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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931521/epigenetic-regulation-of-placental-glucose-transporters-mediates-maternal-cadmium-induced-fetal-growth-restriction
#1
Peng Xu, Zhongqiang Wu, Yao Xi, Lan Wang
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants that cause fetal malformation and growth restriction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying maternal Cd toxicity on fetal growth remain largely unknown. Specifically, the role of placental nutrient transporters, including glucose transporters (GLUTs), has been poorly characterized in the etiology of Cd-induced fetal growth restriction (FGR). In the present study, we established a murine model of FGR induced by maternal Cd exposure, and examined the toxic effects of Cd on placental GLUTs...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924165/assessment-of-global-dna-methylation-in-the-first-trimester-fetal-tissues-exposed-to-maternal-cigarette-smoking
#2
Svetlana Fa, Trine Vilsbøll Larsen, Katrine Bilde, Tina F Daugaard, Emil H Ernst, Rasmus H Olesen, Linn S Mamsen, Erik Ernst, Agnete Larsen, Anders L Nielsen
AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies. Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone to exposures with an epigenetic impact...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924012/l1base-2-more-retrotransposition-active-line-1s-more-mammalian-genomes
#3
Tobias Penzkofer, Marten Jäger, Marek Figlerowicz, Richard Badge, Stefan Mundlos, Peter N Robinson, Tomasz Zemojtel
LINE-1 (L1) insertions comprise as much as 17% of the human genome sequence, and similar proportions have been recorded for other mammalian species. Given the established role of L1 retrotransposons in shaping mammalian genomes, it becomes an important task to track and annotate the sources of this activity: full length elements, able to encode the cis and trans acting components of the retrotransposition machinery. The L1Base database (http://l1base.charite.de) contains annotated full-length sequences of LINE-1 transposons including putatively active L1s...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914298/effects-of-environmental-noise-exposure-on-dna-methylation-in-the-brain-and-metabolic-health
#4
Liqiong Guo, Peng-Hui Li, Hua Li, Elena Colicino, Silvia Colicino, Yi Wen, Ruiping Zhang, Xiaotian Feng, Timothy M Barrow, Akin Cayir, Andrea A Baccarelli, Hyang-Min Byun
Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910526/measurement-of-helium-like-and-hydrogen-like-argon-spectra-using-double-crystal-x-ray-spectrometers-on-east
#5
B Lyu, J Chen, R J Hu, F D Wang, Y Y Li, J Fu, Y C Shen, M Bitter, K W Hill, L F Delgado-Aparicio, N Pablant, S G Lee, M Y Ye, Y J Shi, B N Wan
A two-crystal assembly was deployed on the tangential X-ray crystal spectrometer to measure both helium-like and hydrogen-like spectra on EAST. High-quality helium-like and hydrogen-like spectra were observed simultaneously for the first time on one detector for a wide range of plasma parameters. Profiles of line-integrated core ion temperatures inferred from two spectra were consistent. Since tungsten was adopted as the upper divertor material, one tungsten line (W XLIV at 4.017 Å) on the short-wavelength side of the Lyman-α line (Lα1) was identified for typical USN discharges, which was diffracted by a He-like crystal (2d = 4...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905861/sodium-bisulfite-pyrosequencing-revealed-that-developmental-exposure-to-environmental-contaminant-mixtures-does-not-affect-dna-methylation-of-dna-repeats-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Daniel Desaulniers, Cathy Cummings-Lorbetskie, Nanqin Li, Gong-Hua Xiao, Leonora Marro, Nasrin Khan, Karen Leingartner
Hypomethylation of DNA repeats has been linked to diseases and cancer predisposition. Human studies suggest that higher blood concentrations of environmental contaminants (EC) correlate with levels of hypomethylation of DNA repeats in blood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in utero and/or lactational exposure to EC on the methylation of DNA repeats (LINE-1 and identifier element) in Sprague-Dawley rat pups at birth, at postnatal day (PND) 21, and in adulthood (PND78-86). From gestation day 0 to PND20, dams were exposed to a mixture "M" of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), at 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903268/long-term-outdoor-air-pollution-and-dna-methylation-in-circulating-monocytes-results-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#7
Gloria C Chi, Yongmei Liu, James W MacDonald, R Graham Barr, Kathleen M Donohue, Mark D Hensley, Lifang Hou, Charles E McCall, Lindsay M Reynolds, David S Siscovick, Joel D Kaufman
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation may mediate effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease. The association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation in monocytes, which are central to atherosclerosis, has not been studied. We investigated the association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and DNA methylation (candidate sites and global) in monocytes of adults (aged ≥55). METHODS: One-year average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900318/templated-sequence-insertion-polymorphisms-in-the-human-genome
#8
REVIEW
Masahiro Onozawa, Peter D Aplan
Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including (1) target-site duplication (TSD), (2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a "cryptic" polyadenylation signal, and (3) preference for insertion at a 5'-TTTT/A-3' sequence...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898962/genetic-variation-and-differentiation-in-parent-descendant-cattle-and-bison-populations
#9
M A Cronin, V L R Leesburg
Genetic variation and differentiation at 32 microsatellite loci was quantified for parent-descendant cattle populations and parent-descendant bison () populations. We compared heterozygosity () and allelic richness () for 587 cattle of four breeds and three lines derived from them, and 188 bison in three pairs of parent-descendant populations. and were less in the Line 1 Hereford inbred cattle population than in the parent Hereford breed. and were intermediate in a composite population (CGC, derived from crossing Red Angus, Charolais, and Tarentaise) compared to the three parent breeds...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898068/preliminary-indications-of-the-effect-of-a-brief-yoga-intervention-on-markers-of-inflammation-and-dna-methylation-in-chronically-stressed-women
#10
K N Harkess, J Ryan, P H Delfabbro, S Cohen-Woods
Yoga is associated with reduced stress and increased well-being, although the molecular basis for these benefits is not clear. Mounting evidence implicates the immune response, with current studies focused on protein immune markers (such as cytokines) in clinical populations. To explore the molecular impact, this pilot study uses a subsample (n=28) from a randomised waitlist control trial investigating the impact of an 8-week yoga intervention in a community population of women reporting psychological distress (N=116)...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895722/deciphering-fact-from-artifact-when-using-reporter-assays-to-investigate-the-roles-of-host-factors-on-l1-retrotransposition
#11
Pamela R Cook, G Travis Tabor
BACKGROUND: The Long INterspersed Element-1 (L1, LINE-1) is the only autonomous mobile DNA element in humans and has generated as much as half of the genome. Due to increasing clinical interest in the roles of L1 in cancer, embryogenesis and neuronal development, it has become a priority to understand L1-host interactions and identify host factors required for its activity. Apropos to this, we recently reported that L1 retrotransposition in HeLa cells requires phosphorylation of the L1 protein ORF1p at motifs targeted by host cell proline-directed protein kinases (PDPKs), which include the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)...
2016: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893851/expression-and-regulation-of-piwil-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rnas-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Lenka Pleštilová, Michel Neidhart, Giancarlo Russo, Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, Caroline Ospelt, Adrian Ciurea, Christoph Kolling, Renate E Gay, Beat A Michel, Jiří Vencovský, Steffen Gay, Astrid Jüngel
OBJECTIVE: The PIWIL (P-element induced wimpy testis like protein) subfamily of argonaute proteins is essential for Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis and their function to silence transposons during germ-line development. Here we explored their presence and regulation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The expression of PIWIL genes in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial tissues and synovial fibroblasts (SF) was analysed by Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892790/line-1-methylation-status-in-prostate-cancer-and-non-neoplastic-tissue-adjacent-to-tumor-in-association-with-mortality
#13
Valentina Fiano, Daniela Zugna, Chiara Grasso, Morena Trevisan, Luisa Delsedime, Luca Molinaro, Anna Gillio-Tos, Franco Merletti, Lorenzo Richiardi
Aberrant DNA methylation seems to be associated with prostate cancer behavior. We investigated LINE-1 methylation in prostate cancer and non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to tumor (NTAT) in association with mortality from prostate cancer. We selected 157 prostate cancer patients with available NTAT from two cohorts of patients diagnosed between 1982-1988 and 1993-1996, followed up until 2010. An association between LINE-1 hypomethylation and prostate cancer mortality in tumor was suggested [hazard ratio per 5% decrease in LINE-1 methylation levels: 1...
November 28, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889452/an-rb-ezh2-complex-mediates-silencing-of-repetitive-dna-sequences
#14
Charles A Ishak, Aren E Marshall, Daniel T Passos, Carlee R White, Seung J Kim, Matthew J Cecchini, Sara Ferwati, William A MacDonald, Christopher J Howlett, Ian D Welch, Seth M Rubin, Mellissa R W Mann, Frederick A Dick
Repetitive genomic regions include tandem sequence repeats and interspersed repeats, such as endogenous retroviruses and LINE-1 elements. Repressive heterochromatin domains silence expression of these sequences through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) utilizes a cell-cycle-independent interaction with E2F1 to recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to diverse repeat sequences. These include simple repeats, satellites, LINEs, and endogenous retroviruses as well as transposon fragments...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888300/analysis-of-local-recurrences-after-transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-for-low-risk-rectal-carcinoma
#15
Theodor Junginger, Ursula Goenner, Mirjam Hitzler, Tong T Trinh, Achim Heintz, Wilfried Roth, Maria Blettner, Daniel Wollschlaeger
AIM: Rates of local recurrence (LR) after transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal carcinoma vary; the reasons remain unclear. We analyzed LR after TEM for low-risk pT1 (G1/2/X, L0/X) rectal carcinoma to investigate the influence of completeness of resection and occult lymph node metastasis on risk of LR. METHOD: LR location and stage, completeness of resection of primary carcinoma (minimal distance between tumor and resection line ≤1 mm vs >1 mm), and incidence of involved lymph nodes in resected LR specimens were collected, and tumor characteristics of LR were compared with primary carcinoma...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874048/inverse-changes-in-l1-retrotransposons-between-blood-and-brain-in-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Shu Liu, Tingfu Du, Zeyue Liu, Yan Shen, Jianbo Xiu, Qi Xu
Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a type of retrotransposons comprising 17% of the human and mouse genome, and has been found to be associated with several types of neurological disorders. Previous post-mortem brain studies reveal increased L1 copy number in the prefrontal cortex from schizophrenia patients. However, whether L1 retrotransposition occurs similarly in major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. Here, L1 copy number was measured by quantitative PCR analysis in peripheral blood of MDD patients (n = 105) and healthy controls (n = 105)...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872649/a-green-antioxidant-activity-integrated-dual-standard-method-for-rapid-evaluation-of-the-quality-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-xuebijing-injection-by-on-line-dpph-ce-dad
#17
Jin Li, Jiao Liu, Wei Liu, Xie-An Yu, Jun Cao, Mingrui An, Xiu-Mei Gao, Yan-Xu Chang
Much attention has been focused on treatment of sepsis which leads to high mortality all over the world in every year. Antioxidant activity seems to play a prominent role in the treatment of sepsis exhibited by Xuebijing injection. The aim of the present research was to develop an on-line 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl- (DPPH-) capillary electrophoresis-diode array detector (on-line DPPH-CE-DAD) method for rapidly assessing antioxidant properties and efficacious material basis of antioxidant activity as a way of quality control of Xuebijing injection...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871462/placental-expression-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-dnmt1-gender-specific-relation-with-human-placental-growth
#18
A Mukhopadhyay, G Ravikumar, H Meraaj, P Dwarkanath, A Thomas, J Crasta, T Thomas, A V Kurpad, T S Sridhar
AIMS: Placental physiology and morphology is critically regulated by DNA methylation. As such, placental global DNA methylation and transcript abundance of placental DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A) may relate to placental and fetal growth in human pregnancies. We aimed to test correlations of human fetoplacental parameters and birth weight with the placental expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A) and placental global methylation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Placentae (n = 109) were collected from small- (SGA) and appropriate- (AGA) for gestational age full-term singleton pregnancies (n = 56 SGA and 53 AGA)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863519/tet-dependent-regulation-of-retrotransposable-elements-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Lorenzo de la Rica, Özgen Deniz, Kevin C L Cheng, Christopher D Todd, Cristina Cruz, Jonathan Houseley, Miguel R Branco
BACKGROUND: Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes oxidise DNA methylation as part of an active demethylation pathway. Despite extensive research into the role of TETs in genome regulation, little is known about their effect on transposable elements (TEs), which make up nearly half of the mouse and human genomes. Epigenetic mechanisms controlling TEs have the potential to affect their mobility and to drive the co-adoption of TEs for the benefit of the host. RESULTS: We performed a detailed investigation of the role of TET enzymes in the regulation of TEs in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
November 18, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862296/dna-methylation-changes-in-mexican-children-exposed-to-arsenic-from-two-historic-mining-areas-in-san-luis-potos%C3%A3
#20
Jorge Alejandro Alegría-Torres, Leticia Carrizales-Yánez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga, Fernando Rosso-Camacho, Valeria Motta, Letizia Tarantini, Valentina Bollati
Arsenic is a carcinogen and epimutagen that threatens the health of exposed populations worldwide. In this study, we examined the methylation status of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) and their association with levels of urinary arsenic in 84 Mexican children between 6 and 12 years old from two historic mining areas in the State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Urinary arsenic levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and DNA methylation analysis was performed in peripheral blood leukocytes by bisulfite-pyrosequencing...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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