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Candice E Van Skike, Jordan B Jahrling, Angela B Olson, Naomi L Sayre, Stacy A Hussong, Zoltan I Ungvari, James D Lechleiter, Veronica Galvan
An intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic blood-derived factors into the brain parenchyma. The BBB is damaged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which contributes significantly to the progression of AD pathologies and cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying BBB breakdown in AD remain elusive and no interventions are available for treatment or prevention. We and others recently established that inhibition of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway with rapamycin yields significant neuroprotective effects, improving cerebrovascular and cognitive function in mouse models of AD...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Pedro A Bernaola-Galván, Manuel Gómez-Extremera, A Ramón Romance, Pedro Carpena
The correlation properties of the magnitude of a time series are associated with nonlinear and multifractal properties and have been applied in a great variety of fields. Here we have obtained the analytical expression of the autocorrelation of the magnitude series (C_{|x|}) of a linear Gaussian noise as a function of its autocorrelation (C_{x}). For both, models and natural signals, the deviation of C_{|x|} from its expectation in linear Gaussian noises can be used as an index of nonlinearity that can be applied to relatively short records and does not require the presence of scaling in the time series under study...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Noel L Shaheen, Esha Kataria, Jocelyn Antony, Dana Galvan, Yessenia Ballou, Brad A Bryan
Angiosarcoma is a rare and generally fatal tumor composed of aberrant cells of endothelial origin. Because of its infrequency in humans, very little is known about the growth requirements of this vascular sarcoma. Unlike the rapidly proliferating solid tumors from which they are isolated from, many of the established angiosarcoma cell lines exhibit less than robust growth in culture and often fail to form tumors in xenograft models. In order to better understand angiosarcoma in vitro growth conditions, we focused on a singular aspect of their culture-adhesion to the extracellular matrix-in order to identify attachment substrates that may facilitate and/or enhance their growth in tissue culture...
November 2017: Oncoscience
Aditya Ayyagari, Vahid Hasannaeimi, Harpreet Arora, Sundeep Mukherjee
Metallic glass composites represent a unique alloy design strategy comprising of in situ crystalline dendrites in an amorphous matrix to achieve damage tolerance unseen in conventional structural materials. They are promising for a range of advanced applications including spacecraft gears, high-performance sporting goods and bio-implants, all of which demand high surface degradation resistance. Here, we evaluated the phase-specific electrochemical and friction characteristics of a Zr-based metallic glass composite, Zr56...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying Zhang, Chengliang Yang, Bin Xue, Zenghui Peng, Zhaoliang Cao, Quanquan Mu, Li Xuan
We demonstrated flower-like 3D Ag-Au hetero-nanostructures on an indium tin oxide glass (ITO glass) for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. The flower-like 3D Ag nanostructures were obtained through electrodeposition with liquid crystalline soft template which is simple, controllable and cost effective. The flower-like 3D Ag-Au hetero-nanostructures were further fabricated by galvanic replacement reaction of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4·3H2O) solution and flower-like Ag. The flower-like Ag-Au hetero-nanostructure exhibited stronger SERS effects and better chemical stability compared with flower-like Ag nanostructure...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yaping Wang, Lulu Liu, Lingshan Gong, Ying Chen, Jinbin Liu
We report a facile strategy for the transformation of the single NIR-emitting AuNPs to dual-NIR-emitting bimetallic Ag@AuNPs based on the robust reactivity toward Ag(I) ions under mild conditions. The reactivities toward Ag(I) ions were discovered significantly different between the visible- and NIR-emitting glutathione(GSH)-coated AuNPs: the high GSH surface coverage on the 610 nm-emitting AuNPs resulted in an reversible interaction due to enough surface steric hindrance to resist Ag(I) ions from interaction with the Au(0) core, whereas the low GSH surface coverage on the 810 nm-emitting AuNPs led to both the anti-galvanic reaction and Ag(I)-carboxylate shell formation on surface of the AuNPs, which were responsible for the formation of a new emissive center at 705 nm...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yalan Shu, Xiaoqin Shi, Yuanyuan Ji, Ying Wen, Xiaoyu Guo, Ye Ying, Yiping Wu, Hai-Feng Yang
Large-scale preparation of hollow echinus-like PdCuCo alloy nanostructures with high surface area-to-volume ratio, rich active sites and relatively efficient catalytic activity have attracted considerable research interest. Herein, we present an economic and facile approach to synthesize hollow echinus-like PdCuCo alloy nanostructures (HENSs) by galvanic exchange reactions using Co nanospheres as sacrificial templates. Moreover, the catalytic activity could be adjusted via changing the composition of catalyst...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
T Leißner, D Hamann, L Wuschke, H-G Jäckel, U A Peuker
The comminution of composites for liberation of valuable components is a costly and energy-intensive process within the recycling of spent products. It therefore is continuously studied and optimized. In addition to conventional mechanical comminution innovative new principles for size reduction have been developed. One is the use of high voltage (HV) pulses, which is known to be a technology selectively liberating along phase boundaries. This technology offers the advantage of targeted liberation, preventing overgrinding of the material and thus improving the overall processing as well as product quality...
January 11, 2018: Waste Management
Yuanyuan Zheng, Junhua Qiao, Junhua Yuan, Jianfeng Shen, Ai-Jun Wang, Peijun Gong
How to use of Pt economically and efficiently in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of theoretical and practical significance for the industrialization of the proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In order to minimize Pt consumption and optimize the ORR performance, the ORR catalysts are recommended to be designed as a porous nanostructure. Herein, we report one-pot solvothermal strategy to prepare PtPd dendritic nanocube cages via a galvanic replacement mechanism triggered by I- ion. These PtPd alloy crystals are nanoporous, and uniformly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxides (RGOs)...
January 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Gavin Yamey, Lawrence H Summers, Dean T Jamison, Jessica Brinton
The Commission on Investing in Health (CIH), an international group of 25 economists and global health experts, published its Global Health 2035 report in The Lancet in December 2013. The report laid out an ambitious investment framework for achieving a "grand convergence" in health-a universal reduction in deaths from infectious diseases and maternal and child health conditions-within a generation. This article captures ten key elements that the CIH found important to its process and successful outcomes. The elements are presented in chronological order, from inception to post-publication activities...
January 10, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Jua Kim, Jeremy L Gilbert
Magnesium (Mg) and galvanically-coupled magnesium-titanium (Mg-Ti) particles in vitro have been reported previously to kill cells in a dosage-dependent manner. Mg-Ti particles kill cells more effectively than Mg alone, due to the galvanic effect of Mg and Ti. This study further investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of Mg and Mg-Ti in terms of particle concentration, cell density, time, and proximity. Cell density has an effect on cell viability only at low particle concentrations (below 250 µg/ml), where cell viability dropped only for lower cell densities (5,000-10,000 cells/cm2 ) and not for higher cell densities (20,000-30,000 cells/cm2 ), showing that the particles cannot kill if there are more cells present...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Candice E Van Skike, Veronica Galvan
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is detected prior to the onset of cognitive and histopathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent studies identified the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a critical effector of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD. mTOR has a key role in the regulation of metabolism, but some mTOR-dependent mechanisms are uniquely specific to the regulation of cerebrovascular function...
January 11, 2018: Gerontology
Timo Melman, David A Abbink, Marinus M van Paassen, Erwin R Boer, Joost C F de Winter
We conceptually replicated three highly cited experiments on speed adaptation, by measuring drivers' experienced risk (galvanic skin response; GSR), experienced task difficulty (self-reported task effort; SRTE), and safety margins (time-to-line-crossing; TLC) in a single experiment. The three measures were compared using a nonparametric index that captures the criteria of constancy during self-paced driving and sensitivity during forced-paced driving. In a driving simulator, 24 participants completed two forced-paced and one self-paced run...
January 10, 2018: Ergonomics
Minh Tran, Alison Whale, Sonal Padalkar
Noble transition metals, like palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt), have been well-known for their excellent catalytic and electrochemical properties. However, they have been considered non-active for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this work, we explore the scattering contributions of Pd and Pt for the detection of organic molecules. The Pd and Pt nanostructures were synthesized on silicon substrate using a modified galvanic displacement method. The results show Pt nanoparticles and dendritic Pd nanostructures with controlled density and size...
January 7, 2018: Sensors
Hui Xu, Pingping Song, Bo Yan, Jin Wang, Caiqin Wang, Yukihide Shiraishi, Ping Yang, Yukou Du
Precise control of the structure offers a great opportunity to efficiently tune the catalytic performances of nanomaterials, enabling them enhancement in both activity and durability. We herein achieve a new class of Pt islands on 3D nut-like PtAg nanocrystals by exploiting the lower electronegativity of Ag and in conjunction with the galvanic replacement of catalytically active Pt to Ag tops. Those nanostructures with Pt nanoparticles coated, exposed facet, active surface composition enhance formic acid oxidation electrocatalysis with the optimized PtAg1 nuts achieved a factor of 4...
January 9, 2018: ChemSusChem
Tian Ren, Mingyu Qiao, Lei Zhang, Jean Weese, Tung-Shi Huang, Xuehong Ren
The antimicrobial activity of 1-chloro-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazoidinone (MC), a nonbleaching N-halamine compound, was investigated on materials commonly used in broiler production, including stainless steel, galvanized metal, aluminum, plastic, and pressure-treated wood. MC aqueous solutions at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06% were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni at 6 log CFU/mL, resulting in complete inactivation of both bacteria in 30 min with 0.06% MC. Follow-up experiments were performed using test materials treated with 0...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Claudia Unikel Santoncini, Ietza Bojorquez Chapela, Concepción Díaz de León Vázquez, Verónica Vázquez Velázquez, José Alberto Rivera Márquez, Griselda Galván Sánchez, Ingrid Rocha Velis
BACKGROUND: Efficient assessment of eating disorders (ED) is indispensable for research and clinical practice in Mexico. One of the most commonly used questionnaires, the EDE-Q, has a self-applicable questionnaire format with 28 questions and four subscales drawn from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), a semistructured interview developed to evaluate the specific symptomatology of eating disorders. OBJECTIVE: Obtain the factorial structure and construct validity of the EDE-Q questionnaire in Mexican women...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Marisol Maya-López, María Verónica Mireles-García, Monserrat Ramírez-Toledo, Ana Laura Colín-González, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Isaac Túnez, Abel Santamaría
The mechanisms by which the heavy metal thallium (Tl+) produces toxicity in the brain remain unclear. Herein, isolated synaptosomal/mitochondrial P2 crude fractions from adult rat brains were exposed to Tl+ (5-250 μM) for 30 min. Three toxic endpoints were evaluated: mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity inhibition. Concentration-response curves for two of these endpoints revealed the optimum concentration of Tl+ to induce damage in this preparation, 5 μM. Toxic markers were also estimated in preconditioned synaptosomes incubated in the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA, 50 μM), the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 μM), or the antioxidant S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC, 100 μM)...
January 8, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Abbas Rana, Ruth L Ackah, Gwilym J Webb, Karim J Halazun, John M Vierling, Hao Liu, Meng-Fen Wu, Dor Yoeli, Michael Kueht, Ayse L Mindikoglu, Norman L Sussman, Nhu T Galván, Ronald T Cotton, Christine A O'Mahony, John A Goss
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess improvements in long-term survival after liver transplant by analyzing outcomes in transplant recipients who survived beyond 1 year. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Gains in short-term survival following liver transplantation have been gratifying. One-year survival in 1986 was 66% improved to over 92% in 2015. However, little is known about why long-term has not seen similar success. METHODS: We analyzed 111,568 recipients from 1987 to 2016 using the Kaplan-Meier method for time-to-event analysis and multivariable Cox regression...
January 4, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Götz Seibold, Sergio Caprara, Marco Grilli, Roberto Raimondi
The spin galvanic effect (SGE) describes the conversion of a nonequilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Recent experiments have demonstrated a large conversion efficiency for the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO_{3} and SrTiO_{3}. Here, we analyze the SGE for oxide interfaces within a three-band model for the Ti t_{2g} orbitals which displays an interesting variety of effective spin-orbit couplings in the individual bands that contribute differently to the spin-charge conversion...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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