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Zhijun Guo, Irina F Sevrioukova, Ilia G Denisov, Xia Zhang, Ting-Lan Chiu, Dafydd G Thomas, Eric A Hanse, Rebecca A D Cuellar, Yelena V Grinkova, Vanessa Wankhede Langenfeld, Daniel S Swedien, Justin D Stamschror, Juan Alvarez, Fernando Luna, Adela Galván, Young Kyung Bae, Julia D Wulfkuhle, Rosa I Gallagher, Emanuel F Petricoin, Beverly Norris, Craig M Flory, Robert J Schumacher, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Qing Cao, Haitao Chu, John D Lipscomb, William M Atkins, Kalpna Gupta, Ameeta Kelekar, Ian A Blair, Jorge H Capdevila, John R Falck, Stephen G Sligar, Thomas L Poulos, Gunda I Georg, Elizabeth Ambrose, David A Potter
The mechanisms by which cancer cell-intrinsic CYP monooxygenases promote tumor progression are largely unknown. CYP3A4 was unexpectedly associated with breast cancer mitochondria and synthesized arachidonic acid (AA)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which promoted the electron transport chain/respiration and inhibited AMPKα. CYP3A4 knockdown activated AMPKα, promoted autophagy, and prevented mammary tumor formation. The diabetes drug metformin inhibited CYP3A4-mediated EET biosynthesis and depleted cancer cell-intrinsic EETs...
August 29, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
Paul F Smith
It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. This paper reviews a small literature that demonstrates that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rats modulates cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that artificial electrical activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, does also...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Abhijit Roy, Arpan Maiti, Tapas Kumar Chini, Biswarup Satpati
This paper reports on a simple and cost-effective process of developing a stable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on silver (Ag) nanoparticles deposited on silicon (Si) surface. Durability is an important issue for preparing SERS active substrate as silver nanostructures are prone to rapid surface oxidation when exposed to ambient conditions, which may result in the loss of the enhancement capabilities in a short period of time. Here, we employ galvanic displacement method to produce Ag nanoparticles on Si(100) substrate pre-patterned with arrays of micro-pyramids by chemical etching and subsequently separate pieces of such substrates were annealed in oxygen and nitrogen environments at 550°C...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Przemysław Bartczak, Łukasz Klapiszewski, Marcin Wysokowski, Izabela Majchrzak, Weronika Czernicka, Adam Piasecki, Hermann Ehrlich, Teofil Jesionowski
A chitin/lignin material with defined physicochemical and morphological properties was used as an effective adsorbent of environmentally toxic metals from model systems. Particularly significant is its use in the neutralization of real industrial wastes. The ions Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) were adsorbed on the functional sorbent, confirming the high sorption capacity of the newly obtained product, primarily due to the presence on its surface of numerous active functional groups from the component biopolymers...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Gonzalo Galván, Álvaro Sánchez-Carballo, Ileana Gómez-Morales, Oscar Humánez-Julio, Manuel Guerrero-Martelo, Francisco Vásquez De la Hoz
Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Bjorn Cools, Stephen Brown, Martine Wevers, Jan Van Humbeeck, Derize Boshoff, Cis Verdonckt, Marc Gewillig
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the resistance to compression (stiffness) of frequently used stents for right ventricular outflow tract prestenting. In addition, to assess the corrosion potential when different types of stent alloys come into contact with each other. METHOD: Different stents were tested in vitro in various combinations at specialized metallurgic laboratories. A bench compression test was used to assess resistance to compression of singular and joined combinations of stents...
September 12, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Virginia Ferreira, María J Pianzzola, Francisco L Vilaró, Guillermo A Galván, María L Tondo, María V Rodriguez, Elena G Orellano, Marc Valls, María I Siri
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the main hosts of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt. This plant pathogen bacteria produce asymptomatic latent infections that promote its global spread, hindering disease control. A potato breeding program is conducted in Uruguay based on the introgression of resistance from the wild native species S. commersonii Dun. Currently, several backcrosses were generated exploiting the high genetic variability of this wild species resulting in advanced interspecific breeding lines with different levels of bacterial wilt resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniel L Galvan, Nathanael H Green, Farhad R Danesh
Recent advances have led to a greater appreciation of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to diverse acute and chronic pathologies. Indeed, mitochondria have received increasing attention as a therapeutic target in a variety of diseases because they serve as key regulatory hubs uniquely situated at crossroads between multiple cellular processes. This review provides an overview of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, with special emphasis on its role in the development of diabetic nephropathy...
September 8, 2017: Kidney International
Laura Osorio-Rico, Abel Santamaria, Sonia Galván-Arzate
Thallium (Tl(+)) is a ubiquitous natural trace metal considered as the most toxic among heavy metals. The ionic ratio of Tl(+) is similar to that of potassium (K(+)), therefore accounting for the replacement of the latter during enzymatic reactions. The principal organelle damaged after Tl(+) exposure is mitochondria. Studies on the mechanisms of Tl(+) include intrinsic pathways altered and changes in antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c, and caspases. Oxidative damage pathways increase after Tl(+) exposure to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in physical properties of the cell membrane caused by lipid peroxidation, and concomitant activation of antioxidant mechanisms...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Yuxiang Wang, Di Tie, Renguo Guan, Ning Wang, Yingqiu Shang, Tong Cui, Junqiao Li
In previous studies, Mg-Sr alloys exhibited great biocompatibility with regard to test animals, and enhanced peri-implant bone formation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of heat treatments on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Sr alloys. Various heat-treated Mg-xSr (x = 0.5, 1, and 2wt%, nominal composition) alloys were prepared using homogenization and aging treatments. Mechanical tests were performed at room temperature on the as-cast, homogenized, and peak-aged alloys...
August 24, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Antonio E Forte, Stefano Galvan, Daniele Dini
Capturing the deformation of human brain during neurosurgical operations is an extremely important task to improve the accuracy or surgical procedure and minimize permanent damage in patients. This study focuses on the development of an accurate numerical model for the prediction of brain shift during surgical procedures and employs a tissue mimic recently developed to capture the complexity of the human tissue. The phantom, made of a composite hydrogel, was designed to reproduce the dynamic mechanical behaviour of the brain tissue in a range of strain rates suitable for surgical procedures...
September 6, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Varadee Vittur, Arati G Kolhatkar, Shreya Shah, Irene Rusakova, Dmitri Litvinov, T Randall Lee
This manuscript describes a new type of nanomaterial, namely superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains with optical extinctions in the near infrared (NIR). The Au@Co nanochains were synthesized via a one-pot galvanic replacement route involving a redox-transmetalation process in aqueous medium, where Au salt was reduced to form Au shells on Co seed templates, affording hollow Au@Co nanochains. The Au shells serve not only as a protective coating for the Co nanochain cores, but also to give rise to the optical properties of these unique nanostructures...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Giulia Cartocci, Myriam Caratù, Enrica Modica, Anton Giulio Maglione, Dario Rossi, Patrizia Cherubino, Fabio Babiloni
The evaluation of advertising, products, and packaging is traditionally performed through methods based on self-reports and focus groups, but these approaches often appear poorly accurate in scientific terms. Neuroscience is increasingly applied to the investigation of the neurophysiological bases of the perception of and reaction to commercial stimuli to support traditional marketing methods. In this context, a particular sector or marketing is represented by public service announcements (PSAs). The objective of this protocol is to apply electroencephalography (EEG) and autonomic signal analysis to study responses to selected antismoking PSAs...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Keke Yu, Xiaonan Sun, Liang Pan, Ting Liu, Anping Liu, Guo Chen, Yingzhou Huang
Hollow noble metal nanoparticles have excellent performance not only in surface catalysis but also in optics. In this work, the hollow Au-Ag alloy nanorices are fabricated by the galvanic replacement reaction. The dark-field spectrum points out that there is a big difference in the optical properties between the pure Ag nanorices and the hollow alloy nanorices that exhibit highly tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) and that possess larger radiative damping, which is also indicated by the finite element method...
September 4, 2017: Nanomaterials
Xiaojun Wang, Xiaoan Xia, Xiaogang Zhang, Weijia Meng, Chen Yuan, Meiqing Guo
This study was dedicated to develop a nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on Ag&Pt hollow nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanotubes. The Ag&Pt-TiO2/(500°C) was synthesized by a simple reduction and galvanic replacement method in an aqueous solution. The surface morphology and structure of Ag&Pt-TiO2/(500°C) could be examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The mechanical behavior was measured by nanoindentation test and the hydropathy property was measured by contact angle test...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Felipe Romero-Perdomo, Jorge Abril, Mauricio Camelo, Andrés Moreno-Galván, Iván Pastrana, Daniel Rojas-Tapias, Ruth Bonilla
The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the application of two plant growth-promoting (rhizo)bacteria might reduce nitrogen fertilization doses in cotton. We used strains Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10 for their proven ability to promote seed germination and cotton growth. These microorganisms were characterized by their plant growth-promoting activities. Then, we conducted a glasshouse study to evaluate the plant growth promoting ability of these strains with reduced doses of urea fertilization in cotton...
August 29, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Crawford Drury, Stephanie Schopmeyer, Elizabeth Goergen, Erich Bartels, Ken Nedimyer, Meaghan Johnson, Kerry Maxwell, Victor Galvan, Carrie Manfrino, Diego Lirman
Threatened Caribbean coral communities can benefit from high-resolution genetic data used to inform management and conservation action. We use Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) to investigate genetic patterns in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis, across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and the western Caribbean. Results show extensive population structure at regional scales and resolve previously unknown structure within the FRT. Different regions also exhibit up to threefold differences in genetic diversity (He), suggesting targeted management based on the goals and resources of each population is needed...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Jorge Galván, Nayelhi Saavedra, Feliciano Bartolo, Shoshana Berenzon
BACKGROUND: The recent mental health care reforms in Mexico call for the regular evaluation of the services provided. This involves analyzing the opinions of those who utilize them on a daily basis, particularly women, since they are the main health service users. This study explores the barriers to mental health care perceived by a group of women attending primary care centers. METHOD: A qualitative methodological approach was chosen. The participants were purposively selected, using the snowball technique...
August 31, 2017: BMC Women's Health
Nandita Murukutla, Nalin S Negi, Pallavi Puri, Sandra Mullin, Lesley Onyon
Background Air pollution is of particular concern in India, which contains 11 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world. Media coverage of air pollution issues plays an important role in influencing public opinion and increasing citizen demand for action on clean air policy. Hence, this study was designed to assess news coverage of air pollution in India and its implications for policy advancement. Methods Articles published online between 1 January 2014 and 31 October 2015 that discussed air pollution in India were systematically content analysed...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
Arpad Szoor, Abishek Vaidya, Mireya Paulina Velasquez, Zhuyong Mei, Daniel L Galvan, David Torres, Adrian Gee, Andras Heczey, Stephen Gottschalk
The outcome for advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are actively being explored as cancer therapeutics due to their inherent ability to migrate to tumor sites. We reasoned that MSCs can be genetically modified to redirect T cells to Glypican-3 (GPC3)(+) HCC, and genetically modified these with viral vectors encoding a GPC3/CD3 bispecific T cell engager (GPC3-ENG), a bispecifc T cell engager specific for an irrelevant antigen (EGFRvIII), and/or costimulatory molecules (CD80 and 41BBL)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
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