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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315312/taking-the-metabolic-pulse-of-the-world-s-coral-reefs
#1
Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E Corredor, Rob B Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I Kline, David A Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly McMahon, Melissa Meléndez, Heather N Page, Isaac R Santos, Kai G Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto
Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311545/dynamic-changes-in-carbonate-chemistry-in-the-microenvironment-around-single-marine-phytoplankton-cells
#2
Abdul Chrachri, Brian M Hopkinson, Kevin Flynn, Colin Brownlee, Glen L Wheeler
Photosynthesis by marine diatoms plays a major role in the global carbon cycle, although the precise mechanisms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake remain unclear. A lack of direct measurements of carbonate chemistry at the cell surface has led to uncertainty over the underlying membrane transport processes and the role of external carbonic anhydrase (eCA). Here we identify rapid and substantial photosynthesis-driven increases in pH and [CO32-] primarily due to the activity of eCA at the cell surface of the large diatom Odontella sinensis using direct simultaneous microelectrode measurements of pH and CO32- along with modelling of cell surface inorganic carbonate chemistry...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300485/tobacco-mosaic-virus-with-peroxidase-like-activity-for-cancer-cells-detection-through-colorimetric-assay
#3
Jiawang Guo, Xia Zhao, Jun Hu, Yuan Lin, Qian Wang
Cell-based ELISA (CELLISA) has been widely used in disease diagnoses due to its simplicity and low cost. Recently, peroxidase-like nanomaterials have emerged as promising systems for CELLISA applications. In this work, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was simultaneously tailored with peroxidase-like inorganic nanoparticles (platinum nanoparticles) and cancer cell target groups (folic acid) to obtain TMV-FA-Pt nanoparticles for cancer cell detection. Induced by the uniformly distributed reactive groups and well-defined structure of the TMV particle, platinum nanoparticles could be grown in situ on the exterior surface of TMV with excellent monodispersity and uniform spatial distribution...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299858/hydrogeochemical-and-biomedical-insights-into-germanium-potential-of-curative-waters-a-case-study-of-health-resorts-in-the-sudetes-mountains-poland
#4
Dariusz Dobrzyński, Anna Boguszewska-Czubara, Kenji Sugimori
Germanium is considered to be a non-essential element; however, little is still known about its significance for living organisms. It exerts prophylactic and therapeutic effects in the treatment of serious diseases such as cancer, HIV infection, and others. Germanium does not exhibit acute toxicity, but, as it tends to accumulate in various organs and tissues, undesirable and even dangerous side effects have been reported after prolonged and/or high dosage application. In general, inorganic compounds of germanium are more toxic than its organic compounds...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275933/speciation-of-organic-fraction-does-matter-for-source-apportionment-part-1-a-one-year-campaign-in-grenoble-france
#5
Deepchandra Srivastava, Sophie Tomaz, Olivier Favez, Grazia Maria Lanzafame, Benjamin Golly, Jean-Luc Besombes, Laurent Y Alleman, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Véronique Jacob, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Alexandre Albinet
PM10 source apportionment was performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) using specific primary and secondary organic molecular markers on samples collected over a one year period (2013) at an urban station in Grenoble (France). The results provided a 9-factor optimum solution, including sources rarely apportioned in the literature, such as two types of primary biogenic organic aerosols (fungal spores and plant debris), as well as specific biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA). These sources were identified thanks to the use of key organic markers, namely, polyols, odd number higher alkanes, and several SOA markers related to the oxidation of isoprene, α-pinene, toluene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
December 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260812/the-hydrolysis-of-epoxides-catalyzed-by-inorganic-ammonium-salts-in-water-kinetic-evidence-for-hydrogen-bond-catalysis
#6
B Nozière, F Fache, A Maxut, B Fenet, A Baudouin, L Fine, C Ferronato
Naturally-occurring inorganic ammonium ions have been recently reported as efficient catalysts for some organic reactions in water, which contributes to the understanding of the chemistry in some natural environments (soils, seawater, atmospheric aerosols, …) and biological systems, and is also potentially interesting for green chemistry as many of their salts are cheap and non-toxic. In this work, the effect of NH4+ ions on the hydrolysis of small epoxides in water was studied kinetically. The presence of NH4+ increased the hydrolysis rate by a factor of 6 to 25 compared to pure water and these catalytic effects were shown not to result from other ions, counter-ions or from acid or base catalysis, general or specific...
December 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250346/structural-parameters-of-dimethyl-sulfoxide-dmso-at-100%C3%A2-k-based-on-a-redetermination-by-use-of-high-quality-single-crystal-x-ray-data
#7
Hans Reuter
The title compound, C2H6OS, is a high melting, polar and aprotic solvent widely used in organic and inorganic chemistry. It serves as a H-atom acceptor in hydrogen bonding and is used as an ambidentate ligand in coordination chemistry. The evaluation of the influence of inter-molecular inter-actions on the inter-nal structural parameters of the chemically bonded DMSO mol-ecules affords precise structural data of the free mol-ecule as a point of reference. So far, valid data have been obtained only by use of neutron powder diffraction [Ibberson (2005 ▸)...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247939/opportunistic-disease-in-yellow-perch-in-response-to-decadal-changes-in-the-chemistry-of-oil-sands-affected-waters
#8
Natacha S Hogan, Karen L Thorpe, Michael R van den Heuvel
Oil sands-affected water from mining must eventually be incorporated into the reclaimed landscape or treated and released. However, this material contains petrogenic organic compounds, such as naphthenic acids and traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This has raised concerns for impacts of oil sands process-affected waters on the heath of wildlife and humans downstream of receiving environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal association of disease states in fish with water chemistry of oil sands-affected waters over more than a decade and determine the pathogens associated with disease pathologies...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243904/suppression-of-dendritic-lithium-growth-by-in-situ-formation-of-a-chemically-stable-and-mechanically-strong-solid-electrolyte-interphase
#9
Guojia Wan, Feihu Guo, Hui Li, Yuliang Cao, Xinping Ai, Jiangfeng Qian, Yangxing Li, Hanxi Yang
The growth and proliferation of Li dendrites during repeated Li cycling has long been a crucial issue that hinders the development of secondary Li metal batteries. Building a stable and robust solid state electrolyte interphases (SEI) on Li anode surface is regarded as a promising strategy to overcome the dendrites issues. In this work, we report a simple strategy to engineer the interface chemistry of Li metal anode by using tiny amount of dimethyl sulfate (DMS, C2H6SO4) as SEI-formation additive. With the preferential reduction of DMS, a SEI layer composed of Li2S/Li2O forms on the Li surface...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242317/enzyme-free-nucleic-acid-dynamical-systems
#10
Niranjan Srinivas, James Parkin, Georg Seelig, Erik Winfree, David Soloveichik
Chemistries exhibiting complex dynamics-from inorganic oscillators to gene regulatory networks-have been long known but either cannot be reprogrammed at will or rely on the sophisticated enzyme chemistry underlying the central dogma. Can simpler molecular mechanisms, designed from scratch, exhibit the same range of behaviors? Abstract chemical reaction networks have been proposed as a programming language for complex dynamics, along with their systematic implementation using short synthetic DNA molecules. We developed this technology for dynamical systems by identifying critical design principles and codifying them into a compiler automating the design process...
December 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237136/biomimetic-structural-materials-inspiration-from-design-and-assembly
#11
Nicholas A Yaraghi, David Kisailus
Nature assembles weak organic and inorganic constituents into sophisticated hierarchical structures, forming structural composites that demonstrate impressive combinations of strength and toughness. Two such composites are the nacre structure forming the inner layer of many mollusk shells, whose brick-and-mortar architecture has been the gold standard for biomimetic composites, and the cuticle forming the arthropod exoskeleton, whose helicoidal fiber-reinforced architecture has only recently attracted interest for structural biomimetics...
December 13, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234469/exploring-mechanochemistry-to-turn-organic-bio-relevant-molecules-into-metal-organic-frameworks-a-short-review
#12
REVIEW
Vânia André, Sílvia Quaresma, João Luís Ferreira da Silva, M Teresa Duarte
Mechanochemistry is a powerful and environmentally friendly synthetic technique successfully employed in different fields of synthetic chemistry. Application spans from organic to inorganic chemistry including the synthesis of coordination compounds. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of compounds with numerous applications, from which we highlight herein their application in the pharmaceutical field (BioMOFs), whose importance has been growing and is now assuming a relevant and promising domain. The need to find cleaner, greener and more energy and material-efficient synthetic procedures led to the use of mechanochemistry into the synthesis of BioMOFs...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232132/cobalt-and-vanadium-trimetaphosphate-polyanions-synthesis-characterization-and-electrochemical-evaluation-for-non-aqueous-redox-flow-battery-applications
#13
Julia M Stauber, Shiyu Zhang, Nataliya Gvozdik, Yanfeng Jiang, Laura Avena, Keith J Stevenson, Christopher C Cummins
An electrochemical cell consisting of cobalt ([CoII/III(P3O9)2]4-/3-) and vanadium ([VIII/II(P3O9)2]3-/4-) bistrimetaphosphate complexes as catholyte and anolyte species, respectively, was constructed with a cell voltage of 2.4 V and Coulombic efficiencies exceeding 90% for up to 100 total cycles. The [Co(P3O9)2]4- (1) and [V(P3O9)2]3- (2) complexes have favorable properties for flow-battery applications that include reversible redox chemistry, high stability toward electrochemical cycling, and high solubility in MeCN (1...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228772/interfacing-dna-oligonucleotides-with-calcium-phosphate-and-other-metal-phosphates
#14
Liu Wang, Zijie Zhang, Biwu Liu, Yibo Liu, Anand Lopez, Jian Wu, Juewen Liu
Calcium phosphate (CaP) has long been used for DNA delivery, although its fundamental interaction with DNA, especially with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides, remains to be fully understood. Using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides, we herein studied DNA adsorption isotherm and the effect of DNA length and sequence. Longer DNAs are adsorbed more strongly, and at neutral pH, poly-C DNAs are adsorbed more than the other three DNA homopolymers. However, at near pH 11, the pH of CaP synthesis, T30 DNA is adsorbed more strongly than C30 or A30...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226250/tip-enhanced-ablation-and-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-nanoscale-chemical-analysis
#15
Zhisen Liang, Shudi Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Tongtong Wang, Yaping Huang, Wei Hang, Zhilin Yang, Jianfeng Li, Zhongqun Tian
Spectroscopic methods with nanoscale lateral resolution are becoming essential in the fields of physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and materials science. However, the lateral resolution of laser-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques has so far been limited to the microscale. This report presents the development of tip-enhanced ablation and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TEAI-TOFMS), using a shell-isolated apertureless silver tip. The TEAI-TOFMS results indicate the capability and reproducibility of the system for generating nanosized craters and for acquiring the corresponding mass spectral signals...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215862/reticular-chemistry-and-the-discovery-of-a-new-family-of-rare-earth-4-8-connected-metal-organic-frameworks-with-csq-topology-based-on-re4-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-coo-8-clusters
#16
Giasemi K Angeli, Christina Sartsidou, Styliani Vlahaki, Ioannis Spanopoulos, Constantinos Tsangarakis, Andreas Kourtellaris, Emmanouel Klontzas, George E Froudakis, Anastasios J Tasiopoulos, Pantelis N Trikalitis
In recent years, the design and discovery of new MOF platforms with distinct structural features and tunable chemical composition has remarkably enhanced by applying reticular chemistry rules and the molecular building block (MBB) ap-proach. We targeted the synthesis of new RE-MOF platforms based on a rectangular shaped 4-c linker, acting as a rigid organic MBB. Accordingly, we designed and synthesized the organic ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-3,6-dimethyl-benzene, H4L, in which the two methyl groups attached to the central phenyl ring, lock the four peripheral carboxyphenyl groups to an orthogonal/vertical position...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212728/coral-calcification-mechanisms-facilitate-adaptive-responses-to-ocean-acidification
#17
Verena Schoepf, Christopher P Jury, Robert J Toonen, Malcolm T McCulloch
Ocean acidification (OA) is a pressing threat to reef-building corals, but it remains poorly understood how coral calcification is inhibited by OA and whether corals could acclimatize and/or adapt to OA. Using a novel geochemical approach, we reconstructed the carbonate chemistry of the calcifying fluid in two coral species using both a pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) proxy (δ11B and B/Ca, respectively). To address the potential for adaptive responses, both species were collected from two sites spanning a natural gradient in seawater pH and temperature, and then subjected to three pHT levels (8...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205597/selection-and-screening-of-dna-aptamers-for-inorganic-nanomaterials
#18
Yibo Zhou, Zhicheng Huang, Ronghua Yang, Juewen Liu
Searching for DNA sequences that can strongly and selectively bind to inorganic surfaces is a long-standing topic in bionanotechnology, analytical chemistry and biointerface research. This can be achieved either by aptamer selection starting with a very large library of ~1014 random DNA sequences, or by careful screening of a much smaller library (usually from a few to a few hundred) with rationally designed sequences. Unlike typical molecular targets, inorganic surfaces often have quite strong DNA adsorption affinities due to polyvalent binding and even chemical interactions...
December 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205241/exploration-of-h2-binding-to-the-nife-hydrogenase-active-site-with-multiconfigurational-density-functional-theory
#19
Geng Dong, Ulf Ryde, Hans Jørgen Aa Jensen, Erik D Hedegård
The combination of density functional theory (DFT) with a multiconfigurational wave function is an efficient way to include dynamical correlation in calculations with multiconfiguration self-consistent field wave functions. These methods can potentially be employed to elucidate reaction mechanisms in bio-inorganic chemistry, where many other methods become either too computationally expensive or too inaccurate. In this paper, a complete active space (CAS) short-range DFT (CAS-srDFT) hybrid was employed to investigate a bio-inorganic system, namely H2 binding to the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenase...
December 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194938/inorganic-hybridized-and-living-macrocellular-foams-out-of-the-box-heterogeneous-catalysis
#20
REVIEW
Armand Roucher, Martin Depardieu, Deniz Pekin, Mickaël Morvan, Rénal Backov
With this personal account we show how the Integrative Chemistry, when combining the sol-gel process and concentrated emulsions, allows to trigger inorganic, hybrid or living materials when dedicated toward heterogeneous catalysis applications. In here we focus on 3D-macrocellular monolithic foams bearing hierarchical porosities and applications thereof toward heterogeneous catalysis where both activities and mass transport are enhanced. We thereby first depict the general background of emulsions, focusing on concentrated ones, acting as soft templates for the design of solid (HIPE) foams, HIPE being the acronym for High Internal Phase Emulsions while encompassing both sol-gel and polymer chemistry...
December 1, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
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