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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642606/transposable-elements-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Kathleen H Burns
Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1)...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640667/restricting-retrotransposons-adar1-is-another-guardian-of-the-human-genome
#2
Elisa Orecchini, Loredana Frassinelli, Alessandro Michienzi
ADAR1 is an enzyme that belongs to the Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) family. These enzymes deaminate adenosines to inosines (RNA editing A-to-I) within double-stranded RNA regions in transcripts. Since inosines are recognized as guanosines by the cellular machinery, RNA editing mediated by ADARs can either lead to the formation of an altered protein (recoding) or affect different aspects of RNA metabolism. Recently, a proteomic analysis led to the identification of novel ADAR1-associated factors and found that a good fraction of them is shared with the Long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) ribonucleoparticles (RNPs)...
June 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638635/crystal-structure-of-an-apremilast-ethanol-hemisolvate-hemihydrate-solvatomorph
#3
Yun-Deng Wu, Xiao-Hong Liu, Jian Xu, Si-Han Zhang, Kun Shen, Ling Sun, Yong-Mei He, Yan Ma, Ai-Hua Zhang
The title compound, C22H24N2O7S·0.5C2H5OH·0.5H2O {systematic name: (S)-4-acetamido-2-[1-(3-eth-oxy-4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2-(methyl-sulfon-yl)eth-yl]iso-indo-line-1,3-dione ethanol hemisolvate hemihydrate}, is a novel solvatomorph of apremilast (AP), which is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis. The asymmetric unit contains one mol-ecule of AP and disordered mol-ecules of ethanol and water, both with half occupancy. The dihedral angle between the planes of the phenyl ring and the iso-indole ring is 67...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634866/differential-chromosomal-organization-between-saguinus-midas-and-saguinus-bicolor-with-accumulation-of-differences-the-repetitive-sequence-dna
#4
Dayane Martins Barbosa Serfaty, Natália Dayane Moura Carvalho, Maria Claudia Gross, Marcelo Gordo, Carlos Henrique Schneider
Saguinus is the largest and most complex genus of the subfamily Callitrichinae, with 23 species distributed from the south of Central America to the north of South America with Saguinus midas having the largest geographical distribution while Saguinus bicolor has a very restricted one, affected by the population expansion in the state of Amazonas. Considering the phylogenetic proximity of the two species along with evidence on the existence of hybrids between them, as well as cytogenetic studies on Saguinus describing a conserved karyotypic macrostructure, we carried out a physical mapping of DNA repeated sequences in the mitotic chromosome of both species, since these sequences are less susceptible to evolutionary pressure and possibly perform an important function in speciation...
June 20, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625654/line-1-hypomethylation-is-associated-to-specific-clinico-pathological-features-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Andrea Imperatori, Nora Sahnane, Nicola Rotolo, Francesca Franzi, Elisa Nardecchia, Laura Libera, Chiara Romualdi, Maria Cattoni, Fausto Sessa, Lorenzo Dominioni, Daniela Furlan
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that selected genetic and/or epigenetic changes associated with advanced tumours may help identifying early non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) that recur after resection. Among epigenetic changes, long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation is seen early during carcinogenesis and may act in concert with genetic alterations to cancer progression. LINE-1 hypomethylation and gene mutations frequently involved in lung cancer, were analysed to evaluate their prognostic role in resected stage I NSCLC...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620257/comparison-of-milk-production-and-milk-composition-for-an-exotic-and-a-local-synthetic-rabbit-lines
#6
Karim El-Sabrout, Sarah Aggag, Alaa El-Raffa
AIM: Basic objective of this research was to compare two rabbit lines: V-line (exotic line), Alexandria (local synthetic line) for yield and composition of milk product and their effect on productive performance of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiment was conducted on 80 does and their kits. Milk yield (MY) of each doe and milk composition (MC) were recorded at 3(rd) week of lactation. RESULTS: The results of MY showed insignificant difference between V-line and Alexandria line...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598817/the-shortening-of-leukocyte-telomere-length-relates-to-dna-hypermethylation-of-line-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Yue Wu, Wei Cui, Donghong Zhang, Wei Wu, Zhuo Yang
BACKGROUND: We aim to investigate the cross-talking of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and DNA methylation of LINE-1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESULTS: LTL (ratio of the copy number of telomere [T] repeats to that of a single [S] gene) was significantly shortened in T2DM compared with controls (0.94 ± 0.41 vs. 1.14 ± 0.48, P < 0.001), and decreased steadily with age in both controls and T2DM. Conversely, significant increase of LINE-1 DNA methylation was found in T2DM compared with controls (49...
May 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593503/global-level-of-plasma-dna-methylation-is-associated-with-overall-survival-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Chih-Ching Yeh, Abhishek Goyal, Jing Shen, Hui-Chen Wu, Joshua A Strauss, Qiao Wang, Irina Gurvich, Rachael A Safyan, Gulam A Manji, Mary V Gamble, Abby B Siegel, Regina M Santella
BACKGROUND: The impact of folate deficiency on global DNA methylation is uncertain. It also is unclear whether global DNA methylation is associated with outcome in HCC. LINE-1 methylation levels, as a surrogate marker of global methylation, may be influenced by folate deficiency. However, the interaction between LINE-1 methylation and folate level on overall survival (OS) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is unknown. We evaluated whether LINE-1 hypomethylation and folate deficiency are associated with HCC prognosis...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592132/combination-of-line-1-hypomethylation-and-rassf1a-promoter-hypermethylation-in-serum-dna-is-a-non-invasion-prognostic-biomarker-for-early-recurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-curative-resection
#9
Z J Liu, Y Huang, L Wei, J Y He, Q Y Liu, X Q Yu, Z L Li, J Zhang, B Li, C J Sun, W B Liang, A M Sun, Y Qin
Hepatocarcinogenesis, a multistep process, involves not only genetic mutations but also epigenetic alterations. Widespread of global DNA hypomethylation is accompanied with specific regional hypermethylation especially at tumor suppressor genes' promoters. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of combined DNA methylation analysis of a global DNA methylation marker - LINE-1 and a tumor suppressor gene highly associated with the malignancy of HCC- RASSF1A in serum as a novel prognostic marker for diagnosis of early recurrence after curative resection...
June 8, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585566/analysis-of-line-1-elements-in-dna-from-postmortem-brains-of-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#10
Glenn A Doyle, Richard C Crist, Emre T Karatas, Matthew J Hammond, Adam D Ewing, Thomas N Ferraro, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Wade H Berrettini
Whereas some rare genetic variants convey high risk for schizophrenia (SZ), common alleles conveying even moderate risk remain elusive. Long interspersed element-1s (L1) are mobile retrotransposons comprising ~17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition can cause somatic mosaicism during neurodevelopment by insertional mutagenesis. We hypothesized that, compared to controls, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (PDS) may have increased numbers of deleterious L1 insertions, perhaps occurring de novo, in brain-expressed genes of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) neurons...
June 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574327/intrinsic-line-1-hypomethylation-and-decreased-brca1-expression-are-associated-with-dna-repair-delay-in-irradiated-thyroid-cells
#11
Ricardo Cortez Cardoso Penha, Sheila Coelho Soares Lima, Mariana Boroni, Renata Ramalho-Oliveira, João P Viola, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Alfredo Fusco, Luis Felipe Ribeiro Pinto
Exposure to ionizing radiation greatly increases the risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), especially during childhood, mainly due to gradual inactivation of DNA repair genes and DNA damages. Recent molecular characterization of PTC revealed DNA methylation deregulation of several promoters of DNA repair genes. Thus, epigenetic silencing might be a plausible mechanism for the activity loss of tumor suppressor genes in radiation-induced thyroid tumors. Herein, we investigated the impact of ionizing radiation on global methylation and CpG islands within promoter regions of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) genes, as well as its effects on gene expression, using two well-established normal differentiated thyroid cell lines (FRTL5 and PCCL3)...
June 2, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574180/topical-equol-preparation-improves-structural-and-molecular-skin-parameters
#12
U Magnet, Chr Urbanek, D Gaisberger, E Tomeva, E Dum, A Pointner, A G Haslberger
OBJECTIVE: Equol has been shown to improve skin health and regeneration, due to its antioxidative, phytoestrogenic and epigenetic characteristics. The effects of a topical intervention on skin structure, telomere length and epigenetic markers in skin cells were analysed. METHODS: 64 participants were divided in four groups and three of them treated topically with: emulsion with Equol powder (Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ); emulsion with microencapsulated Equol (Vesisorb(®) Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ) and an emulsion with lecithin (Vesisorb(®) placebo)...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573253/in-vivo-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatoprotective-and-in-vitro-cytotoxic-activities-of-garcinia-hombroniana-seashore-mangosteen
#13
Nargis Jamila, Naeem Khan, Amir Atlas Khan, Imran Khan, Sadiq Noor Khan, Zainal Amiruddin Zakaria, Melati Khairuddean, Hasnah Osman, Kyong Su Kim
BACKGROUND: Garcinia hombroniana, known as "manggis hutan" (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves decoction is used against skin infections and after child birth. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of 20% methanolic ethyl acetate (MEA) G...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572862/prognostic-significance-of-line-1-hypomethylation-in-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Carlo Furlan, Jerry Polesel, Luigi Barzan, Giovanni Franchin, Sandro Sulfaro, Salvatore Romeo, Francesca Colizzi, Aurora Rizzo, Vittorio Baggio, Vittorio Giacomarra, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo, Emanuela Vaccher, Riccardo Dolcetti, Luca Sigalotti, Elisabetta Fratta
BACKGROUND: Inclusion of new biomarkers to improve a personalized treatment approach for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is urgently needed. Hypomethylation of the Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, a widely accepted surrogate of overall genomic DNA methylation content, was found to be associated with a poor prognosis in several cancers. At present, no studies have investigated the influence of LINE-1 methylation levels on OPSCC relapse...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571311/trichoderpyrone-a-unique-polyketide-hybrid-with-a-cyclopentenone-pyrone-skeleton-from-the-plant-endophytic-fungus-trichoderma-gamsii
#15
Lin Chen, Shu-Bin Niu, Li Li, Gang Ding, Meng Yu, Gui-Shan Zhang, Meng-Hua Wang, Lu-Ying Li, Tao Zhang, Hong-Mei Jia, Hong-Wu Zhang, Hai Shang, Xing-Zhong Liu, Zhong-Mei Zou
Trichoderpyrone (1), a unique polyketide with a cyclopentenone-pyrone hybrid skeleton, was isolated from the plant endophytic fungus Trichoderma gamsii. The structure of 1 was determined by detailed analysis of NMR data together with comparison of chemical shift values of similar fragments. The relative and absolute configurations were established by NOESY correlations and CD experiment. Trichoderpyrone (1) displayed weak cytotoxic activities against A549, HepG2, and HeLa cancer cell lines. 1 might originate from a hybrid biosynthetic pathway through two nonreduced (NR) polyketide megasynthetases...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561751/the-role-of-somatic-l1-retrotransposition-in-human-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Emma C Scott, Scott E Devine
The human LINE-1 (or L1) element is a non-LTR retrotransposon that is mobilized through an RNA intermediate by an L1-encoded reverse transcriptase and other L1-encoded proteins. L1 elements remain actively mobile today and continue to mutagenize human genomes. Importantly, when new insertions disrupt gene function, they can cause diseases. Historically, L1s were thought to be active in the germline but silenced in adult somatic tissues. However, recent studies now show that L1 is active in at least some somatic tissues, including epithelial cancers...
May 31, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556951/the-human-mast-cell-line-1-cell-membrane-chromatography-coupled-with-hplc-esi-ms-ms-method-for-screening-potentical-anaphylactic-components-from-chuanxinlian-injection
#17
Yuanyuan Lin, Cheng Wang, Yajing Hou, Huaizhen Hev Limin Huang, Liu Yang, Meng Sun
Chuanxinlian injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection widely used in China to treat sore throat, cough, and dysentery. While, the high occurrence of severe adverse reactions had been reported in clinical practice in recent years. In the present study, a human mast cell line-1 cell membrane chromatography coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was established to screen and identify potentical anaphylactic components in chuanxinlian injection, and the dehydroandrographolide was identified as a potential anaphylactic component...
May 29, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546999/a-birth-of-bipartite-exon-by-intragenic-deletion
#18
Kandai Nozu, Kazumoto Iijima, Toru Igarashi, Shiro Yamada, Jana Kralovicova, Yoshimi Nozu, Tomohiko Yamamura, Shogo Minamikawa, Ichiro Morioka, Takeshi Ninchoji, Hiroshi Kaito, Koichi Nakanishi, Igor Vorechovsky
BACKGROUND: Disease-causing mutations that activate transposon-derived exons without creating a new splice-site consensus have been reported rarely, but they provided unique insights into our understanding of structural motifs required for inclusion of intronic sequences in mature transcripts. METHODS: We employ a combination of experimental and computational techniques to characterize the first de novo bipartite exon activation in genetic disease. RESULTS: The exon originated from two separate introns as a result of an in-frame COL4A5 deletion associated with a typical Alport syndrome...
May 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540987/lack-of-aberrant-methylation-in-an-adjacent-area-of-left-sided-colorectal-cancer
#19
Otgontuya Sambuudash, Hyun Soo Kim, Mee Yon Cho
PURPOSE: The molecular nature and the rate-limiting step of epigenetic field defects in the evolution of left-sided colorectal cancer (LCA) remain uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methylation status of 27 candidate field defect markers, six classic CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) markers, and LINE-1 were determined in LCA and adjacent normal mucosas (ADJs) from 33 LCA patients and in left normal colorectal mucosa (LNM) from 33 age- and sex-matched controls...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536860/line-1-methylation-level-and-prognosis-in-pancreas-cancer-pyrosequencing-technology-and-literature-review
#20
Kensuke Yamamura, Keisuke Kosumi, Yoshifumi Baba, Kazuto Harada, Feng Gao, Xiaobo Zhang, Lei Zhou, Yuki Kitano, Kota Arima, Takayoshi Kaida, Hideaki Takeyama, Takaaki Higashi, Katsunori Imai, Daisuke Hashimoto, Akira Chikamoto, Xiaodong Tan, Hideo Baba
PURPOSE: Global DNA hypomethylation plays an important role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis. The long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) methylation level is a good surrogate marker of the global DNA methylation level. Previously, we demonstrated a strong relationship between LINE-1 hypomethylation and poor prognosis in certain cancers. However, the relationship between the LINE-1 methylation level and the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer (PC) remains unclear. METHODS: We used a pyrosequencing assay to measure LINE-1 methylation levels in 126 samples of resected PC and evaluated the prognostic value of the LINE-1 methylation level...
May 23, 2017: Surgery Today
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