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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220356/overexpression-of-line-1-retrotransposons-in-autism-brain
#1
Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Igor Pogribny, S Jill James
Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are mobile DNA sequences that are capable of duplication and insertion (retrotransposition) within the genome. Recently, retrotransposition of L1 was shown to occur within human brain leading to somatic mosaicism in hippocampus and cerebellum. Because unregulated L1 activity can promote genomic instability and mutagenesis, multiple mechanisms including epigenetic chromatin condensation have evolved to effectively repress L1 expression. Nonetheless, L1 expression has been shown to be increased in patients with Rett syndrome and schizophrenia...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194445/diverse-repetitive-element-rna-expression-defines-epigenetic-and-immunologic-features-of-colon-cancer
#2
Niyati Desai, Dipti Sajed, Kshitij S Arora, Alexander Solovyov, Mihir Rajurkar, Jacob R Bledsoe, Srinjoy Sil, Ramzi Amri, Eric Tai, Olivia C MacKenzie, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Martin J Aryee, Cristina R Ferrone, David L Berger, Miguel N Rivera, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Vikram Deshpande, David T Ting
There is tremendous excitement for the potential of epigenetic therapies in cancer, but the ability to predict and monitor response to these drugs remains elusive. This is in part due to the inability to differentiate the direct cytotoxic and the immunomodulatory effects of these drugs. The DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine (AZA) has shown these distinct effects in colon cancer and appears to be linked to the derepression of repeat RNAs. LINE and HERV are two of the largest classes of repeats in the genome, and despite many commonalities, we found that there is heterogeneity in behavior among repeat subtypes...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188229/the-human-long-interspersed-element-1-retrotransposon-an-emerging-biomarker-of-neoplasia
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Ardeljan, Martin S Taylor, David T Ting, Kathleen H Burns
BACKGROUND: A large portion of intronic and intergenic space in our genome consists of repeated sequences. One of the most prevalent is the long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1, L1) mobile DNA. LINE-1 is rightly receiving increasing interest as a cancer biomarker. CONTENT: Intact LINE-1 elements are self-propagating. They code for RNA and proteins that function to make more copies of the genomic element. Our current understanding is that this process is repressed in most normal cells, but that LINE-1 expression is a hallmark of many types of malignancy...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186176/dual-immunomagnetic-nanobeads-based-lateral-flow-test-strip-for-simultaneous-quantitative-detection-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-and-neuron-specific-enolase
#4
Wenting Lu, Kan Wang, Kun Xiao, Weijian Qin, Yafei Hou, Hao Xu, Xinyu Yan, Yanrong Chen, Daxiang Cui, Jinghua He
A novel immunomagnetic nanobeads -based lateral flow test strip was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of neuron specific enolase (NSE) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which are sensitive and specific in the clinical diagnosis of small cell lung cancer. Using this nanoscale method, high saturation magnetization, carboxyl-modified magnetic nanobeads were successfully synthesized. To obtain the immunomagnetic probes, a covalent bioconjugation of the magnetic nanobeads with the antibody of NSE and CEA was carried out...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175298/the-evolution-of-line-1-in-vertebrates
#5
Stéphane Boissinot, Akash Sookdeo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174687/dicer-a-new-regulator-of-pluripotency-exit-and-line-1-elements-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#6
Maxime Bodak, Daniel Cirera-Salinas, Jian Yu, Richard P Ngondo, Constance Ciaudo
A gene regulation network orchestrates processes ensuring the maintenance of cellular identity and genome integrity. Small RNAs generated by the RNAse III DICER have emerged as central players in this network. Moreover, deletion of Dicer in mice leads to early embryonic lethality. To better understand the underlying mechanisms leading to this phenotype, we generated Dicer-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Their detailed characterization revealed an impaired differentiation potential, and incapacity to exit from the pluripotency state...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174046/prenatal-exposure-to-drinking-water-disinfection-by-products-and-dna-methylation-in-cord-blood
#7
Pan Yang, Bin Zhou, Wen-Cheng Cao, Yi-Xin Wang, Zhen Huang, Jin Li, Wen-Qing Lu, Qiang Zeng
Maternal exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) during pregnancy has been related to adverse birth outcomes. While experimental studies have shown that exposure to DBPs induce DNA hypomethylation, evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to examine whether prenatal exposure to drinking water DBPs was associated with DNA methylation in cord blood. Maternal biomarkers of exposure to drinking water DBPs including blood trihalomethanes [THMs, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] and urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were measured during late pregnancy...
February 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167501/comprehensive-characterization-of-neutrophil-genome-topology
#8
Yina Zhu, Ke Gong, Matthew Denholtz, Vivek Chandra, Mark P Kamps, Frank Alber, Cornelis Murre
Neutrophils are responsible for the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Their nuclei are uniquely structured as multiple lobes that establish a highly constrained nuclear environment. Here we found that neutrophil differentiation was not associated with large-scale changes in the number and sizes of topologically associating domains (TADs). However, neutrophil genomes were enriched for long-range genomic interactions that spanned multiple TADs. Population-based simulation of spherical and toroid genomes revealed declining radii of gyration for neutrophil chromosomes...
February 6, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166262/l1-retrotransposon-expression-in-circulating-tumor-cells
#9
Ioannis Papasotiriou, Katerina Pantopikou, Panagiotis Apostolou
Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) belongs to the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon family, which has been implicated in carcinogenesis and disease progression. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also known to be involved in cancer progression. The present study aimed to compare the L1 expression between circulating tumor cells and non-cancerous samples. Blood samples were collected from 10 healthy individuals and 22 patients with different types of cancer. The whole blood cells were isolated using enrichment protocols and the DNA and RNA were extracted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160561/an-association-between-overexpression-of-dna-methyltransferase-3b4-and-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
You Liu, Liantao Sun, Peter Fong, Jie Yang, Zhuxia Zhang, Shuihui Yin, Shuyuan Jiang, Xiaolei Liu, Hongge Ju, Lihua Huang, Jing Bai, Kerui Gong, Shaochun Yan, Chunyang Zhang, Guo Shao
It is well known that abnormal DNA methylations occur frequently in kidney cancer. However, it remains unclear exactly which types of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) contribute to the pathologies of kidney cancers. In order to determine the functions of DNA methyltransferase in kidney tumorigenesis on the molecular level, we examined the mRNA expression levels of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3B variants in renal cell carcinoma tissue. Both mRNA and protein levels of DNMT3B4, a splice variant of DNMT3B, were increased in renal cell carcinoma tissue compared with adjacent control tissues...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152688/a-new-digital-classification-schema-to-detect-treatment-variances-and-enable-value-based-payment-reforms
#11
Eric V Schultz, Kelly Choi, William Kea, Augie Smith, Cindy Kim, Matthew Axelrod, Teresa Fletcher, Matthew Love, Ruth Pe Benito, Samira Daswani, Sukhi Kaur, Kathyrn Tanenbaum, James Schaffer, Ali Hasan, Dilip Raj, Kumar Bharath Prabhu, Kiran Suryadevara, Ryan Callahan, Stuart L Goldberg
: 28 Background: Value based payment reforms which improve the outcome to cost ratio (paying for outcomes not for services) require detailed information on both elements. Although the digitalization of medicine via the EHR may facilitate data collection, the imprecise ICD9 and ICD10 schemas hinder analysis (eg: all breast cancers are ICD9 174.9). A more precise classification schema that accounts for biologic variances to allow analysis (and reduction) of treatment variances is needed...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149329/improved-results-of-line-1-methylation-analysis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-with-the-application-of-a-heating-step-during-the-dna-extraction-process
#12
Xianyu Wen, Seorin Jeong, Younghoon Kim, Jeong Mo Bae, Nam Yun Cho, Jung Ho Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang
BACKGROUND: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are important resources for profiling DNA methylation changes and for studying a variety of diseases. However, formalin fixation introduces inter-strand crosslinking, which might cause incomplete bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosines, which might lead to falsely elevated measurements of methylation levels in pyrosequencing assays. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is a major constituent of repetitive transposable DNA elements, and its methylation is referred to correlates with global DNA methylation...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141798/oxidative-dna-damage-induces-hypomethylation-in-a-compromised-base-excision-repair-colorectal-tumourigenesis
#13
Daniela Furlan, Davide Trapani, Enrico Berrino, Carla Debernardi, Mara Panero, Laura Libera, Nora Sahnane, Cristina Riva, Maria Grazia Tibiletti, Fausto Sessa, Anna Sapino, Tiziana Venesio
BACKGROUND: A compromised base excision repair (BER) promotes carcinogenesis by accumulating oxidative DNA-damaged products as observed in MUTYH-associated polyposis, a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome marked by adenomas and cancers with an accumulation of 8-oxoguanine. Remarkably, DNA global demethylation has been shown to be mediated by BER, suggesting a relevant interplay with early colorectal tumourigenesis. To check this hypothesis, we investigated a cohort of 49 adenomas and 10 carcinomas, derived from 17 MUTYH-associated polyposis patients; as adenoma controls, we used a set of 36 familial adenomatous polyposis and 24 sporadic polyps...
January 31, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139237/retrotransposon-expression-and-incorporation-of-cloned-human-and-mouse-retroelements-in-human-spermatozoa
#14
Leandros Lazaros, Chrysoula Kitsou, Charilaos Kostoulas, Sofia Bellou, Elissavet Hatzi, Paris Ladias, Theodoros Stefos, Sofia Markoula, Vasiliki Galani, Georgios Vartholomatos, Theodore Tzavaras, Ioannis Georgiou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of long interspersed element (LINE) 1, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K10, and short interspersed element-VNTR-Alu element (SVA) retrotransposons in ejaculated human spermatozoa by means of reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as well as the potential incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm cell genome. DESIGN: Laboratory study. SETTING: University research laboratories and academic hospital...
January 27, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134931/g-quadruplex-structures-within-the-3-utr-of-line-1-elements-stimulate-retrotransposition
#15
Aleksandr B Sahakyan, Pierre Murat, Clemens Mayer, Shankar Balasubramanian
Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are ubiquitous transposable elements in higher eukaryotes that have a significant role in shaping genomes, owing to their abundance. Here we report that guanine-rich sequences in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of hominoid-specific LINE-1 elements are coupled with retrotransposon speciation and contribute to retrotransposition through the formation of G-quadruplex (G4) structures. We demonstrate that stabilization of the G4 motif of a human-specific LINE-1 element by small-molecule ligands stimulates retrotransposition...
January 30, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130850/demethylating-and-anti-hepatocarcinogenic-potential-of-hesperidin-a-natural-polyphenol-of-citrus-juices
#16
Zahira Fernández-Bedmar, Jaouad Anter, Angeles Alonso-Moraga, Juana Martín de Las Mulas, Yolanda Millán-Ruiz, Silvia Guil-Luna
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a neoplasia representing the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the third cause of death from cancer. Diets with high content in fruits and vegetables are widely recommended for their health-promoting properties, among them, the protection against diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Hesperidin is the most important phenol in the orange fruit with well-known health benefits. Diet components have been used as possible modulator agents of DNA methylation in cancer cells and epigenetic therapy against their harmful effects could be a potential tool in chemotherapy...
January 27, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117816/a-murine-orthotopic-bladder-tumor-model-and-tumor-detection-system
#17
Sin Mun Tham, Kesavan Esuvaranathan, Ratha Mahendran
This protocol describes the generation of bladder tumors in female C57BL/6J mice using the murine bladder cancer cell line MB49, which has been modified to secrete human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), and the procedure for the confirmation of tumor implantation. In brief, mice are anesthetized using injectable drugs and are made to lay in the dorsal position. Urine is vacated from the bladder and 50 µL of poly-L-lysine (PLL) is slowly instilled at a rate of 10 µL/20 s using a 24 G IV catheter. It is left in the bladder for 20 min by stoppering the catheter...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115643/zno-nanoparticles-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-promotes-multimodal-cyto-and-epigenetic-toxicity
#18
Samrat Roy Choudhury, Josue Ordaz, Chiao-Ling Lo, Nur P Damayanti, Feng Zhou, Joseph Irudayaraj
In this study we evaluated and correlated the cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to epigenetic modifications, using human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells as a model system. Imaging of singlet and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ZnO-NPs treated live cells was performed followed by the evaluation of its effects on cytoskeletal, mitochondrial, and nuclear integrity, and on the expression of ROS responsive genes. Next, we determined the global and locus specific changes in DNA-methylation at the three genomic repeat sequences namely global LINE-1, subtelomeric D4Z4 and pericentromeric NBL2, and at the promoter of selected ROS responsive genes (AOX1, HMOX1, NCF2, SOD3)...
January 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108904/intravitreal-anti-vegf-treatment-for-subretinal-neovascularisation-secondary-to-type-2-idiopathic-juxtafoveolar-telangiectasia
#19
Teresa Barth, Florian Zeman, Horst Helbig, Maria-Andreea Gamulescu
PURPOSE: To assess the long-term outcome of patients with subretinal neovascular membrane (SRNVM) secondary to type 2 idiopathic juxtafoveolar telangiectasia (IJT) receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) injections. METHODS: A total of 14 eyes of 12 patients treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF for SRNVM related to type 2 IJT were retrospectively assessed. RESULTS: Nine men and 3 women with a mean age of 66 years (SD 12, range 47-87 years) were diagnosed with IJT-related SRNVM...
January 21, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106783/extract-of-polygala-tenuifolia-alleviates-stress-exacerbated-atopy-like-skin-dermatitis-through-the-modulation-of-protein-kinase-a-and-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway
#20
Bongjun Sur, Bombi Lee, Ye Seul Yoon, Pooreum Lim, Riwon Hong, Mijung Yeom, Hyang Sook Lee, Hijoon Park, Insop Shim, Hyejung Lee, Young Pyo Jang, Dae-Hyun Hahm
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and stress create a vicious cycle: stress exacerbates atopic symptoms, and atopic disease elicits stress and anxiety. Targeting multiple pathways including stress and allergic inflammation is, therefore, important for treating AD. In this study, we investigated the remedial value of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (PTW) for treating immobilization (IMO) stress-exacerbated atopy-like skin dermatitis and its underlying mechanism. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was applied to dorsal skin for sensitization and subsequently both ears for eliciting T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity in mice, which underwent 2 h-IMO stress and PTW administration for the latter 6 and 9 days in the ear exposure period of TMA, respectively...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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