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J Liang, Y Zhu, X-K Liu, Q-Q Qiu, Y-T Sun, Y Wang, Y Pei, M-Q Yang, L Qi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is strongly associated with insulin resistance and elevated plasma glucose levels. The rs9356744 polymorphism in the CDKAL1 gene is associated with body mass index (BMI) only in East Asians. Here, we examined the effect of the rs9356744 polymorphism on glucose-related traits and prediabetes in Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 2 357 participants were enrolled from the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) Study, including 499 persons with prediabetes, 204 persons with type 2 diabetes, and 1 654 normoglycemic controls...
June 22, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Qian Chen, Chaoying Hu, Yanmei Liu, Rong Song, Wenjing Zhu, Hongxin Zhao, Antonio Nino, Fan Zhang, Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, a cytokine essential for the formation, function and survival of osteoclasts. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of single-dose denosumab (60 and 120 mg) in healthy Chinese volunteers. METHODS: This randomized (3:3:2), single-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled healthy Chinese volunteers to receive single subcutaneous injection of denosumab 60 mg, 120 mg, or placebo...
2018: PloS One
Catherine Paterson, Charlotte Primeau, Irene Pullar, Ghulam Nabi
BACKGROUND: An important question revolves around when the most opportune time is to introduce recovery-optimizing behaviors for men opting for radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa). An emerging field of research describes the role of preoperative strategies to improve treatment tolerance and overall physical and psychological recovery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of a multimodal prehabilitation intervention for men and their partners before RP for localized PCa...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Nathan P Olafsen, Stanley A Herring, John W Orchard
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature guiding all aspects of the use of injectable corticosteroids for painful musculoskeletal conditions, with a focus on the treatment of athletes. DATA SOURCES: An extensive search of the literature was completed including search terms of corticosteroid, steroid, athlete, and injection, among others. Additional articles were used after being identified from previously reviewed articles. MAIN RESULTS: Injections of corticosteroids for a variety of painful conditions of the extremities and the axial spine have been described...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Alissa J Ellis, Giulia Salgari, David Miklowitz, Sandra K Loo
Frontal EEG asymmetry, relatively greater left-than-right frontal activity (rLFA), has been associated with mood symptoms and approach versus withdrawal behaviors. Distress tolerance (DT), a transdiagnostic behavior, has yet to be examined as an approach behavior using rLFA. Adolescents (N = 20; M age = 14.53, SD = 2.09) completed a frustrating mirror-tracing task which provided an index of DT. Higher resting rLFA was associated with lower DT. The results are the first to identify a relationship between cortical activation and distress tolerance in adolescents...
June 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Daína Lima, Flávia Lucena Zacchi, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Fabrício Flores-Nunes, Carlos Henrique Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Álvaro Cavaler Pessoa de Mello, Marília Nardelli Siebert, Clei Endrigo Piazza, Satie Taniguchi, Silvio Tarou Sasaki, Márcia Caruso Bícego, Maria João Bebianno, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Exposure of aquatic organisms to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as phenanthrene (PHE), may increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause changes in the biotransformation systems. In addition, changes in water temperature can cause adverse effects in the organisms. Estuarine species, like the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, can adapt and tolerate temperature variation. To evaluate the influence of temperature on biological responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were maintained at three temperatures (18, 24 and 32 °C) for 15 days and co-exposed afterwards to 100 μg...
June 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Minling Gao, Yu Liu, Youming Dong, Zhengguo Song
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used, artificially-synthesized, industrial chemical that can be released into the soil. However, to date, there is no comprehensive study on the effects of DEHP on photosynthesis, induction of reactive oxygen species, and response of the antioxidant defense system in wheat plants growing in DEHP contaminated soil. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge. Our results showed that after application of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg DEHP, photosynthetic parameters, fluorescence parameters, and chlorophyll content of wheat leaves at seedling, jointing, and booting stages decreased, while the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration increased...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Zaid Ulhassan, Skhawat Ali, Rafaqat A Gill, Theodore M Mwamba, Muhammad Abid, Lan Li, Na Zhang, Weijun Zhou
Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-element for human and animals. In higher plants, Se essentiality or phyto-toxicity is less explored. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of Se (0, 25, 50, and 100 µM) as sodium selenite on the physio-chemical, cell ultra-structural and genomic alterations in hydroponically grown seedlings of four cultivars of B. napus (cvs. Zheda 619, Zheda 622, ZS 758, and ZY 50). Results showed that excessive (100 µM) Se (IV) exhibited significant reduction in plant growth parameters, declined pigment contents, lower water-soluble protein levels, and overproduction of H2 O2 and MDA contents...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
S Dutta Gupta, A Agarwal, S Pradhan
The knowledge on the mode of action, biocompatibility and ecological tolerance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is gradually accumulating over the years with contradictory findings. Most of the studies indicated the toxic impact of AgNPs on plant growth and development, where induction of oxidative stress was considered to be one of the causal factors. The present study demonstrates the phytostimulatory effect of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) during seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shiwei Xie, Weiping Fang, Dan Wei, Yongjian Liu, Peng Yin, Jin Niu, Lixia Tian
A 25-days experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Haematococcus pluvialis on growth, survival, immune response and stress tolerance ability of post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei. Post-larval white shrimp (mean initial weight 2.1 mg) were fed five isoenergic and isonitrogenous diets containing grade levels of Haematococcus pluvialis (0, 1.7, 3.3, 6.7 and 13.3 g kg-1 diet, respectively). Results indicated that 3.3 g Haematococcus pluvialis kg-1 diet increased the survival rate of post-larval white shrimp...
June 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xinan Sheng, Dengfeng Cao, Jianlin Yuan, Fangjian Zhou, Qiang Wei, Xiaodong Xie, Chuanliang Cui, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Siming Li, Lili Mao, Bin Lian, Bixia Tang, Xieqiao Yan, Xuan Wang, Yan Kong, Jie Dai, Xue Bai, Li Zhou, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND: Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare type of renal cancer with a poor prognosis. As there are no standard guidelines for the management of metastatic CDC (mCDC), we evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined therapies of sorafenib, gemcitabine, plus cisplatin in patients with mCDC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial ( identifier NCT01762150) that enrolled 26 mCDC patients with no prior systemic chemotherapy...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Marcos de Lima, Betul Oran, Richard E Champlin, Esperanza B Papadopoulos, Sergio A Giralt, Bart L Scott, Basem M William, Joel Hetzer, Eric Laille, Becky Hubbell, Barry S Skikne, Charles Craddock
BACKGROUND: Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Injectable azacitidine can improve posttransplant outcomes but presents challenges with exposure and compliance. Oral CC-486 allows extended dosing to prolong azacitidine activity. We investigated use of CC-486 maintenance therapy post-alloSCT. METHODS: Adults with MDS or AML in morphological complete remission at CC-486 initiation (42-84 days post-alloSCT) were included...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Filipa Lynce, Ayesha N Shajahan-Haq, Sandra M Swain
Dysregulation of the cyclin dependent kinase pathway in luminal breast cancer creates a new therapeutic opportunity for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Initial pan-CDK inhibitors were associated with extensive toxicities but in recent years, the development of potent specific CDK inhibitors with favorable tolerability has driven renewed interests in this class of targeted therapies. Palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib are specific CDK4/6 inhibitors that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with endocrine therapy for women with advanced hormone receptor positive breast cancer...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
N A Nikitin, V A Zenin, E A Trifonova, E M Ryabchevskaya, O A Kondakova, A N Fedorov, J G Atabekov, O V Karpova
Spherical particles (SPs) generated by thermally denatured tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein can act as an adjuvant, as they are able to enhance the magnitude and longevity of immune responses to different antigens. Here, the toxicity of TMV SPs was assessed prior to it being offered as a universal safe adjuvant for the development of vaccine candidates. The evaluation included nonclinical studies of a local tolerance following the single administration of TMV SPs, and of the local and systemic effects following repeated administrations of TMV SPs...
June 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Joe Pelt, Sara Busatto, Mauro Ferrari, E Aubrey Thompson, Kabir Mody, Joy Wolfram
Clinically approved cancer therapies include small molecules, antibodies, and nanoparticles. There has been major progress in the treatment of several cancer types over recent decades. However, many challenges remain for optimal use of conventional and nanoparticle-based therapies in oncology including poor drug delivery, rapid clearance, and drug resistance. The antimalarial agent chloroquine has been found to mitigate some of these challenges by modulating cancer cells and the tissue microenvironment. Particularly, chloroquine was recently found to reduce immunological clearance of nanoparticles by resident macrophages in the liver, leading to increased tumor accumulation of nanodrugs...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nelma Cristina Silva Pacheco, Ana Paula Carli de Almeida, Kariny Cássia de Siqueira, Faena Moura de Lima, Silvia Regina de Lima Reis, Marcia Queiroz Latorraca, Luiz Fabrizio Stoppiglia
Nutritional recovery of early malnutrition with soybean diet reduces liver glycogen stores in the fed state and produces liver insulin resistance. We investigated whether nutritional recovery on a soybean flour diet alters hepatic gluconeogenesis in the adult offspring of rats deprived of protein during pregnancy and lactation. Male rats from mothers that were fed either 17% (C) or 6% (L) protein during pregnancy and lactation were maintained on a 17% casein (CC, n=16 and LC, n=17), 17% soybean flour (CS, n=10 and LS, n=10) or 6% casein (LL, n=10) diet after weaning...
June 22, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Janice Gabriel
Subcutaneous administration of medications is a well-recognised route for delivering prescribed therapies, in particular analgesia for patients requiring palliative care. Technological advancements in infusion devices and dressings can result in well-tolerated and effective methods for continuous infusions for this group of individuals. This article discusses how technological developments are resulting in subcutaneous access devices that are easy to insert and can meet the needs of a growing patient population, as well as complying with the latest guidelines on sharps safety...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
E Castela, M K Tulic, A Rozières, E Bourrat, J-F Nicolas, J Kanitakis, P Vabres, D Bessis, J Mazereeuw, F Morice-Picard, D Baty, F Berard, J-P Lacour, T Passeron, C Chiaverini
BACKGROUND: Epidermolysis bullosa simplex generalized severe is a genetic disorder caused by mutation in KRT5 or KRT14 genes. Usually considered as a mechanical disease, recent data argue for additional inflammatory mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the inflammation in the skin of patients with EBS. METHODS: A first immunohistochemical retrospective study was performed on frozen skin samples from 17 EBS-gen sev patients...
June 22, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Cameron A Elliott, Andrew Broad, Karl Narvacan, Trevor A Steve, Thomas Snyder, Jordan Urlacher, B Matt Wheatley, D Barry Sinclair
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate long-term seizure outcome, rate of reoperation, and postoperative neuropsychological performance following selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in pediatric patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of medically refractory pediatric TLE treated initially with either SelAH or ATL. Standardized pre- and postoperative evaluation included seizure charting, surface and long-term video-electroencephalography, 1...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Osman Ocal, Mustafa Yilmaz, Bora Peynircioglu, Burcak Bilginer, Ahmet Peker, Anil Arat
Aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) in pediatric patients are rare and mostly treated surgically. The authors present the case of a child with a giant extracranial ICA aneurysm presenting with gradual airway compression. A plan was made to explore the aneurysm surgically and straighten the associated carotid artery kinks during the operation to enable further endovascular treatment if primary reconstruction of the carotid artery proved not to be possible. Finally, the aneurysm was successfully treated with staged hybrid intervention, which consisted of surgical correction of parent artery kinks followed by endovascular implantation of stent grafts...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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