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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346868/circulation-of-zoonotic-arboviruses-in-equine-populations-of-mallorca-island-spain
#1
Jessica Vanhomwegen, Cécile Beck, Philippe Desprès, Amanda Figuerola, Ramón García, Sylvie Lecollinet, Marc López-Roig, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Jordi Serra-Cobo
The presence of major arbovirus vector species, climate change that promotes the expansion and increase of their populations, and potential animal reservoirs mean that vector-borne diseases represent a significant health risk for Mallorca's inhabitants. Microbiological monitoring of circulating arboviruses, particularly flaviviruses causing encephalitis, was initiated using domestic horses from localities near wetlands as "sentinel" hosts. A total of 291 blood samples were taken from 172 horses between 2011 and 2012, using paired samples to highlight seroconversion events...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346748/the-brain-of-the-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-surface-configuration-encephalization-quotient-and-analysis-of-the-existing-literature
#2
Jean-Marie Graïc, Antonella Peruffo, Cristina Ballarin, Bruno Cozzi
The anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) has been poorly studied, except for the circulatory system. In particular, only a handful of studies have concerned the brain of this species since the first description in 1839. Accordingly, only a very few articles discussing encephalization mentioned the giraffe or used it in their calculations. In this article, we performed a thorough examination of the literature including old and grey, regarding the central nervous system of the giraffe...
March 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346504/diagnostic-accuracy-of-two-multiplex-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#3
Jermaine Khumalo, Mark Nicol, Diana Hardie, Rudzani Muloiwa, Phindile Mteshana, Colleen Bamford
INTRODUCTION: Accurate etiological diagnosis of meningitis is important, but difficult in resource-limited settings due to prior administration of antibiotics and lack of viral diagnostics. We aimed to develop and validate 2 real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) assays for the detection of common causes of community-acquired bacterial and viral meningitis in South African children. METHODS: We developed 2 multiplex RT- PCRs for detection of S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346317/the-csf-immune-response-in-hiv-1-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-macrophage-activation-correlates-of-disease-severity-and-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
James E Scriven, Lisa M Graham, Charlotte Schutz, Thomas J Scriba, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson, David R Boulware, Britta C Urban, Graeme Meintjes, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Immune modulation may improve outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Animal studies suggest alternatively activated macrophages are detrimental but human studies are limited. We performed a detailed assessment of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune response and examined immune correlates of disease severity and poor outcome, and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY: We enrolled persons ≥18 years with first episode of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345737/-meningeal-carcinomatosis-in-breast-cancer-from-diagnosis-to-treatment
#5
REVIEW
C Elm'hadi, Z Es Sbai, M Reda Khmamouche, M Toreis, R Tanz, H Errihani, M Ichou
The appearance of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer is an event that is being reported increasingly more frequently in the literature. It seems to be related with the lengthening of the patients' lives, improved sensitivity to diagnostic imaging and impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to the chemotherapeutic agents. It is an evolutionary form that affirms the metastatic invasion of the subarachnoidal space and is correlated with limited survival. Its diagnosis is difficult, due to the lack of specificity of the clinical signs dominated by headaches, cognitive disorders and possible signs and symptoms of progressive focal lesions...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345736/-kleine-levin-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-in-recurrent-encephalitic-syndromes-in-adolescence
#6
A Duat-Rodriguez, I Martinez-Albadalejo, I Perez-Sebastian, V Cantarin-Extremera, A Hedrera-Fernandez, J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disease of unknown origin characterized by recurrent and self-limited episodes of hypersomnia that are also accompanied by a cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Patients present normal sleeping and behavior patterns between episodes. CASE REPORTS: We present three patients who are 14 years old: two boys and one girl. They started having the episodes after a predisposing factor (vaccine, influenza B and menstruation)...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345735/-supratentorial-cavernous-malformations-in-an-argentinian-institution-experience-with-surgical-treatment
#7
G E Vergara, A Cervio, M Farez, R Mormandi, S Condomi-Alcorta, J Salvat
INTRODUCTION: Cavernous malformations are vascular malformations of the central nervous system formed by a group of capillaries not covered by pia mater and communicated to the vascular system at very low pressure with very slow flow. Surgery or radiosurgery are the treatment modalities. AIMS: To analyze our results after surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations, reviewing clinical presentation, surgical indications and postoperative complications...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345656/structure-and-function-of-the-zika-virus-full-length-ns5-protein
#8
Baoyu Zhao, Guanghui Yi, Fenglei Du, Yin-Chih Chuang, Robert C Vaughan, Banumathi Sankaran, C Cheng Kao, Pingwei Li
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected over 1 million people in over 30 countries. ZIKV replicates its RNA genome using virally encoded replication proteins. Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains a methyltransferase for RNA capping and a polymerase for viral RNA synthesis. Here we report the crystal structures of full-length NS5 and its polymerase domain at 3.0 Å resolution. The NS5 structure has striking similarities to the NS5 protein of the related Japanese encephalitis virus. The methyltransferase contains in-line pockets for substrate binding and the active site...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345071/jolt-accentuation-and-its-value-as-a-sign-in-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-patients-with-fever-and-headache
#9
Mani Mofidi, Narges Negaresh, Davood Farsi, Mahdi Rezai, Babak Mahshidfar, Saeed Abbasi, Peyman Hafezimoghadam
OBJECTIVES: Meningitis is an important disease among the patients being visited in Emergency Departments (EDs). There are many signs to diagnose it with different sensitivity and specificity reported in previously done studies. Current study tries to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of "Jolt accentuation" in the diagnosis (Dx.) of meningitis in patients with fever and headache. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 48 adult patients, who were referred to two teaching EDs for fever and headache and were diagnosed as suspected meningitis, were included in this prospective observational study...
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344804/multicomponent-meningococcal-b-vaccination-4cmenb-of-adolescents-and-college-students-in-the-united-states
#10
REVIEW
Angelika Banzhoff
Meningococcal disease is rare, easily misdiagnosed, and potentially deadly. Diagnosis in the early stages is difficult and the disease often progresses extremely rapidly. In North America, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is highest in infants and young children, with a secondary peak in adolescents, a population predominantly responsible for the carriage of disease. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) accounts for a large proportion of meningococcal disease in North America, with documented outbreaks in three universities in the United States (US) during 2008-2013...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344321/broad-spectrum-antiviral-activity-for-paramyxoviruses-is-modulated-by-biophysical-properties-of-fusion-inhibitory-peptides
#11
Cyrille Mathieu, Marcelo T Augusto, Stefan Niewiesk, Branka Horvat, Laura M Palermo, Giuseppina Sanna, Silvia Madeddu, Devra Huey, Miguel A R B Castanho, Matteo Porotto, Nuno C Santos, Anne Moscona
Human paramyxoviruses include global causes of lower respiratory disease like the parainfluenza viruses, as well as agents of lethal encephalitis like Nipah virus. Infection is initiated by viral glycoprotein-mediated fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Paramyxovirus viral fusion proteins (F) insert into the target cell membrane, and form a transient intermediate that pulls the viral and cell membranes together as two heptad-repeat regions refold to form a six-helix bundle structure that can be specifically targeted by fusion-inhibitory peptides...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344164/outbreak-of-brainstem-encephalitis-associated-with-enterovirus-a71-in-catalonia-spain-2016-a-clinical-observational-study-in-a-children-s-reference-centre-in-catalonia
#12
Dídac Casas-Alba, Mariona F de Sevilla, Ana Valero-Rello, Claudia Fortuny, Juan-José García-García, Carlos Ortez, Jordi Muchart, Thais Armangué, Iolanda Jordan, Carles Luaces, Irene Barrabeig, Rubén González-Sanz, María Cabrerizo, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Cristian Launes
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of an outbreak of brainstem encephalitis and encephalomyelitis related to enterovirus (EV) infection in Catalonia (Spain), a setting where these manifestations were uncommon. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data from patients with neurological symptoms associated with EV detection admitted to a reference paediatric hospital between April and June 2016 were analysed. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344163/characterization-of-antibody-response-in-neuroinvasive-infection-caused-by-toscana-virus
#13
Anna Pierro, Sabrina Ficarelli, Nazli Ayhan, Silvia Morini, Luigi Raumer, Michele Bartoletti, Antonio Mastroianni, Francesca Prati, Simona Schivazappa, Patrizia Cenni, Caterina Vocale, Giada Rossini, Paolo Gaibani, Vittorio Sambri, Maria Paola Landini, Russel Edward Lewis, Remi N Charrel, Stefania Varani
OBJECTIVES: Among sandfly-borne pathogens, Toscana virus (TOSV) is a prominent cause of summer meningitis in Mediterranean Europe. Here, we assessed the kinetics of anti-TOSV antibodies over time in 41 patients diagnosed with TOSV-meningitis or meningoencephalitis in North-eastern Italy. METHODS: Acute and follow-up serum samples were collected up to 20 months after diagnosis of TOSV infection and tested for the presence of specific antibody using immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assays...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343916/epidemiologic-trend-of-adult-bacterial-meningitis-in-southern-taiwan-2006-2015
#14
Chia-Yi Lien, Chi-Ren Huang, Wan-Chen Tsai, Che-Wei Hsu, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Chun-Chih Chien, Wen-Neng Chang
The purpose of this study is to analyze recent epidemiologic trend of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) in Taiwan. The clinical features, laboratory data and therapeutic outcomes of 157 patients with ABM from 2006-2015 were analyzed. The results were compared with those of our previous two epidemiologic studies of ABM (1st study: 202 cases, January 1986-June 1999; 2nd study: 181 cases, July 1999-December 2005). Of the 157 patients with ABM, 96 were men and 61 women, and 68.2% (107/157) of them had a postneurosurgical state as the underlying condition...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343419/clinical-features-long-term-clinical-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-west-china-a-multivariate-analysis-of-154-adults
#15
Kunyi Li, Hong Tang, Yi Yang, Qin Li, Yuchuan Zhou, Min Ren, Xianghua Long, Wenjing Shen, Rong Hu, Xue-Feng Wang, Kebin Zeng
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is prevalent in China, which is the second greatest contributor to the global tuberculosis burden. Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe disease form but few reports describe long-term clinical outcomes and prognostic factors. Thus, we studied these features in Chinese TBM patients. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was used to collect clinical features and outcomes of adult TB meningitis at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2012 to August 2015...
March 27, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342892/comparison-of-three-cell-based-drug-screening-platforms-for-hsv-1-infection
#16
Leonardo D'Aiuto, Kelly Williamson, Peter Dimitrion, James McNulty, Carla E Brown, Chanti Babu Dokuburra, Alexander J Nielsen, Wen Jing Lin, Paolo Piazza, Mark E Schurdak, Joel Wood, Robert H Yolken, Paul R Kinchington, David C Bloom, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
Acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives have been highly effective for treating recurrent, lytic infections with Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 (HSV-1), but searches for additional antiviral drugs are motivated by recent reports of resistance to ACV, particularly among immunocompromised patients. In addition, the relative neurotoxicity of ACV and its inability to prevent neurological sequelae among HSV-1 encephalitis survivors compel searches for new drugs to treat HSV-1 infections of the central nervous system (CNS)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342868/increased-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-levels-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-during-human-herpesvirus-6b-hhv-6b-encephalitis
#17
Masato Tamai, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Kazuya Shimada, Naomi Oka, Mayumi Takahashi, Akiko Tanuma, Tomohiro Tanemoto, Hiroyuki Namba, Yoshihiro Saito, Yasuyuki Wada, Aikou Okamoto, Hiroyuki Ida, Kazuhiro Kondo
Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) causes exanthema subitum in infants and is known to be mildly pathogenic. However, HHV-6B infection can induce febrile seizures in a high percentage of patients, and in rare cases, result in encephalitis. We detected higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) of patients with HHV-6B encephalitis when compared to those in patients with non-HHV-6B-induced febrile seizures. In vitro, IL-1β and bFGF enhanced HHV-6B gene expression in infected U373 astrocytes during the initial and maintenance phases of infection, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342565/mini-review-new-pathogen-profiles-elizabethkingia-anophelis
#18
REVIEW
J Michael Janda, Denise L Lopez
Within a little more than 5 years since its taxonomic description in 2011, from the midgut of mosquitoes, Elizabethkingia anophelis has emerged as an important causes of sepsis in adults and children and in cases of neonatal meningitis. At least 3 moderate- to large-scale outbreaks of disease have been caused by this bacterium, the largest 2 occurring in the Midwest United States in 2015-2016. Several studies suggest that E. anophelis, and not E. meningoseptica, is the predominant human pathogen of this genus; identification to species is difficult...
March 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342444/acid-ceramidase-deficiency-in-mice-results-in-a-broad-range-of-central-nervous-system-abnormalities
#19
Jakub Sikora, Shaalee Dworski, E Ellen Jones, Mustafa A Kamani, Matthew C Micsenyi, Tomo Sawada, Pauline Le Faouder, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Aude Dupuy, Christopher K Dunn, Ingrid Cong Yang Xuan, Josefina Casas, Gemma Fabrias, David R Hampson, Thierry Levade, Richard R Drake, Jeffrey A Medin, Steven U Walkley
Farber disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by acid ceramidase deficiency that usually presents as early-onset progressive visceral and neurologic disease. To understand the neurologic abnormality, we investigated behavioral, biochemical, and cellular abnormalities in the central nervous system of Asah1(P361R/P361R) mice, which serve as a model of Farber disease. Behaviorally, the mutant mice had reduced voluntary locomotion and exploration, increased thigmotaxis, abnormal spectra of basic behavioral activities, impaired muscle grip strength, and defects in motor coordination...
April 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341533/epidemiology-of-infectious-encephalitis-causes-in-2016
#20
REVIEW
A Boucher, J L Herrmann, P Morand, R Buzelé, Y Crabol, J P Stahl, A Mailles
We performed a literature search in the Medline database, using the PubMed website. The incidence of presumably infectious encephalitis is estimated at 1.5-7 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, excluding epidemics. Infectious encephalitis and immune-mediated encephalitis share similar clinical signs and symptoms. The latter accounts for a significant proportion of presumably infectious encephalitis cases without any established etiological diagnosis; as shown from a prospective cohort study where 21% of cases were due to an immune cause...
March 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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