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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107202/defining-the-phenotype-of-young-adults-with-family-histories-of-alcohol-and-other-substance-use-disorders-studies-from-the-family-health-patterns-project
#1
Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Andrew J Cohoon, William R Lovallo
Individuals with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased risk for developing substance use disorders themselves relative to those with no such histories (FH-). Here we sought to identify key characteristics associated with FH+ status and alcohol and other drug use disorder status in a large cohort of FH+ and FH- young adults. We conducted principal component analyses on demographic, temperament, and cognitive measures differentiating 506 FH+ and 528 FH- young adults. Three principal components were identified, and these component scores were then used to predict the odds of being FH+ and the odds of having an alcohol or other drug use disorder...
October 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102702/active-intestinal-drug-absorption-and-the-solubility-permeability-interplay
#2
Daniel Porat, Arik Dahan
The solubility-permeability interplay deals with the question: what is the concomitant effect on the drug's apparent permeability when increasing the apparent solubility with a solubility-enabling formulation? The solubility and the permeability are closely related, exhibit certain interplay between them, and ongoing research throughout the past decade shows that treating the one irrespectively of the other may be insufficient. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the solubility-permeability interplay when using solubility-enabling formulations for oral lipophilic drugs, highlighting active permeability aspects...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062918/amr-surveillance-in-low-and-middle-income-settings-a-roadmap-for-participation-in-the-global-antimicrobial-surveillance-system-glass
#3
Anna C Seale, N Claire Gordon, Jasmin Islam, Sharon J Peacock, J Anthony G Scott
Drug-resistant infections caused by bacteria with increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threaten our ability to treat life-threatening conditions. Tackling AMR requires international collaboration and partnership. An early and leading priority to do this is to strengthen AMR surveillance, particularly in low-income countries where the burden of infectious diseases is highest and where data are most limited. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the Global AMR Surveillance System (GLASS) as one of a number of measures designed to tackle the problem of AMR, and WHO member states have been encouraged to produce National Action Plans for AMR by 2017...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886480/intelligent-visual-localization-of-wireless-capsule-endoscopes-enhanced-by-color-information
#4
George Dimas, Evaggelos Spyrou, Dimitris K Iakovidis, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is performed with a miniature swallowable endoscope enabling the visualization of the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract. One of the most challenging problems in WCE is the localization of the capsule endoscope (CE) within the GI lumen. Contemporary, radiation-free localization approaches are mainly based on the use of external sensors and transit time estimation techniques, with practically low localization accuracy. Latest advances for the solution of this problem include localization approaches based solely on visual information from the CE camera...
September 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846487/development-of-an-intelligent-spacer-data-logger-system
#5
Chris O'Callaghan, Nicholas J Smith, Peter W Barry, John Denyer
BACKGROUND: Although delivery of drugs from pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) via spacer devices is widespread it cannot be assumed that patients take their medication as prescribed or use their spacer appropriately. We developed a Spacer Data Logger device to record patient adherence and whether patients had shaken the pMDI, actuated it soon after shaking, and inhaled a sufficient volume from it. METHODS: We report an assessment of the Spacer Data Logger to measure and record that the pMDI was adequately shaken, the time to actuation, and the volume "inhaled" from the spacer up to 26 seconds after actuation...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844172/hierarchical-pulmonary-target-nanoparticles-via-inhaled-administration-for-anticancer-drug-delivery
#6
Rui Chen, Liu Xu, Qin Fan, Man Li, Jingjing Wang, Li Wu, Weidong Li, Jinao Duan, Zhipeng Chen
Inhalation administration, compared with intravenous administration, significantly enhances chemotherapeutic drug exposure to the lung tissue and may increase the therapeutic effect for pulmonary anticancer. However, further identification of cancer cells after lung deposition of inhaled drugs is necessary to avoid side effects on normal lung tissue and to maximize drug efficacy. Moreover, as the action site of the major drug was intracellular organelles, drug target to the specific organelle is the final key for accurate drug delivery...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806660/fluorescent-carbon-dot-gated-hollow-mesoporous-carbon-for-chemo-photothermal-synergistic-therapy
#7
Xiudan Wang, Yuanzhe Lin, Xian Li, Da Wang, Donghua Di, Qinfu Zhao, Siling Wang
An efficient and intelligent nano-carrier that combines cell imaging with near infrared (NIR) light and redox dual-responsive drug delivery was successfully prepared. The hollow mesoporous carbon (HMC) nanoparticles with high photothermal conversion ability were developed to increase the drug loading efficiency and realize chemotherapy and photothermal synergetic therapy. The photo-stable and luminescent carbon dots (CDs) were prepared from branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) by hydrothermal reaction. The PEI CDs (CDPEI) were grafted on the openings of HMC as the "gatekeepers" via disulfide units (HMC-SS-CDPEI) to prevent the premature release of doxorubicin (DOX)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759752/efavirenz-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-engineered-for-brain-targeting-through-intranasal-route-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-and-toxicity-study
#8
Varsha Pokharkar, Arpana Patil-Gadhe, Prathyusha Palla
Intranasal delivery is a potential platform that can be employed in targeting the antiretrovirals (ARVs) to reach HIV that harbors in the central nervous system. The objective of the study was to develop an optimized efavirenz (EFV) loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (ENLC) and deliver it through intranasal route for brain targeting. Factorial design (2(3)) was used to identify the key formulation variables influencing particle size and percent drug encapsulation of efavirenz in the NLC. Optimised ENLC-6 batch exhibited a spherical morphology with a mean particle size of 162nm, high drug encapsulation of 95...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691863/how-can-those-engaging-in-chemsex-best-be-supported-an-online-survey-to-gain-intelligence-in-greater-manchester
#9
Andrew Tomkins, Roberto Vivancos, Chris Ward, Merav Kliner
Reports of sexualised drug taking (chemsex) have increased significantly in recent years. There is currently limited intelligence on chemsex outside of London. An anonymous survey was promoted via several sources including voluntary services and a sexual health clinic in order to establish the risks associated with chemsex, and how support services can best be tailored to meet the needs of those in Greater Manchester, UK. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on demographics, drug use, sexual practices and barriers and facilitators to accessing support...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635121/exposure-to-sodium-valproate-during-pregnancy-facial-features-and-signs-of-autism
#10
Rachel Stadelmaier, Hanah Nasri, Curtis K Deutsch, Margaret Bauman, Anne Hunt, Christopher J Stodgell, Jane Adams, Lewis B Holmes
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is the most teratogenic anticonvulsant drug in clinical use today. Children exposed prenatally to VPA have previously been shown to have dysmorphic craniofacial features, identified subjectively but not by anthropometric methods. Exposure to VPA has also been associated with an increased frequency of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An increased cephalic index (the ratio of the cranial lateral width to the cranial anterior-posterior length) has been observed in children with ASD...
August 15, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605630/cognitive-outcome-after-epilepsy-surgery-in-children-a-controlled-longitudinal-study
#11
Valentina Sibilia, Carmen Barba, Tiziana Metitieri, Giovanni Michelini, Flavio Giordano, Lorenzo Genitori, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the determinants of cognitive outcome two years after surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy in a cohort of 31 children when compared to a control group of 14 surgical candidates who had yet to undergo surgery two years after the first neuropsychological assessment. METHODS: Controlled longitudinal study including three evaluations of IQ (Intelligence Quotient) scores or GDQ (General Developmental Quotient) for each group depending on the patient's age: prior to surgery (T0), one year (T1) and two years (T2) after surgery for the surgical group; baseline (T0) and one year (T1) and 2years (T2) after the first evaluation for the control-group...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605260/cellular-therapies-for-treatment-of-radiation-injury-report-from-a-nih-niaid-and-irsn-workshop
#12
Andrea L DiCarlo, Radia Tamarat, Carmen I Rios, Marc Benderitter, Christine W Czarniecki, Theresa C Allio, Francesca Macchiarini, Bert W Maidment, Jean-Rene Jourdain
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over the possibility of a radiological or nuclear incident occurring somewhere in the world. Intelligence agencies frequently report that terrorist groups and rogue nations are seeking to obtain radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction. In addition, there exists the real possibility that safety of nuclear power reactors could be compromised by natural (such as the tsunami and subsequent Fukushima accident in Japan in March, 2011) or accidental (Three Mile Island, 1979 and Chernobyl, 1986) events...
August 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591483/cognition-in-epilepsy-patients-with-hypothalamic-hamartomas
#13
Kathrin Wagner, Jennifer V Wethe, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Michael Trippel, Harold Rekate, George P Prigatano, John F Kerrigan
Many patients with epilepsy caused by hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) have cognitive impairments during the course of the disease or following neurosurgical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive function in these patients, as well as factors influencing preoperative cognitive performance and cognitive outcome after neurosurgical treatment. Using the two largest and most detailed neuropsychology datasets on HH and epilepsy from two centers, we retrospectively report on cognitive functions in 48 patients with structural epilepsy due to HH (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 20 ± 12 years, range 5-53 years, median 16 years; disease duration mean 17 ± 11 years)...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587644/current-and-future-perspectives-on-the-management-of-polypharmacy
#14
Mariam Molokhia, Azeem Majeed
BACKGROUND: Because of ageing populations, the growth in the number of people with multi-morbidity and greater compliance with disease-specific guidelines, polypharmacy is becoming increasingly common. Although the correct drug treatment in patients with complex medical problems can improve clinical outcomes, quality of life and life expectancy, polypharmacy is also associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events, some severe enough to result in hospital admission and even death...
June 6, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575552/supervised-machine-learning-reveals-that-old-and-obese-people-achieve-low-dapsone-concentrations
#15
R G Hall, J G Pasipanodya, M A Swancutt, C Meek, R Leff, T Gumbo
The human species is becoming increasingly obese. Dapsone, which is extensively used across the globe for dermatological disorders, arachnid bites, and for treatment of several bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, could be affected by obesity. We performed a clinical experiment, using optimal design, in volunteers weighing 44-150 kg, to identify the effect of obesity on dapsone pharmacokinetic parameters based on maximum-likelihood solution via the expectation-maximization algorithm. Artificial intelligence-based multivariate adaptive regression splines were used for covariate selection, and identified weight and/or age as predictors of absorption, systemic clearance, and volume of distribution...
August 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500860/interventions-for-preventing-silent-cerebral-infarcts-in-people-with-sickle-cell-disease
#16
REVIEW
Lise J Estcourt, Patricia M Fortin, Sally Hopewell, Marialena Trivella, Carolyn Doree, Miguel R Abboud
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. SCD can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Silent cerebral infarcts are the commonest neurological complication in children and probably adults with SCD. Silent cerebral infarcts also affect academic performance, increase cognitive deficits and may lower intelligence quotient...
May 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483179/-cannabis-a-cognitive-illusion
#17
Gonzalo Galván, Manuel Guerrero-Martelo, Francisco Vásquez De la Hoz
INTRODUCTION: The vision of cannabis as a soft drug is due to the low risk perception that young and old people have of the drug. This perception is based on erroneous beliefs that people have about the drug. OBJECTIVE: To compare the beliefs of cannabis use and consequences among adolescents with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use and those without a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use. METHOD: Quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 156 high school students who completed an ad-hoc questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and 22 questions about the beliefs that young people had about cannabis use and its consequences...
April 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482566/a-biocompatible-and-magnetic-nanocarrier-with-a-safe-uv-initiated-docetaxel-release-and-cancer-secretion-removal-properties-increases-therapeutic-potential-for-skin-cancer
#18
Fei Kong, Xiao Huang, Danyang Yue, Jun Pan
Cancer is a leading fatal disease worldwide. To increase its therapeutic efficiency, more effective with less side effect and patient acceptable administration approach is expected. Moreover, modification of tumor microenvironment is proved to be operative recently. In this paper, a nanocarrier named LDEDDS was developed for intelligent tropical administration of skin cancer, along with removal of hydrophobic cancerous secretion to change tumor microenvironment. It was made by coating of amphipathic polymer P(BA-co-HBA) on docetaxel (TXT, a model hydrophobic anticancer drug) loaded Fe3O4@ZnO...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476522/preliminary-study-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-and-parenting-stress-in-pediatric-mitochondrial-disease
#19
Soyong Eom, Young-Mock Lee
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the neuropsychological profiles of pediatric patients with mitochondrial diseases or their parents, information that is crucial for improving the quality of life (QOL) for both patients and parents. We aimed to delineate neurodevelopment and psychological comorbidity in children with mitochondrial diseases in the preliminary investigation of adequate intervention methods, better prognoses, and improved QOL for both patients and parents. METHODS: Seventy children diagnosed with mitochondrial diseases were neuropsychologically evaluated...
June 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458067/effect-of-liberal-blood-transfusion-on-clinical-outcomes-and-cost-in-spine-surgery-patients
#20
Taylor E Purvis, C Rory Goodwin, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, A Karim Ahmed, Virginie Lafage, Brian J Neuman, Peter G Passias, Khaled M Kebaish, Steven M Frank, Daniel M Sciubba
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Blood transfusions in spine surgery are shown to be associated with increased patient morbidity. The association between transfusion performed using a liberal hemoglobin (Hb) trigger-defined as an intraoperative Hb level of ≥10 g/dL, a postoperative level of ≥8 g/dL, or a whole hospital nadir between 8 and 10 g/dL-and perioperative morbidity and cost in spine surgery patients is unknown and thus was investigated in this study. PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the perioperative outcomes and economic cost associated with liberal Hb trigger transfusion among spine surgery patients...
April 27, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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