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Jeffrey E Edwards, Lise Eliot, Andrew Parkinson, Sharon Karan, Leigh MacConell
INTRODUCTION: Obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the potential drug-drug interaction effect of OCA on metabolic CYP450 enzymes and drug transporters. METHODS: Five phase 1 single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence, inpatient studies were conducted in healthy adult subjects to evaluate the effect of oral daily doses of 10 or 25 mg OCA on single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics of specific probe substrates for enzymes CYP1A2 (caffeine, R-warfarin), CYP3A (midazolam, R-warfarin), CYP2C9 (S-warfarin), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), and drug transporters, BCRP/OATP1B1/OATP1B3 (rosuvastatin), and P-gp (digoxin)...
September 2017: Advances in Therapy
Yuval A Patel, Joanne C Imperial, Andrew J Muir, Quentin M Anstee, David DeBrota, Lara Dimick-Santos, Claudia Filozof, Ruby Mehta, Arun J Sanyal, Elmer Schabel, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Veronica Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Gastroenterology
Frederik Nevens, Pietro Andreone, Giuseppe Mazzella, Simone I Strasser, Christopher Bowlus, Pietro Invernizzi, Joost P H Drenth, Paul J Pockros, Jaroslaw Regula, Ulrich Beuers, Michael Trauner, David E Jones, Annarosa Floreani, Simon Hohenester, Velimir Luketic, Mitchell Shiffman, Karel J van Erpecum, Victor Vargas, Catherine Vincent, Gideon M Hirschfield, Hemant Shah, Bettina Hansen, Keith D Lindor, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Kris V Kowdley, Roya Hooshmand-Rad, Tonya Marmon, Shawn Sheeron, Richard Pencek, Leigh MacConell, Mark Pruzanski, David Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis) can progress to cirrhosis and death despite ursodiol therapy. Alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels correlate with the risk of liver transplantation or death. Obeticholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, has shown potential benefit in patients with this disease. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 217 patients who had an inadequate response to ursodiol or who found the side effects of ursodiol unacceptable to receive obeticholic acid at a dose of 10 mg (the 10-mg group), obeticholic acid at a dose of 5 mg with adjustment to 10 mg if applicable (the 5-10-mg group), or placebo...
August 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Carol H Wysham, Leigh MacConell, Elise Hardy
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of multiple exenatide once-monthly suspension (QMS) doses of exenatide-containing microspheres in Miglyol referenced against the clinical dose of exenatide once-weekly (QW) microspheres in aqueous solution. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this phase II, randomized, controlled, single-blind study, 121 adults (∼30/arm) with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c 7.1-11.0% (54-97 mmol/mol) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to subcutaneous exenatide QW 2 mg (self-administered) or exenatide QMS 5, 8, or 11 mg (caregiver-administered) for 20 weeks...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Leigh MacConell, Kate Gurney, Jaret Malloy, Ming Zhou, Orville Kolterman
BACKGROUND: Exenatide once weekly (QW) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Safety and tolerability are key considerations in treatment selection. This analysis examines the safety and tolerability profile of exenatide QW, other approved GLP-1RAs (exenatide twice daily and liraglutide once daily), and a pooled population of commonly used non-GLP-1RA treatments. METHODS: Intent-to-treat populations from eight randomized Phase III trials with 24-week and 30-week comparator-controlled periods were analyzed...
2015: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Carol H Wysham, Leigh A MacConell, David G Maggs, Ming Zhou, Peter S Griffin, Michael E Trautmann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 5-year efficacy and safety of once weekly exenatide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) randomized clinical trial consisted of a 30-week controlled phase (2 mg of exenatide once weekly vs 10 μg of exenatide twice daily) with an open-ended uncontrolled extension (once weekly exenatide only) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on background glucose-lowering therapies (April 15, 2006, through February 21, 2012)...
March 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Lawrence Blonde, Richard Pencek, Leigh MacConell
BACKGROUND: Overweight or obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and increases cardiovascular risk. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, significantly reduces glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and body weight and improves cardiovascular risk markers in patients with T2DM. As weight loss alone has been shown to reduce A1C and cardiovascular risk markers, this analysis explored whether weight loss contributed importantly to clinical responses to exenatide once weekly...
February 3, 2015: Cardiovascular Diabetology
J B Buse, A Peters, D Russell-Jones, S Furber, M Donsmark, J Han, L MacConell, D Maggs, M Diamant
AIMS: The recent type 2 diabetes American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (ADA/EASD) position statement suggested insulin is the most effective glucose-lowering therapy, especially when glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is very high. However, randomized studies comparing glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) exenatide once-weekly [OW; DURATION-3 (Diabetes therapy Utilization: Researching changes in A1c, weight, and other factors Through Intervention with exenatide ONce-Weekly)] and liraglutide once-daily [OD; LEAD-5 (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes)] with insulin glargine documented greater HbA1c reduction with GLP-1RAs, from baseline HbA1c ∼8...
February 2015: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Michaela Diamant, Michael A Nauck, Rimma Shaginian, James K Malone, Simon Cleall, Matthew Reaney, Danielle de Vries, Byron J Hoogwerf, Leigh MacConell, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel
OBJECTIVE: Mealtime insulin is commonly added to manage hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes when basal insulin is insufficient. However, this complex regimen is associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia. This study compared the efficacy and safety of exenatide twice daily or mealtime insulin lispro in patients inadequately controlled by insulin glargine and metformin despite up-titration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 30-week, open-label, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial with 12 weeks prior insulin optimization, 627 patients with insufficient postoptimization glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were randomized to exenatide (10-20 µg/day) or thrice-daily mealtime lispro titrated to premeal glucose of 5...
October 2014: Diabetes Care
John B Buse, Jenny Han, Stephan Miller, Leigh MacConell, Richard Pencek, Matthew Wintle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In a 30 week, double-blind, randomized, controlled Phase 3 study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the addition of fixed-dose exenatide twice daily (BID) to titrated insulin glargine resulted in significant glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) lowering and weight loss without increased hypoglycemia risk versus titrated insulin glargine alone. Because individualized insulin titration contributed to these results, this post-hoc analysis examined the results in the context of the degree of insulin titration that occurred...
July 2014: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Leigh Macconell, Richard Pencek, Yan Li, David Maggs, Lisa Porter
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disease necessitating therapies with sustained efficacy and safety over time. Exenatide once weekly (ExQW), an extended-release formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide, has demonstrated improvements in glycemic and cardiometabolic measures from 30 weeks to 2 years of treatment. Here, the efficacy and safety of treatment with ExQW for 3 years are described. METHODS: Patients were initially randomized to receive either ExQW (2 mg) or exenatide twice daily for 30 weeks...
2013: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Börje Darpö, Philip Sager, Leigh MacConell, Brenda Cirincione, Malcolm Mitchell, Jenny Han, Wenying Huang, Jaret Malloy, Christine Schulteis, Larry Shen, Lisa Porter
AIMS: Exenatide has been demonstrated to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, with no effect on heart rate corrected QT (QTc ) at therapeutic concentrations. This randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, crossover, thorough QT study evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic exenatide concentrations on QTc . METHODS: Intravenous infusion was employed to achieve steady-state supratherapeutic concentrations in healthy subjects within a reasonable duration (i...
April 2013: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
T Ridge, T Moretto, L MacConell, R Pencek, J Han, C Schulteis, L Porter
AIMS: Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist shown to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Intermittent exenatide exposure is achieved with the twice-daily formulation (ExBID), while the once-weekly formulation (ExQW) provides continuous exenatide exposure. This integrated, retrospective analysis compared safety and tolerability of ExQW vs. ExBID in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Data were pooled from two open-label, randomized, comparator-controlled, trials directly comparing ExQW (N = 277) to ExBID (N = 268)...
December 2012: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Tibor Iványi, József Fövényi, Péter Faludi, Jenny Han, Leigh Macconell, Simone Wille, Jacek Kiljanski
BACKGROUND: Studies of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are needed to determine the durability of metabolic response and tolerability associated with long-term treatment. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to provide long-term data on glycemic control, weight changes, and tolerability of exenatide 10 μg BID treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have failed to achieve glycemic targets with oral antihyperglycemic medication...
June 2012: Clinical Therapeutics
Julio Rosenstock, Sylvia K Shenouda, Richard M Bergenstal, John B Buse, Leonard C Glass, Cory R Heilmann, Anita Y M Kwan, Leigh A MacConell, Byron James Hoogwerf
OBJECTIVE: To determine variables associated with glycemic and body weight responses when adding exenatide to basal insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Exploratory subgroup analyses based on baseline A1C, disease duration, and BMI of a 30-week study comparing exenatide twice daily to placebo, added to optimized insulin glargine (intent-to-treat analysis: 137 exenatide; 122 placebo). RESULTS: Exenatide participants had greater A1C reductions compared with optimized insulin glargine alone, irrespective of baseline A1C (P < 0...
May 2012: Diabetes Care
Leigh Macconell, Carl Brown, Kate Gurney, Jenny Han
BACKGROUND: Exenatide twice daily is a first-in-class glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the safety profile of exenatide twice daily and to compare its profile with that of a pooled comparator (placebo and insulin) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Data from 19 completed, randomized, controlled clinical trials of exenatide twice daily (5 μg and 10 μg) were pooled and analyzed; the pooled data included 5594 intent-to-treat patients who were followed for 12-52 weeks...
2012: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Michaela Diamant, Luc Van Gaal, Stephen Stranks, Bruno Guerci, Leigh MacConell, Harry Haber, Jamie Scism-Bacon, Michael Trautmann
OBJECTIVE: We recently reported that after 26 weeks, exenatide once weekly (EQW) resulted in superior A1C reduction, reduced hypoglycemia, and progressive weight loss compared with daily insulin glargine (IG) in patients with type 2 diabetes who were taking metformin alone or with sulfonylurea. This 84-week extension study assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of EQW versus IG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-arm, parallel trial assessed change in A1C, proportions of patients achieving A1C <7...
April 2012: Diabetes Care
Mary Beth DeYoung, Leigh MacConell, Viren Sarin, Michael Trautmann, Paul Herbert
Exenatide once-weekly (EQW [2 mg s.c.]) is under development as monotherapy as an adjunct to diet and exercise or as a combination therapy with an oral antidiabetes drug(s) in adults with type 2 diabetes. This long-acting formulation contains the active ingredient of the original exenatide twice-daily (EBID) formulation encapsulated in 0.06-mm-diameter microspheres of medical-grade poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG). After mechanical suspension and subcutaneous injection by the patient, EQW microspheres hydrate in situ and adhere to one another to form an amalgam...
November 2011: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Mark Fineman, Shawn Flanagan, Kristin Taylor, Maria Aisporna, Larry Z Shen, Kenneth F Mace, Brandon Walsh, Michaela Diamant, Brenda Cirincione, Prajakti Kothare, Wen-I Li, Leigh MacConell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, available in an immediate-release (IR), twice-daily formulation, which improves glycaemic control through enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppression of inappropriately elevated postprandial glucagon secretion, slowing of gastric emptying and reduction of food intake. The objectives of these studies were to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an extended-release (ER) exenatide formulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
January 2011: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Richard M Bergenstal, Carol Wysham, Leigh Macconell, Jaret Malloy, Brandon Walsh, Ping Yan, Ken Wilhelm, Jim Malone, Lisa E Porter
BACKGROUND: Most patients with type 2 diabetes begin pharmacotherapy with metformin, but eventually need additional treatment. We assessed the safety and efficacy of once weekly exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, versus maximum approved doses of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, or the thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, in patients treated with metformin. METHODS: In this 26-week randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority trial, patients with type 2 diabetes who had been treated with metformin, and at baseline had mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) of 8...
August 7, 2010: Lancet
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