as parasitic DNA, whose spread in the genome must be controlled by the host, but also as major players in genome evolution and regulation1-6. Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1), the only currently autonomous mobile transposon in humans, occupies 17% of the genome and continues to generate inter- and intra-individual genetic variation, in some cases resulting in disease1-7. Nonetheless, how L1 activity is controlled and what function L1s play in host gene regulation remain incompletely understood...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209557/line-1-in-response-to-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation
#19
COMMENT
Igor Koturbash
It is becoming increasingly recognized that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element, 1 (LINE-1), the most ubiquitous repetitive element in the mammalian genomes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of disease and in the response to exposure to environmental stressors. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic stressor, but it is capable of targeting the cellular epigenome as well. Radiation-induced alterations in LINE-1 DNA methylation are the most frequently observed epigenetic effects of exposure. The extent of this aberrant DNA methylation, however, strongly depends on a number of factors, including the type and dose of radiation...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202418/prenatal-urinary-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-metabolites-global-dna-methylation-in-cord-blood-and-birth-outcomes-a-cohort-study-in-china
#20
Pan Yang, Ya-Jie Gong, Wen-Cheng Cao, Rui-Xin Wang, Yi-Xin Wang, Chong Liu, Ying-Jun Chen, Li-Li Huang, Song-Hua Ai, Wen-Qing Lu, Qiang Zeng
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a potential risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. Epigenetic mechanisms may play a key role in which PAHs exert its effects. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to examine whether prenatal PAH exposure was associated with adverse birth outcomes and altered DNA methylation and to explore potential mediating roles of DNA methylation. METHODS: Ten urinary PAH metabolites were measured from 106 pregnant women during late pregnancy in a Chinese cohort study...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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