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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551907/-the-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hypothyroidism
#1
REVIEW
Amir Bashkin, Marina Nodelman
Hypothyroidism is the most frequent endocrinologic disorder after diabetes. It is caused by the insufficient production of thyroid hormones Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). T4 is the main hormone that is accumulated in the thyroid gland, while T3 is the active hormone that is produced from T4 in the peripheral tissues. More than 99% of the patients have primary hypothyroidism which is due to thyroid disorder mainly Hashimoto's thyroiditis or iatrogenic. Hypothyroidism is divided into sub-clinical when T4 is in the normal range and overt when it is low and usually the TSH level is higher than 10 mIU\L...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551823/indirect-comparisons-of-the-efficacy-of-biological-agents-in-patients-with-active-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Patompong Ungprasert, Patricia J Erwin, Matthew J Koster
Patients with ankylosing (AS) often do not have a satisfactory response to, or could not tolerate, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Several biologic agents are available for such patients. However, the comparative efficacy of these treatments remains unknown as head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are not available. RCTs examining the efficacy of biologic agents in patients with AS who had inadequate response to, or could not tolerate, NSAIDs were identified. If at least two RCTs were available for a given biologic agent, the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of achieving 20% improvement according to the Ankylosing Spondylitis Assessment Study group response criteria 20 (ASAS20) across trials were calculated...
May 28, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551775/lbec0101-a-proposed-etanercept-biosimilar-pharmacokinetics-immunogenicity-and-tolerability-profiles-compared-with-a-reference-biologic-product-in-healthy-male-subjects
#3
Heechan Lee, Hyewon Chung, SeungHwan Lee, Howard Lee, Sung Mo Yang, Seo Hyun Yoon, Joo-Youn Cho, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu
OBJECTIVES: We performed this study to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK), immunogenicity, and tolerability profiles of etanercept between LBEC0101, a proposed biosimilar, and Enbrel(®), the reference biological product. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study was conducted in 48 healthy males. In each period, a single dose of LBEC0101 or Enbrel(®) was subcutaneously injected at 25 mg and serial blood samples for PK evaluation were collected up to 648 h post-dose...
May 27, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551747/damage-to-the-microbial-cell-membrane-during-pyrolytic-sugar-utilization-and-strategies-for-increasing-resistance
#4
Tao Jin, Marjorie R Rover, Elspeth M Petersen, Zhanyou Chi, Ryan G Smith, Robert C Brown, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R Jarboe
Lignocellulosic biomass is an appealing feedstock for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, and thermochemical processing is a promising method for depolymerizing it into sugars. However, trace compounds in this pyrolytic sugar syrup are inhibitory to microbial biocatalysts. This study demonstrates that hydrophobic inhibitors damage the cell membrane of ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11+lgk. Adaptive evolution was employed to identify design strategies for improving pyrolytic sugar tolerance and utilization...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551624/immunoregulatory-function-of-lymphatic-endothelial-cells-in-tumor-draining-lymph-nodes-of-human-gastric-cancer
#5
Mao Tokumoto, Hiroaki Tanaka, Yukie Tauchi, Tatsuro Tamura, Takahiro Toyokawa, Kenjiro Kimura, Kazuya Muguruma, Masakazu Yashiro, Kiyoshi Maeda, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) regulate immune responses. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of LECs on the activation of CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the impact of cancer cells on the phenotype and production of cytokines of LECs derived from tumor-draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: We showed that LECs inhibited CD4(+) T cell production of cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-10, and INF-γ...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551581/remediation-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-soils-by-using-solanum-nigrum-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Yong Sik Ok, Wajid Ishaque, Saifullah, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz, Fatima Akmal, Maqsooda Waqar
Heavy metals are among the major environmental pollutants and the accumulation of these metals in soils is of great concern in agricultural production due to the toxic effects on crop growth and food quality. Phytoremediation is a promising technique which is being considered as an alternative and low-cost technology for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Solanum nigrum is widely studied for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils owing to its ability for metal uptake and tolerance. S. nigrum can tolerate excess amount of certain metals through different mechanism including enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and metal deposition in non-active parts of the plant...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551541/variation-partitioning-of-benthic-diatom-community-matrices-effects-of-multiple-variables-on-benthic-diatom-communities-in-an-austral-temperate-river-system
#7
Tatenda Dalu, Ryan J Wasserman, Mandla L Magoro, Tongayi Mwedzi, P William Froneman, Olaf L F Weyl
This study explores diatom community dynamics in a highly modified semi-arid temperate region river system characterised by inconsistent river flow. Various water and sediment environmental variables were assessed using a multi-faceted analysis approach to determine the spatio-temporal drivers of benthic diatom communities in the river system. Overall, the diatom community was generally dominated by pollution tolerant species, reflecting the anthropogenic intensity and activities on the river system. Diatom community composition was found to be largely determined by water column chemistry variables particularly nutrient concentrations in comparison to sediment chemistry and physical variables...
May 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551500/psychiatric-side-effects-and-antiepileptic-drugs-observations-from-prospective-audits
#8
Linda J Stephen, Abbie Wishart, Martin J Brodie
Psychiatric comorbidities are common in people with epilepsy. A retrospective study of characteristics associated with withdrawal due to psychiatric side effects was undertaken in patients with treated epilepsy participating in prospective audits with new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A total of 1058 treated patients with uncontrolled seizures (942 focal-onset seizures, 116 generalized genetic epilepsies [GGEs]) participated in eight prospective, observational audits from 1996 to 2014. These patients were prescribed adjunctive topiramate (n=170), levetiracetam (n=220), pregabalin (n=135), zonisamide (n=203), lacosamide (n=160), eslicarbazepine acetate (n=52), retigabine (n=64), or perampanel (n=54)...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551420/an-analysis-of-the-development-of-cauliflower-seed-as-a-model-to-improve-the-molecular-mechanism-of-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-cauliflower-artificial-seeds
#9
Hail Z Rihan, Mohammed Al-Issawi, Michael P Fuller
The development stages of conventional cauliflower seeds were studied and the accumulation of dehydrin proteins through the maturation stages was investigated with the aim of identifying methods to improve the viability of artificial seeds of cauliflower. While carbohydrate, ash and lipids increased throughout the development of cauliflower traditional seeds, proteins increased with the development of seed and reached the maximum level after 75 days of pollination, however, the level of protein started to decrease after that...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551416/validation-of-a-thermal-threshold-nociceptive-model-in-bearded-dragons-pogona-vitticeps
#10
Émilie L Couture, Beatriz P Monteiro, Jessica Aymen, Eric Troncy, Paulo V Steagall
OBJECTIVES: To validate a thermal threshold (TT) nociceptive model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and to document TT changes after administration of morphine. STUDY DESIGN: A two-part randomized, blinded, controlled, experimental study. ANIMALS: Five adult bearded dragons (242-396 g). METHODS: A TT device delivered a ramped nociceptive stimulus (0.6 °C second(-1)) to the medial thigh until a response (leg kick/escape behavior) was observed or maximum (cut-off) temperature of 62 °C was reached...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551363/salamanders-on-the-bench-a-biocompatibility-study-of-salamander-skin-secretions-in-cell-cultures
#11
Janek von Byern, Dietrich Mebs, Egon Heiss, Ursula Dicke, Oliver Wetjen, Kristin Bakkegard, Ingo Grunwald, Susanne Wolbank, Severin Mühleder, Alfred Gugerell, Heidemarie Fuchs, Sylvia Nuernberger
Salamanders have evolved a wide variety of antipredator mechanisms and behavior patterns, including toxins and noxious or adhesive skin secretions. The high bonding strength of the natural bioadhesives makes these substances interesting for biomimetic research and applications in industrial and medical sectors. Secretions of toxic species may help to understand the direct effect of harmful substances on the cellular level. In the present study, the biocompatibility of adhesive secretions from four salamander species (Plethodon shermani, Plethodon glutinosus, Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma opacum) were analyzed using the MTT assay in cell culture and evaluated against toxic secretions of Pleurodeles waltl, Triturus carnifex, Pseudotriton ruber, Tylototriton verrucosus, and Salamandra salamandra...
May 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551272/effect-of-cellulase-xylanase-and-%C3%AE-amylase-combinations-on-the-rheological-properties-of-chinese-steamed-bread-dough-enriched-in-wheat-bran
#12
Wenjun Liu, Margaret Anne Brennan, Luca Serventi, Charles Stephen Brennan
The present study investigates the effects of α-amylase (6 and 10ppm), xylanase (70 and 120ppm) and cellulase (35 and 60ppm) on the rheological properties of bread dough. The mixing property of dough was measured by using a DoughLAB. The extension and stickiness of dough were analysed using the Texture Analyzer. The results illustrate that the addition of single enzyme and enzyme combinations can increase the extensibility, softening, mixing tolerance index (MTI) and stickiness, whereas decrease the resistance to extension...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551266/characterization-of-extracellular-vitamin-b12-producing-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-and-assessment-of-the-probiotic-potentials
#13
Ping Li, Qing Gu, Lanlan Yang, Yue Yu, Yuejiao Wang
We investigated extracellular vitamin B12-producing Lactobacillus strains and their characteristics in tolerance to environmental stresses, gastric acid and bile salts. Two isolates, Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 and CY2, showed high extracellular B12 production, 98±15μg/L and 60±9μg/L respectively. Extracellular B12 from LZ95 were identified as adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin using a combination of solid phase extraction and reverse-phase HPLC, while that from CY2 was adenosylcobalamin. Both strains grew under environmental stresses, and LZ95 exhibited better tolerance to low temperature and high ethanol concentration...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551186/key-role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-epithelial-barrier-failure-during-ruminal-acidosis
#14
Svenja Meissner, Franziska Hagen, Carolin Deiner, Dorothee Günzel, Gabriele Greco, Zanming Shen, Jörg R Aschenbach
Subacute ruminal acidosis is induced by high concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate) that release protons to decrease the pH of the ruminal digesta. This low pH, in turn, is thought to damage epithelial barrier function. The present study applied a model of simulated ruminal acidosis ex vivo to investigate if SCFA directly contribute to epithelial barrier failure beyond their role as proton donors. Epithelial tissues from the rumen of slaughtered sheep were mounted in Ussing chambers and incubated under 3 different conditions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551170/switching-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-axial-spondyloarthritis
#15
REVIEW
Atul Deodhar, David Yu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of switching tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors on patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHODS: PubMed literature searches were conducted using combinations of search terms including ankylosing spondylitis, spondyloarthropathy, spondyloarthritis, switch/switching, drug survival, and TNF/tumor necrosis factor to identify published articles with data on outcomes related to switching biologic therapies in patients with axSpA...
April 25, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550993/barriers-to-pcsk9-inhibitor-prescriptions-for-patients-with-high-cardiovascular-risk-results-of-a-healthcare-provider-survey-conducted-by-the-national-lipid-association
#16
Jerome D Cohen, Mark J Cziraky, Terry A Jacobson, Kevin C Maki, Dean G Karalis
BACKGROUND: Statin therapy is recommended for reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Significant risk can remain because of insufficient clinical response or statin intolerance. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) therapy lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and has recently been shown to lower ASCVD events. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the barriers and challenges experienced with the access and approval reimbursement process for PCSK9 inhibitor prescriptions...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550972/multiscale-structure-and-damage-tolerance-of-coconut-shells
#17
B Gludovatz, F Walsh, E A Zimmermann, S E Naleway, R O Ritchie, J J Kruzic
We investigated the endocarp of the fruit of Cocos nucifera (i.e., the inner coconut shell), examining the structure across multiple length scales through advanced characterization techniques and in situ testing of mechanical properties. Like many biological materials, the coconut shell possesses a hierarchical structure with distinct features at different length scales that depend on orientation and age. Aged coconut was found to have a significantly stronger (ultimate tensile strength, UTS = 48.5MPa), stiffer (Young's modulus, E = 1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550969/long-term-assessment-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-pa21-sucroferric-oxyhydroxide-in-japanese-hemodialysis-patients-with-hyperphosphatemia-an-open-label-multicenter-phase-iii-study
#18
Fumihiko Koiwa, Keitaro Yokoyama, Masafumi Fukagawa, Tadao Akizawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to assess the safety and efficacy of long-term administration of PA21. DESIGN AND METHODS: Phase III, open-label, long-term study in 15 sites in Japan. SUBJECTS: Japanese hemodialysis patients (N = 161) with hyperphosphatemia aged ≥20 years undergoing stable maintenance hemodialysis 3 times weekly, for ≥12 weeks. INTERVENTION: After a 2-week observation period with their previous hyperphosphatemia therapy, patients began the 52-week treatment with PA21, which was administered orally at an initial dose of 250 mg, 3 times daily, immediately before every meal (dosing range between 750 and 3,000 mg/day)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550927/increased-incidence-of-prolonged-ileus-after-colectomy-for-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-under-eras-protocol-a-cohort-analysis
#19
Xujie Dai, Xiaolong Ge, Jianbo Yang, Tenghui Zhang, Tingbin Xie, Wen Gao, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus is a common problem after colorectal surgery. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for prolonged postoperative ileus (POI) after colectomy for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent colorectal resection for IBD versus colorectal cancer (CRC) patients under enhanced recovery after surgery protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Primary assessment end point is the incidence of prolonged POI (>4 days); secondary end points were GI-2 recovery (time to first toleration of solid food and first bowel movement), nasogastric tube reinsertion, and postoperative length of stay...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550810/rigid-aromatic-linking-moiety-in-cationic-lipids-for-enhanced-gene-transfection-efficiency
#20
Bing Wang, Rui-Mo Zhao, Ji Zhang, Yan-Hong Liu, Zheng Huang, Qing-Ying Yu, Xiao-Qi Yu
Although numerous cationic lipids have been developed as non-viral gene vectors, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these materials remains unclear and needs further investigation. In this work, a series of lysine-derived cationic lipids containing linkages with different rigidity were designed and synthesized. SAR studies showed that lipids with rigid aromatic linkage could promote the formation of tight liposomes and enhance DNA condensation, which is essential for the gene delivery process. These lipids could give much higher transfection efficiency than those containing more flexible aliphatic linkage in various cell lines...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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