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paracetamol poisoning in adults: treatment

Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Brijesh Patel
BACKGROUND: In February 2012, the Commission on Human Medicines recommended lowering the paracetamol toxicity treatment threshold for all patients. Children between one month and six years of age are physiologically distinct and metabolise paracetamol differently, making them less prone to toxicity. Furthermore, overdose in early childhood is almost exclusively accidental, as opposed to predominately deliberate self harm seen in adults and adolescents. As a result, the use of the new 75 mg/kg ingestion threshold for young children would appear to be of unproven benefit, and is substantially lower than the threshold used in other countries...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Jonas Höjer, Helene Salmonson, Gunilla Sjöberg, Markus Tellerup, Jacob Brogren
Overdose of modified-release paracetamol calls for changed treatment routines. New guidelines from the Swedish Poisons Information Centre  The sales of modified-release paracetamol tablets are steadily increasing in Sweden as are the number of overdose cases with this formulation. The Swedish Poisons Information Centre has noted that the standard treatment protocol with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is based on overdoses with immediate-release paracetamol formulations, is often inadequate in this setting. In this paper, an adult who overdosed on 66...
November 10, 2016: Läkartidningen
Anselm Wong, Marco L A Sivilotti, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood, Shaun L Greene
CONTEXT: Risk prediction in paracetamol (acetaminophen, or APAP) poisoning treated with acetylcysteine helps guide initial patient management and disposition. The paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product may be a useful and less time-sensitive risk predictor. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate this multiplication product in an independent cohort of patients with paracetamol overdose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an existing toxicology dataset of poisoned patients from two large inner-city United Kingdom teaching hospitals, we retrospectively identified by electronic search all paracetamol overdoses from February 2005 to March 2013...
2015: Clinical Toxicology
Ubbo F Wiersema, Susan W Kim, David Roxby, Andrew Holt
BACKGROUND: In acute liver failure (ALF) therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) improves laboratory measures of liver function. In patients with ALF requiring minimal vasoactive support TPE has also been shown to provide haemodynamic benefits including an increase in systemic blood pressure. However the haemodynamic effects of TPE in patients with severe ALF requiring moderate or high dose vasopressor therapy has not been reported. We retrospectively examined the haemodynamic effects of TPE in a cohort of patients with severe ALF requiring vasopressor therapy...
2015: BMC Anesthesiology
Andis Graudins
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the characteristics of paracetamol poisoning in adolescent and adult patients. METHOD: Descriptive retrospective case series of adolescent (12-17 years) and adult (>18 years) patients presenting to a metropolitan hospital network ED, diagnosed with paracetamol poisoning from October 2009 to September 2013. RESULTS: There were 220 adolescent (median age 16 years, 47% treated with acetylcysteine [NAC]) and 647 adult presentations (median age 27 years, 42% treated with NAC) for paracetamol poisoning in the study period...
April 2015: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Michal Urban, Blažena Cagáňová, Silvia Plačková, Ivana Kurcová, Daniela Pelclova
OBJECTIVES: Paracetamol overdose belongs to frequent calls to Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) in the Czech Republic and to the National Toxicological Information Centre (NTIC) in Slovakia. The aim of the study was to evaluate outcomes and side effects of paracetamol overdose in both countries. METHODS: Data concerning paracetamol poisoning extracted from TIC and NTIC databases 2000-2013 and discharge reports were analysed. Numbers and outcomes in patients presenting within 24 hours of a single paracetamol overdose were compared in relation to 3 paracetamol concentration bands (≤ 100 mg/l, 100-149 mg/l, and 150 mg/l)...
2014: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Keith Hawton, Camilla Haw, Deborah Casey, Liz Bale, Fiona Brand, Dorothy Rutherford
BACKGROUND: Self-harm is a major healthcare problem and changes in its prevalence and characteristics can have important implications for clinical services, treatment and prevention. METHODS: We analysed data on all self-harm presentations to the general hospital in Oxford between 1996 and 2010 using the Oxford Monitoring System for Self-harm. We investigated trends in prevalence, methods and repetition of self-harm, and receipt of psychosocial assessment. For patients receiving a psychosocial assessment, we investigated trends in alcohol use and misuse, prior psychiatric treatment and self-harm, problems, and suicidal intent...
May 2015: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Y Leang, D M Taylor, P I Dargan, D M Wood, S L Greene
PURPOSE: To evaluate reported ingested dose of paracetamol as a risk assessment tool in acute paracetamol overdose. METHODS: Data was retrospectively obtained from a clinical toxicology database linked to one Australian and two United Kingdom hospitals. Plasma paracetamol concentrations (PPCs) of adult patients presenting with acute single ingestion, non-staggered paracetamol deliberate self-poisoning between 2006 and 2012 were recorded and plotted on a treatment nomogram to determine accuracy of reported dose ingested as an indicator for antidotal treatment...
December 2014: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Andis Graudins
BACKGROUND: There are currently no large cases series documenting poisoning with paracetamol modified-release (Panadol Osteo®, GlaxoSmithKline, Sydney, NSW, Australia). Management guidelines recommend at least two serum paracetamol concentrations 4 h apart and initiating treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) if more than 10 g is ingested. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of Panadol Osteo® poisoning and determine if the management of identified cases was consistent with existing guidelines...
August 2014: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
D Nicholas Bateman, Robert Carroll, Janice Pettie, Takahiro Yamamoto, Muhammad E M O Elamin, Lucy Peart, Margaret Dow, Judy Coyle, Kristina R Cranfield, Christopher Hook, Euan A Sandilands, Aravindan Veiraiah, David Webb, Alasdair Gray, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood, Simon H L Thomas, James W Dear, Michael Eddleston
AIMS: In September 2012 the UK's Commission on Human Medicines (CHM) recommended changes in the management of paracetamol poisoning: use of a single '100 mg l(-1) ' nomogram treatment line, ceasing risk assessment, treating all staggered/uncertain ingestions and increasing the duration of the initial acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion from 15 to 60 min. We evaluated the effect of this on presentation, admission, treatment, adverse reactions and costs of paracetamol poisoning. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from adult patients presenting to three large UK hospitals from 3 September 2011 to 3 September 2013 (year before and after change)...
September 2014: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
S A Handley, R J Flanagan
CONTEXT: Fatal poisoning data can reveal trends in the poisons encountered, which can help guide prescribing practices and product safety and other legislation, and more recently has helped to monitor the use of emerging drugs of abuse ( ‘ legal highs ’ ). METHODS: We searched Mortality Statistics – Injury and poisoning, Series DH4 (2000 – 2005), Mortality Statistics – Deaths registered in England and Wales, Series DR (2006 – 2011), and the Office for National Statistics drug poisoning database for information on fatal poisoning during 2000 – 2011...
January 2014: Clinical Toxicology
Th Zilker
Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability...
January 2014: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
D Nicholas Bateman, James W Dear, H K Ruben Thanacoody, Simon H L Thomas, Michael Eddleston, Euan A Sandilands, Judy Coyle, Jamie G Cooper, Aryelly Rodriguez, Isabella Butcher, Steff C Lewis, A D Bastiaan Vliegenthart, Aravindan Veiraiah, David J Webb, Alasdair Gray
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol poisoning is common worldwide. It is treated with intravenous acetylcysteine, but the standard regimen is complex and associated with frequent adverse effects related to concentration, which can cause treatment interruption. We aimed to ascertain whether adverse effects could be reduced with either a shorter modified acetylcysteine schedule, antiemetic pretreatment, or both. METHODS: We undertook a double-blind, randomised factorial study at three UK hospitals, between Sept 6, 2010, and Dec 31, 2012...
February 22, 2014: Lancet
R Carroll, J Benger, K Bramley, S Williams, L Griffin, J Potokar, D Gunnell
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol poisoning accounts for just under half of all self-poisoning cases that present to hospitals in England. Treatment with acetylcysteine is routine, yet recommendations regarding its use vary internationally and have recently been revised in England and Wales. METHODS: Data on all cases of paracetamol poisoning presenting to an adult inner city emergency department between May 2011 and April 2012 were prospectively collected using the Bristol Self-harm Surveillance Register...
February 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Scott-Oliver Grebe, Martin Langenbeck, Andreas Schaper, Siegmar Berndt, Duaa Aresmouk, Stefan Herget-Rosenthal
OBJECTIVES: To study the frequency, severity, and long-term outcome of renal injury in Cortinarius orellanus poisoning, to evaluate the association between the ingested amount of C. orellanus and outcome, and to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroid treatment on outcome. METHODS: Case series of eight patients. Diagnosis and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were classified according to current AKI and CKD definitions...
2013: Renal Failure
S B Duffull, G K Isbister
CONTEXT: There is contention over whether reported dose correlates with toxicity in paracetamol poisoning and risk assessment is currently based on serum paracetamol concentration compared to a nomogram, irrespective of reported dose. Objective. To determine if reported dose predicts the need for N-acetylcysteine (NAC). METHODS: Data were taken from paracetamol overdoses presenting to a tertiary toxicology service. Age, sex, reported dose, ingestion time, timed paracetamol concentrations between 4 and 16 h, hepatotoxicity (peak alanine transaminase > 1000 U/L) and treatment (single dose-activated charcoal [SDAC] and NAC) were analysed...
September 2013: Clinical Toxicology
K Al-Hourani, R Mansi, J Pettie, M Dow, D N Bateman, J W Dear
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol is a major cause of poisoning. Treatment decisions are predominately based on the dose ingested and a timed blood paracetamol concentration because most patients present to hospital soon after overdose, before hepatotoxicity can be confirmed/excluded using serum alanine transaminase (ALT). Nonetheless, ALT is measured at hospital presentation; we investigated its value in predicting hepatotoxicity. METHODS: From March 2011 to May 2012, patients admitted to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh for paracetamol overdose treatment were identified...
June 2013: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Shona McIntyre, David McD Taylor, Shaun Greene
OBJECTIVE: Under- or overdosing of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), when used to treat paracetamol toxicity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the effect of a weight-based dosing chart (WBDC) introduced to decrease NAC prescription errors. METHODS: We undertook a pre- and post-intervention trial in a single ED. The intervention (the NAC WBDC) was introduced in January 2011 and publicised by posters and presentations at medical handovers and education sessions...
February 2013: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Aneta Mietka-Ciszowska, Magdalena Stojakowska, Barbara Groszek
UNLABELLED: Paracetamol is a widely known over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic which, in acute poisoning usually causes liver damage, and less commonly damage to the kidney, heart, and pancreas. In the present paper we report a case of acute suicidal paracetamol intoxication complicated by acute hepatic and renal failure. The discussion covers the pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment of acute renal failure in the course of paracetamol poisoning. CASE REPORT: A thirty-four-year-old woman was admitted to hospital in the second day after ingestion of nearly 17 g of acetaminophen...
2012: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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