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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549323/investigation-of-submicron-aerosol-characteristics-in-changzhou-china-composition-source-and-comparison-with-co-collected-pm2-5
#1
Zhaolian Ye, Qing Li, Jiashu Liu, Shipeng Luo, Quanfa Zhou, Chenglu Bi, Shuaishuai Ma, Yanfang Chen, Hui Chen, Ling Li, Xinlei Ge
Mass concentrations and chemical compositions of submicron particles (PM1) collected during July 2015 to April 2016 in Changzhou, a city in the Yangtze River Delta region, were systematically investigated for the first time. Specifically, an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was employed to characterize the water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The average concentration of PM1 was 63.6 μg m(-3), occupying ∼60% of co-collected PM2.5 mass. Water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) was the most abundant component with secondary ions (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) as the dominant species...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538099/iodide-selective-synthetic-ion-channels-based-on-shape-persistent-organic-cages
#2
Bahiru Punja Benke, Pulakesh Aich, Younghoon Kim, Kyung Lock Kim, Md Rumum Rohman, Soonsang Hong, In-Chul Hwang, Eun Hui Lee, Joon Ho Roh, Kimoon Kim
We report here a synthetic ion channel developed from a shape-persistent porphyrin-based covalent organic cage. The cage was synthesized by employing a synthetically economical dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) approach. The organic cage selectively transports biologically relevant iodide ions over other inorganic anions by a dehydration-driven, channel mechanism as evidenced by vesicle-based fluorescence assays and planar lipid bilayer-based single channel recordings. Furthermore, the organic cage appears to facilitate iodide transport across the membrane of a living cell, suggesting that the cage could be useful as a biological tool that may replace defective iodide channels in living systems...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536287/kisameet-glacial-clay-an-unexpected-source-of-bacterial-diversity
#3
Sarah L Svensson, Shekooh Behroozian, Wanjing Xu, Michael G Surette, Loretta Li, Julian Davies
Widespread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is providing the impetus to explore novel sources of antimicrobial agents. Recently, the potent antibacterial activity of certain clay minerals has stimulated scientific interest in these materials. One such example is Kisameet glacial clay (KC), an antibacterial clay from a deposit on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. However, our understanding of the active principles of these complex natural substances is incomplete. Like soils, clays may possess complex mixtures of bacterial taxa, including the Actinobacteria, a clade known to be rich in antibiotic-producing organisms...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534207/construction-of-polyarylenes-with-various-structural-features-via-bergman-cyclization-polymerization
#4
REVIEW
Youfu Wang, Shudan Chen, Aiguo Hu
Synthetic polymer chemistry is a fundamental part of polymer science, and highly efficient polymerization reactions are essential for the synthesis of high-performance polymers. Development of new synthetic methods for emerging polymer science is of great importance in this regard. Bergman cyclization is a chemical process in which highly reactive aryl diradicals form from enediyne precursors, having a strong impact in a number of fields including pharmaceutics, synthetic chemistry, and materials science. Diradical intermediates stemming from enediynes can cause DNA cleavage under physiological conditions, leading to the strong cytotoxicity of many naturally occurring enediyne antibiotics...
June 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533519/ocean-acidification-compromises-a-planktic-calcifier-with-implications-for-global-carbon-cycling
#5
Catherine V Davis, Emily B Rivest, Tessa M Hill, Brian Gaylord, Ann D Russell, Eric Sanford
Anthropogenically-forced changes in ocean chemistry at both the global and regional scale have the potential to negatively impact calcifying plankton, which play a key role in ecosystem functioning and marine carbon cycling. We cultured a globally important calcifying marine plankter (the foraminifer, Globigerina bulloides) under an ecologically relevant range of seawater pH (7.5 to 8.3 total scale). Multiple metrics of calcification and physiological performance varied with pH. At pH > 8.0, increased calcification occurred without a concomitant rise in respiration rates...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530742/a-survey-of-the-different-roles-of-polyoxometalates-in-their-interaction-with-amino-acids-peptides-and-proteins
#6
Mina Arefian, Masoud Mirzaei, Hossein Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Antonio Frontera
One of the most attractive areas in inorganic chemistry is the synthesis of polyoxometalates (POMs) exhibiting new properties and applications. Since the impact of POMs in biochemistry and related fields of research has increased in the last few years, there has been a special interest in this topic. Significant progress in biological applications has been made where the interaction of POMs with amino acids, peptides and proteins is relevant. Versatile POMs play a series of different roles in the interaction with these biomolecules as described in this review...
May 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528626/colloid-particle-formulations-for-antimicrobial-applications
#7
REVIEW
Ahmed F Halbus, Tommy S Horozov, Vesselin N Paunov
Colloidal particles are being extensively studied in various antimicrobial applications due to their small size to volume ratio and ability to exhibit a wide spectrum of antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal and antiviral action. The present review focuses on various nanoparticles (NPs) of inorganic, organic and hybrid materials, and discusses some of the methods for their preparation as well as mechanisms of their antimicrobial action. We consider the antimicrobial applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, MgO, CuO, Cu2O, Al2O3, TiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3), metal nanoparticles (NPs), such as copper, silver and gold, metal hydroxide NPs such as Mg(OH)2 as well as hybrid NPs made from biodegradable materials, such as chitosan, lignin and dextran, loaded with other antimicrobial agents...
May 12, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527356/exceptional-release-kinetics-and-cytotoxic-selectivity-of-oxidised-mwcnts-double-functionalised-with-doxorubicin-and-prostate-homing-peptide
#8
Vedran Milosavljevic, Ludmila Krejcova, Roman Guran, Hana Buchtelova, Dorota Wawrzak, Lukas Richtera, Zbynek Heger, Pavel Kopel, Vojtech Adam
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are among the frequently studied carbon materials, particularly because of their physical and chemical properties and high potential for application in materials chemistry, industry, and medicine. MWCNTs are very promising as transporters of bioactive molecules because of their π electrons and large surface area, which can be easily modified, mostly by the application of inorganic acids for the introduction of carboxylic moieties on the surface. In the present study, we designed an oxidised MWCNTs (oMWCNTs) transporter for the targeted delivery of doxorubicin (Dox)...
May 3, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526853/response-of-coral-calcification-and-calcifying-fluid-composition-to-thermally-induced-bleaching-stress
#9
J P D'Olivo, M T McCulloch
Severe, global-scale thermal stress events like those of 1998 and 2016, are becoming more frequent and intense, potentially compromising the future of coral reefs. Here we report the effects of the 1998 bleaching event on coral calcification as well as the composition of the calcifying fluid (cf) from which corals precipitate their calcium carbonate skeletons. This was investigated by using the Sr/Ca, Li/Mg (temperature), and boron isotopes (δ(11)B) and B/Ca (carbonate chemistry) proxies in a Porites sp. coral...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521935/rainfall-contributes-30-of-the-dissolved-inorganic-nitrogen-exported-from-a-southern-great-barrier-reef-river-basin
#10
Robert Packett
A study was conducted to estimate how much of the annual load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) river basins could come from rainfall. Results suggest rainfall contributed ~37% of the average annual DIN load from the Fitzroy Basin over three wet seasons. Rainfall DIN contribution at plot to sub-catchment scale ranged from 5 to >100% for study sites in the Fitzroy and Pioneer Basins. An estimate using measured and modelled data indicates ~28% of the longer-term average annual DIN load from the entire GBR catchment may originate from rainfall...
May 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512707/geochemistry-and-sources-of-fluoride-and-nitrate-contamination-of-groundwater-in-lar-area-south-iran
#11
Mohsen Rezaei, Masume Nikbakht, Ata Shakeri
Groundwater quality in bone-dry and semiarid areas of Iran is decreasing because of contaminants from natural origins and anthropogenic sources. Among many harmful contaminants, nitrate and fluoride ions are more common. This study was carried out with the aim of determining geochemical processes controlling chemistry of groundwater with special reference to nitrate and fluoride enrichment in groundwater in Lar plain aquifer, south of Iran. Groundwater samples were collected from 17 sites and analyzed for main constituents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4(2-), HCO3(-), F(-), and NO3(-))...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510024/mineralization-and-non-ideality-on-nature-s-foundry
#12
REVIEW
Ashit Rao, Helmut Cölfen
Understanding how ions, ion-clusters and particles behave in non-ideal environments is a fundamental question concerning planetary to atomic scales. For biomineralization phenomena wherein diverse inorganic and organic ingredients are present in biological media, attributing biomaterial composition and structure to the chemistry of singular additives may not provide a holistic view of the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in this review, we specifically address the consequences of physico-chemical non-ideality on mineral formation...
December 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508866/tuning-colloidal-quantum-dot-band-edge-positions-through-solution-phase-surface-chemistry-modification
#13
Daniel M Kroupa, Márton Vörös, Nicholas P Brawand, Brett W McNichols, Elisa M Miller, Jing Gu, Arthur J Nozik, Alan Sellinger, Giulia Galli, Matthew C Beard
Band edge positions of semiconductors determine their functionality in many optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical cells and light emitting diodes. Here we show that band edge positions of lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, specifically quantum dots (QDs), can be tuned over 2.0 eV through surface chemistry modification. We achieved this remarkable control through the development of simple, robust and scalable solution-phase ligand exchange methods, which completely replace native ligands with functionalized cinnamate ligands, allowing for well-defined, highly tunable chemical systems...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508633/ionic-complexes-of-metal-oxide-clusters-for-versatile-self-assemblies
#14
Bao Li, Wen Li, Haolong Li, Lixin Wu
The combination of rational design of building components and suitable utilization of driving force affords spontaneous molecular assemblies with well-defined nanostructure and morphology over multiple length scales. The serious challenges in constructing assemblies with structural advantages for the realization of functions programmed into the building components usually lie ahead since the process that occurs does not always follow the expected roadmap in the absence of external intervention. Thus, prefabricated intermediates that help in governing the target self-assemblies are developed into a type of unique building blocks...
May 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503805/development-of-a-siyalon-glaze-for-improved-osteoconductivity-of-implantable-medical-devices
#15
Ryan M Bock, Elia Marin, Alfredo Rondinella, Francesco Boschetto, Tetsuya Adachi, Bryan J McEntire, B Sonny Bal, Giuseppe Pezzotti
The application of bioactive coatings onto orthopaedic appliances is commonly performed to compensate for the otherwise bioinert nature of medical devices and to improve their osseointegration. Calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite (HAp), and bioglasses are commercially available for this purpose. Until recently, few other inorganic compounds have been identified with similar biofunctionality. However, silicon nitride (Si3 N4 ) has emerged as a new orthopaedic material whose unique surface chemistry also enhances osteoconductivity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498333/hypervalent-iodine-reagents-in-high-valent-transition-metal-chemistry
#16
REVIEW
Felipe Cesar Sousa E Silva, Anthony F Tierno, Sarah E Wengryniuk
Over the last 20 years, high valent metal complexes have evolved from mere curiosities to being at the forefront of modern catalytic method development. This approach has enabled transformations complimentary to those possible via traditional manifolds, most prominently carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Key to the advancement of this chemistry has been the identification of oxidants that are capable of accessing these high oxidation state complexes. The oxidant has to be both powerful enough to achieve the desired oxidation as well as provide heteroatom ligands for transfer to the metal center; these heteroatoms are often subsequently transferred to the substrate via reductive elimination...
May 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497318/controlled-ion-release-from-novel-polyester-ceramic-composites-enhances-osteoinductivity
#17
Soheila Ali Akbari Ghavimi, Rama Rao Tata, Andrew J Greenwald, Brittany N Allen, David A Grant, Sheila A Grant, Mark W Lee, Bret D Ulery
Due to the growing number of patients suffering from musculoskeletal defects and the limited supply of and sub-optimal outcomes associated with biological graft materials, novel biomaterials must be created that can function as graft substitutes. For bone regeneration, composite materials that mimic the organic and inorganic phases of natural bone can provide cues which expedite and enhance endogenous repair. Specifically, recent research has shown that calcium and phosphate ions are inherently osteoinductive, so controllably delivering their release holds significant promise for this field...
May 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492690/coordination-nanosheets-conashs-strategies-structures-and-functions
#18
Ryota Sakamoto, Kenji Takada, Tigmansu Pal, Hiroaki Maeda, Tetsuya Kambe, Hiroshi Nishihara
Nanosheets, which are two-dimensional polymeric materials, remain among the most actively researched areas of chemistry and physics this decade. Generally, nanosheets are inorganic materials created from bulk crystalline layered materials and have fascinating properties and functionalities. An emerging alternative is molecule-based nanosheets containing organic molecular components. Molecule-based nanosheets offer great diversity because their molecular, ionic, and atomic constituents can be selected and combined to produce a wide variety of nanosheets...
May 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489346/metal-organic-frameworks-at-the-biointerface-synthetic-strategies-and-applications
#19
Christian Doonan, Raffaele Riccò, Kang Liang, Darren Bradshaw, Paolo Falcaro
Many living organisms are capable of producing inorganic materials of precisely controlled structure and morphology. This ubiquitous process is termed biomineralization and is observed in nature from the macroscale (e.g., formation of exoskeletons) down to the nanoscale (e.g., mineral storage and transportation in proteins). Extensive research efforts have pursued replicating this chemistry with the overarching aims of synthesizing new materials of unprecedented physical properties and understanding the complex mechanisms that occur at the biological-inorganic interface...
May 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487400/native-and-engineered-sensors-for-ca-2-and-zn-2-lessons-from-calmodulin-and-mtf1
#20
REVIEW
Margaret C Carpenter, Amy E Palmer
Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) dynamics have been identified as important drivers of physiological processes. In order for these dynamics to encode function, the cell must have sensors that transduce changes in metal concentration to specific downstream actions. Here we compare and contrast the native metal sensors: calmodulin (CaM), the quintessential Ca(2+) sensor and metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF1), a candidate Zn(2+) sensor. While CaM recognizes and modulates the activity of hundreds of proteins through allosteric interactions, MTF1 recognizes a single DNA motif that is distributed throughout the genome regulating the transcription of many target genes...
May 9, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
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