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drugs increase intelligence

Samer Bayda, Mohamad Hadla, Stefano Palazzolo, Vinit Kumar, Isabella Caligiuri, Emmanuele Ambrosi, Enrico Pontoglio, Marco Agostini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Alvise Benedetti, Pietro Riello, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Giuseppe Corona, Giuseppe Toffoli, Flavio Rizzolio
Nanomedicine requires intelligent and non-toxic nanomaterials for real clinical applications. Carbon materials possess interesting properties but with some limitations due to toxic effects. Interest in carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) is increasing because they are considered green materials with tunable optical properties, overcoming the problem of toxicity associated with quantum dots or nanocrystals, and can be utilized as smart drug delivery systems. Using black tea as a raw material, we synthesized CNPs with a narrow size distribution, tunable optical properties covering visible to deep red absorption, non-toxicity and easy synthesis for large-scale production...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
M van de Vorst, D J Vinkers, G E Matroos, F Heijtel, H W Hoek
BACKGROUND: Although Antillean suspects in the Netherlands are often diagnosed as being intellectually impaired, there are no validated tests available Papiamento (the native language) for assessing intelligence or functional impairment. AIM: To validate the use of the GIT 2 (Groninger Intelligentie Test 2) and the Barkley Functioning Impairment Scale (BFIS) for Antillean defendants detained by the Judicial Service of the Caribbean Netherlands in Bonaire. METHOD: With the approval of the publishers, the GIT 2 and the BFIS were translated in Papiamento by two independent experts...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Viktoria Krotova, Tatyana Khomazyuk
OBJECTIVE: One of the first disorders of affection subcortical brain structures in arterial hypertension (AH) is a decrease in mental processes, intellectual rigidity. To investigate the cognitive disorders (CD) in AH patients 1-2 stages of working age and the effectiveness of nootropic agent (phenibutum) and anticholinergic drug (ipidacrinum) in combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: Observed 60 patients with controlled AH 1-2 stages and CD. The median age-55,3 ± 9,1 years and duration of AH-10,2 ± 5,8 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Loredana Elena Nita, Aurica P Chiriac, Alina Diaconu, Nita Tudorachi, Liliana Mititelu-Tartau
Over the last 10 years, the development of intelligent biomaterials for medical and pharmaceutical applications has attracted growing interest by combining interdisciplinary efforts. Between them nanogels represent one of the most attractive carriers for innovative drug delivery systems. In the present investigation new variants of multi-responsive nanogels have been synthesized by crosslinking poly(itaconic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro [5.5] undecane) copolymer (having different molar ratios between comonomers) with 1,12-dodecandiol...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
George D Geromichalos, Constantinos E Alifieris, Elena G Geromichalou, Dimitrios T Trafalis
Conventional drug design embraces the "one gene, one drug, one disease" philosophy. Nowadays, new generation of anti- cancer drugs, able to inhibit more than one pathway, is believed to play a major role in contemporary anticancer drug research. In this way, polypharmacology, focusing on multi-target drugs, has emerged as a new paradigm in drug discovery. A number of recent successful drugs have in part or in whole emerged from a structure-based research approach. Many advances including crystallography and informatics are behind these successes...
July 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Amin GhavamiNejad, Melisa SamariKhalaj, Ludwig Erik Aguilar, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim
This study reports on an intelligent composite hydrogel with both pH-dependent drug release in a cancer environment and heat generation based on NIR laser exposure, for the combined application of photothermal therapy (PTT) and multidrug chemotherapy. For the first time in the literature, Dopamine nanoparticle (DP) was incorporated as a highly effective photothermal agent as well as anticancer drug, bortezomib (BTZ) carrier inside a stimuli responsive pNIPAAm-co-pAAm hydrogel. When light is applied to the composite hydrogel, DP nanoparticle absorbs the light, which is dissipated locally as heat to impact cancer cells via hyperthermia...
2016: Scientific Reports
Viktoria Krotova, Tatyana Khomazyuk
OBJECTIVE: One of the first disorders of affection subcortical brain structures in arterial hypertension (AH) is a decrease in mental processes, intellectual rigidity. To investigate the cognitive disorders (CD) in AH patients 1-2 stages of working age and the effectiveness of nootropic agent (phenibutum) and anticholinergic drug (ipidacrinum) in combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: Observed 60 patients with controlled AH 1-2 stages and CD. The median age-55,3 ± 9,1 years and duration of AH-10,2 ± 5,8 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Amir Barzegar Behrooz, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh, Jamal Adiban, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Hamid Sohanaky
Chemotherapy, a conventional method assessed in recent oncology studies, poses numerous problems in the clinical environment. To overcome the problems inherent in chemotherapy, an intelligent drug delivery system has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics. In this study, we designed a dendrimer-based pharmaceutical system together with a single-stranded AS1411 aptamer (APT(AS) (1411) ) as a therapeutic strategy. The PAMAM (polyamidoamine)-PEG (polyethylene glycol) complex was then conjugated with the AS1411 aptamer and confirmed by AFM (Atomic-force microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) ...
September 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Lei Men, Yunli Zhao, Hongxin Lin, Xing Tang, Zhiguo Yu
1 TM-2 is a promising novel semi-synthetic taxane derivative with greater antitumor activity especially against resistant tumors and lower toxicity compared with docetaxel. Information on distribution and excretion of the pharmaceutical in animals, as well as biochemical information relevant to potential drug interactions should normally be evaluated prior to human clinical trials. 2 The present study investigated the tissue distribution and excretion of TM-2 in animals following intravenous administration for further advancement of the molecule...
September 5, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Wendong Ke, Junjie Li, Kaijie Zhao, Zengshi Zha, Yu Han, Yuheng Wang, Wei Yin, Ping Zhang, Zhishen Ge
Construction of efficient doxorubicin (DOX) delivery systems addressing a cascade of physiological barriers remains a great challenge for better therapeutic efficacy of tumors. Herein, we design well-defined enzyme-responsive peptide-linked block copolymer, PEG-GPLGVRGDG-P(BLA-co-Asp) [PEG and P(BLA-co-Asp) are poly(ethylene glycol) and partially hydrolyzed poly(β-benzyl l-aspartate) (PBLA), respectively] (P3), with modular functionality for efficient delivery of DOX. The block copolymers were successfully obtained via click reaction to introduce peptide (alkynyl-GPLGVRGDG) into the end of PEG for initiating ring-opening polymerization of β-benzyl l-aspartate N-carboxyanhydride (BLA-NCA) by terminal amino groups followed by partial hydrolysis of PBLA segments...
October 10, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Heng Liu, Yike Fu, Yangyang Li, Zhaohui Ren, Xiang Li, Gaorong Han, Chuanbin Mao
Implantable localized drug delivery systems (LDDSs) with intelligent functionalities have emerged as a powerful chemotherapeutic platform in curing cancer. Developing LDDSs with rationally controlled drug release and real-time monitoring functionalities holds promise for personalized therapeutic protocols but suffers daunting challenges. To overcome such challenges, a series of porous Yb(3+)/Er(3+) codoped CaTiO3 (CTO:Yb,Er) nanofibers, with specifically designed surface functionalization, were synthesized for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery...
September 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
A Crescenzo
With the ever-increasing growth of next-generation sequencing literature, how can researchers and clinicians assess clinical actionability and utility and objectively assign confidence to gene variant-phenotype associations? This article presents an informatics solution for clinical interpretation of patient-derived genomic and molecular data containing manually curated scientific evidence supporting gene variant-disease and -drug response phenotypes in somatic cancers. An algorithm for direct evidence scoring will be used to demonstrate the diverse utility of BRAF V600E in treating many common cancers...
July 2016: Drugs of Today
Yong Wang
Pores regulate the entry and exit of substances based on the differences in physical sizes or chemical affinities. Pore uniformity, ordering, and the homogeneity of the surface chemistry of the pore walls are vital for maximizing the performance of a porous material because any scattering in these parameters weakens the capability of pores to discriminate foreign substances. Most strategies for the creation of homogeneous pores are destructive, and sacrificial components in the precursor materials must be selectively removed to generate porosities...
July 19, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Bingwei Peng, Jialing Li, Jing Wang, Xiuqiong Liang, Zhiying Zheng, Jianning Mai
This study investigates the cerebral hemodynamic changes during a routine sleep-deprived video-electroencephalogram (SD-VEEG) in healthy children. Forty-two children with normal intelligence were examined. The children were 5-14 years of age, and their electroencephalograms (EEGs) were within the normal range. Each subject was deprived of a routine night's sleep and then examined during non-drug-induced sleep in the daytime. The awake and sleep stages were evaluated using EEGs, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine...
July 2016: Physiological Measurement
Yoshimasa Kawazoe, Takeshi Imai, Kazuhiko Ohe
BACKGROUND: Health level seven version 2.5 (HL7 v2.5) is a widespread messaging standard for information exchange between clinical information systems. By applying Semantic Web technologies for handling HL7 v2.5 messages, it is possible to integrate large-scale clinical data with life science knowledge resources. OBJECTIVE: Showing feasibility of a querying method over large-scale resource description framework (RDF)-ized HL7 v2.5 messages using publicly available drug databases...
2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
Carrie Leigh Hamby Atcheson, John Spivack, Robert Williams, Ethan O Bryson
BACKGROUND: Health care service bundling experiments at the state and regional levels have showed reduced costs by providing a single lump-sum reimbursement for anesthesia services, surgery, and postoperative care. Potential for cost savings related to the provision of anesthesia care has the potential to significantly impact sustainability. This study defines and quantifies routine and preventable anesthetic drug waste and the patient, procedure, and anesthesia provider characteristics associated with increased waste...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Janne Estill, Nathan Ford, Luisa Salazar-Vizcaya, Andreas D Haas, Nello Blaser, Vincent Habiyambere, Olivia Keiser
BACKGROUND: The number of patients in need of second-line antiretroviral drugs is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to project the need of second-line antiretroviral therapy in adults in sub-Saharan Africa up to 2030. METHODS: We developed a simulation model for HIV and applied it to each sub-Saharan African country. We used the WHO country intelligence database to estimate the number of adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy from 2005 to 2014...
March 2016: Lancet HIV
Jazmin Camchong, Kelvin O Lim, Sanjiv Kumra
Cannabis is widely perceived as a safe recreational drug and its use is increasing in youth. It is important to understand the implications of cannabis use during childhood and adolescence on brain development. This is the first longitudinal study that compared resting functional connectivity of frontally mediated networks between 43 healthy controls (HCs; 20 females; age M = 16.5 ± 2.7) and 22 treatment-seeking adolescents with cannabis use disorder (CUD; 8 females; age M = 17.6 ± 2.4). Increases in resting functional connectivity between caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and superior frontal gyrus across time were found in HC, but not in CUD...
February 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Mullah Muhaiminul Islam, Arun Bahadur Gurung, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Kripamoy Aguan, Sivaprasad Mitra
Human serum albumin (HSA) induced modulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of four well-known cholinergic inhibitors like tacrine hydrochloride (TAC), donepezil hydrochloride monohydrate (DON), (-) Huperzine A (HuPA), eserine (ESE) was monitored quantitatively by Ellman's method. Kinetic analysis of enzyme hydrolysis reaction revealed that while the mechanism of inhibition does not change significantly, the inhibition efficiency changes drastically in presence of HSA, particularly for DON and TAC...
April 5, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
V A Zaplutanov, A A Spikina, V G Belov, U A Parfyonov, Ye V Ermishin
Aocoholism in the elderly determines tne protracted nature or tne pathological craving for etnanol in post-abstinence syndrome period, restricts arsenal of active pharmacotherapy and updates the search for new pharmacological therapeutic strategies. The results showed that the inclusion of the drug "Remaxol" in the treatment of clinical manifestations of craving for ethanol in post-abstinence syndrome period of associated forms of alcoholism in the elderly provides better in relation to conventional therapy dynamics of reduction of somatovegetative and neurological manifestations of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as well as the main components of craving for alcohol, will increase the efficiency of outpatient treatment at the stage of remission...
2015: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
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