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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150269/potential-role-of-the-virchow-robin-space-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis
#1
Patrick Chan, Denis J Meerdink, James A Uchizono
Meningitis is an infectious disease commonly arising from a bacterial etiology. The rapid progression of morbidity and mortality due to bacterial meningitis requires critical and imminent time-dependent clinical intervention. Although it is unambiguously clear that bacteria must infiltrate the cerebrospinal fluid, the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis has not been fully elucidated. Most reviews of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis do not specify the anatomical location of bacteria following BBB traversal...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149532/exploitation-of-micrornas-by-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-human-microglial-cells
#2
Meghana Rastogi, Neha Srivastava, Sunit K Singh
JEV infection in CNS leads to the JE neuroinflammation. Children and old age individual have been reported to be more prone to JEV infection. MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs, which regulate the gene expression. These are ∼22 nucleotide long, conserved RNA sequence that binds at the 3'UTR of a target mRNA and regulate the post-transcriptional gene expression. The role of microRNAs has been reported in several diseases like cancer, viral infection, neuro-degeneration, diabetes etc. In the present study, the human microglial cells were infected with JEV (JaOAr strain)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#3
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#4
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148587/experimental-infection-by-yersinia-ruckeri-o1-biotype-2-induces-brain-lesions-and-neurological-signs-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#5
H K Strøm, M Ohtani, B Nowak, T S Boutrup, B Jones, M K Raida, A M Bojesen
Pathological manifestations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following experimental waterborne infection with Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 (strain 07111224) were investigated. Rainbow trout were exposed to 8 × 10(7)  CFU/ml of Y. ruckeri by bath for 6 hr, and mortality was then monitored for 22 days post-infection (dpi). Organs were sampled at 3 dpi and also from moribund fish showing signs of severe systemic infection such as bleeding, exophthalmia or erratic swimming behaviour. Y. ruckeri was observed in the meninges and diencephalon of the brain, and lamina propria of olfactory organ at 3 dpi...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148389/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-dna-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-persons-with-eosinophilic-meningitis-laos
#6
Damien K Y Ming, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Tehmina Bharucha, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Paul N Newton, Matthew T Robinson
Definitive identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis parasites from clinical specimens is difficult. As a result, regional epidemiology and burden are poorly characterized. To ascertain presence of this parasite in patients in Laos with eosinophilic meningitis, we performed quantitative PCRs on 36 cerebrospinal fluid samples; 4 positive samples confirmed the parasite's presence.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148377/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-sheep-romania
#7
Jiri Salat, Andrei D Mihalca, Marian Mihaiu, David Modrý, Daniel Ruzek
Little is known about the occurrence of tick-borne encephalitis in Romania. Sheep are an infection source for humans and are useful sentinels for risk analysis. We demonstrate high antibody prevalence (15.02%) among sheep used as sentinels for this disease in 80% of the tested localities in 5 counties of northwestern Romania.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148374/pathogenic-elizabethkingia-miricola-infection-in-cultured-black-spotted-frogs-china-2016
#8
Ruixue Hu, Junfa Yuan, Yin Meng, Zhe Wang, Zemao Gu
Multiregional outbreaks of meningitis-like disease caused by Elizabethkingia miricola were confirmed in black-spotted frog farms in China in 2016. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that this amphibian E. miricola strain is closely related to human clinical isolates. Our findings indicate that E. miricola can be epizootic and may pose a threat to humans.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148280/anti-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-encephalitis-with-manic-symptoms-as-the-initial-manifestation
#9
Tsung-Han Tu, Yee-Lam E Chan, Ya-Mei Bai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147886/peromyscus-leucopus-mouse-brain-transcriptome-response-to-powassan-virus-infection
#10
Luwanika Mlera, Kimberly Meade-White, Eric Dahlstrom, Rachel Baur, Kishore Kanakabandi, Kimmo Virtaneva, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne Flavivirus responsible for life-threatening encephalitis in North America and some regions of Russia. The ticks that have been reported to transmit the virus belong to the Ixodes species, and they feed on small-to-medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, skunks, and woodchucks. We previously developed a P. leucopus mouse model of POWV infection, and the model is characterized by a lack of clinical signs of disease following intraperitoneal or intracranial inoculation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147884/ocular-flutter-following-zika-virus-infection
#11
Emely Karam, Jose Giraldo, Flor Rodriguez, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Gabriela M Blohm, Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus which has been linked to a number of neurologic manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, and meningo-encephalitis. Ophthalmologic manifestations are increasingly being reported; however, ocular dyskinesias have not been described in this context to date. Herein, we report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with ocular flutter and associated Guillain-Barré syndrome following acute ZIKV infection. We speculate that although such symptoms may have originated from a direct viral insult, a post-infectious autoimmune mechanism may not be excluded...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147873/comparison-of-the-adjuvanticity-of-two-adjuvant-formulations-containing-de-o-acylated-lipooligosaccharide-on-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine-in-mice
#12
Ara Ko, Seo Ri Wui, Ji In Ryu, Hien Thi Thu Do, Yeon Jeong Lee, Soo Jeong Lim, Inmoo Rhee, Dae Im Jung, Jin-Ah Park, Jung-Ah Choi, Man Ki Song, Na Gyong Lee
Adjuvants are essential vaccine components used to enhance, accelerate, and/or prolong adaptive immunity against specific vaccine antigens. In this study, we compared the adjuvanticity of two adjuvant formulations containing de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS), a toll-like receptor 4 agonist, on the Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine in mice. Mice were immunized once or twice at a two-week interval with inactivated JE vaccine in the absence or presence of adjuvant. We found that both the alum- and the liposome-based formulation induced significantly faster and higher serum IgG antibody responses as compared with the non-adjuvanted vaccine after either one or two immunizations...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146635/antibiotic-use-and-bacterial-complications-following-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-a-population-based-study
#13
Thomas Cars, Irene Eriksson, Anna Granath, Björn Wettermark, Jenny Hellman, Christer Norman, Anders Ternhag
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if use of antibiotics was associated with bacterial complications following upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). DESIGN: Ecological time-trend analysis and a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Primary, outpatient specialist and inpatient care in Stockholm County, Sweden. All analyses were based on administrative healthcare data on consultations, diagnoses and dispensed antibiotics from January 2006 to January 2016...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146286/-genital-herpes-and-pregnancy-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-prevention-and-screening-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetrician-cngof
#14
O Picone
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the consequences of genital herpes infections in pregnant women. METHODS: The PubMed database and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: The symptomatology of herpes genital rash is often atypical (NP2) and not different during pregnancy (Professional consensus). It is most often due to HSV2 (NP2). Seventy percent of pregnant patients have a history of infection with Herpes simplex virus, without reference to genital or labial localization, and this is in most cases type 1 (NP2)...
November 13, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145656/refining-operative-strategies-for-optic-nerve-decompression-a-morphometric-analysis-of-transcranial-and-endoscopic-endonasal-techniques-using-clinical-parameters
#15
Steven L Gogela, Lee A Zimmer, Jeffrey T Keller, Norberto Andaluz
BACKGROUND: Various approaches can be considered for decompression of the intracanalicular optic nerve. Although clinical experience has been reported, no quantitative study has yet compared the extent of decompression achieved by an endoscopic endonasal versus transcranial approach. OBJECTIVE: Toward this aim, our morphometric analysis compared both approaches by quantifying the circumferential degree of optic canal decompression that is possible before any meningeal violation, which would result in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak...
May 3, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145546/congenital-fistulae-of-the-stapedial-footplate-and-round-window-membrane-an-unusual-cause-of-recurrent-meningitis
#16
Douglas S Ruhl, Heather A Koehn, Kelly B Mahaney, Bradley W Kesser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145168/frontal-infraslow-activity-marks-the-motor-spasms-of-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#17
Richard Wennberg, Claude Steriade, Robert Chen, Danielle Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The clinical and electrographic features of seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis are distinct from those seen in other autoimmune encephalitides or non-encephalitic epilepsies. One electroclinical phenomenon specific to the condition consists of lateralized motor spasms, known as faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). An electrodecremental pattern overriding a "DC shift" has been described as the EEG correlate of these spasms. We sought to further characterize this pre-spasm infraslow activity (ISA)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144221/a-case-of-bell-s-palsy-complicated-by-subsequent-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#18
Margaret Moores, Caroline Nott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143568/the-inter-rater-reliability-and-prognostic-value-of-coma-scales-in-nepali-children-with-acute-encephalitis-syndrome
#19
Stephen Ray, Ajit Rayamajhi, Laura J Bonnett, Tom Solomon, Rachel Kneen, Michael J Griffiths
Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a common cause of coma in Nepali children. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is used to assess the level of coma in these patients and predict outcome. Alternative coma scales may have better inter-rater reliability and prognostic value in encephalitis in Nepali children, but this has not been studied. The Adelaide coma scale (ACS), Blantyre coma scale (BCS) and the Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive scale (AVPU) are alternatives to the GCS which can be used. Methods Children aged 1-14 years who presented to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu with AES between September 2010 and November 2011 were recruited...
November 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142539/values-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-in-the-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-associated-infectious-diseases
#20
Dongfeng Zhang
Objective: To discuss the roles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the identification of central nervous system associated infection and provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system associated infectious diseases. Methods: Seventy-six patients who developed central nervous system infection and were admitted into the Henan People's Hospital between June 2014 and October 2015 were randomly selected as an observation group...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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