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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338612/gene-profiling-of-nucleus-basalis-tau-containing-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#1
Elliott Jay Mufson, Bin He, Stephen D Ginsberg, Benjamin A Carper, Gayle S Bieler, Fiona C Crawford, Victor E Alverez, Bernard R Huber, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Sylvia E Perez
Military personnel and athletes exposed to traumatic brain injury may develop chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Brain pathology in CTE includes intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins (p-tau), the main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, we found that cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons within the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), which provide the major cholinergic innervation to the cortex, display an increasing number of NFTs across the pathological stages of CTE...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#2
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl-) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297130/key-role-of-external-chloride-ions-in-regulation-of-fast-sodium-channels-in-rat-cerebellum-purkinje-neurons
#3
V L Zamoyski, V V Grigoriev
A decrease in the external chloride ion concentration to 4 mM caused a decrease in the fast sodium current to 85-100% in rat cerebellum Purkinje neurons in the whole-cell configuration using the patchclamp method. This effect did not depend on the main cation from the internal side of the cell membrane (120 mM of potassium or cesium) and also appeared when Cl- was substituted with sulfate (SO2-4) or phosphate (H2PO4-) anion outside of the cell. The effect was reversible after washing out the low chloride by the standard saline...
November 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273736/vglut1-functions-as-a-glutamate-proton-exchanger-with-chloride-channel-activity-in-hippocampal-glutamatergic-synapses
#4
Magalie Martineau, Raul E Guzman, Christoph Fahlke, Jürgen Klingauf
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. To maintain synaptic efficacy, recycling synaptic vesicles (SV) are refilled with glutamate by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The dynamics and mechanism of glutamate uptake in intact neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we show by live-cell imaging with pH- and chloride-sensitive fluorescent probes in cultured hippocampal neurons of wild-type and VGLUT1-deficient mice that in SVs VGLUT functions as a glutamate/proton exchanger associated with a channel-like chloride conductance...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259251/bkip-1-an-auxiliary-subunit-critical-to-slo-1-function-inhibits-slo-2-potassium-channel-in-vivo
#5
Long-Gang Niu, Ping Liu, Yuan Shui, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang, Bojun Chen
Auxiliary subunits are often needed to tailor K+ channel functional properties and expression levels. Many auxiliary subunits have been identified for mammalian Slo1, a high-conductance K+ channel gated by voltage and Ca2+. Experiments with heterologous expression systems show that some of the identified Slo1 auxiliary subunits can also regulate other Slo K+ channels. However, it is unclear whether a single auxiliary subunit may regulate more than one Slo channel in native tissues. BKIP-1, an auxiliary subunit of C...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236691/activation-mechanism-of-the-calcium-activated-chloride-channel-tmem16a-revealed-by-cryo-em
#6
Cristina Paulino, Valeria Kalienkova, Andy K M Lam, Yvonne Neldner, Raimund Dutzler
The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is a ligand-gated anion channel that opens in response to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The protein is broadly expressed and contributes to diverse physiological processes, including transepithelial chloride transport and the control of electrical signalling in smooth muscles and certain neurons. As a member of the TMEM16 (or anoctamin) family of membrane proteins, TMEM16A is closely related to paralogues that function as scramblases, which facilitate the bidirectional movement of lipids across membranes...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236684/cryo-em-structures-of-the-tmem16a-calcium-activated-chloride-channel
#7
Shangyu Dang, Shengjie Feng, Jason Tien, Christian J Peters, David Bulkley, Marco Lolicato, Jianhua Zhao, Kathrin Zuberbühler, Wenlei Ye, Lijun Qi, Tingxu Chen, Charles S Craik, Yuh Nung Jan, Daniel L Minor, Yifan Cheng, Lily Yeh Jan
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) encoded by TMEM16A control neuronal signalling, smooth muscle contraction, airway and exocrine gland secretion, and rhythmic movements of the gastrointestinal system. To understand how CaCCs mediate and control anion permeation to fulfil these physiological functions, knowledge of the mammalian TMEM16A structure and identification of its pore-lining residues are essential. TMEM16A forms a dimer with two pores. Previous CaCC structural analyses have relied on homology modelling of a homologue (nhTMEM16) from the fungus Nectria haematococca that functions primarily as a lipid scramblase, as well as subnanometre-resolution electron cryo-microscopy...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186788/neurotoxic-effects-of-linalool-and-%C3%AE-pinene-on-tribolium-castaneum-herbst
#8
(no author information available yet)
Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum, using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1), GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl), GABA-gated ion channel (Grd), glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl), and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2) were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied...
November 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156592/activation-of-trek-1-but-not-trek-2-channel-by-mood-stabilizers
#9
Eun-Jin Kim, Dong Kun Lee, Seong-Geun Hong, Jaehee Han, Dawon Kang
Earlier studies have demonstrated that the tandem pore domain weak inward rectifying K⁺ channel (TWIK)-related K⁺ (TREK)-1 channel is inhibited by antidepressants and is associated with major depression. However, little is known about the effect of mood stabilizers that are commonly used for treatment of bipolar disorder on TREK channels, members of the two-pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channel family. This study sought to investigate the effect of mood stabilizers on TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels. HEK-293A cells were transfected with human TREK-1 or TREK-2 DNA...
November 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154951/regulation-of-neural-ion-channels-by-muscarinic-receptors
#10
REVIEW
David A Brown
The excitable behaviour of neurons is determined by the activity of their endogenous membrane ion channels. Since muscarinic receptors are not themselves ion channels, the acute effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on neuronal function are governed by the effects of the receptors on these endogenous neuronal ion channels. This review considers some principles and factors determining the interaction between subtypes and classes of muscarinic receptors with neuronal ion channels, and summarizes the effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on a number of different channels, the mechanisms of receptor - channel transduction and their direct consequences for neuronal activity...
November 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143559/k-cl-co-transporter-2-kcc2-a-membrane-trafficking-perspective
#11
Bor Luen Tang
K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2/SLC12A5) is a neuronal specific cation chloride co-transporter which is active under isotonic conditions, and thus a key regulator of intracellular Cl(-) levels. It also has an ion transporter-independent structural role in modulating the maturation and regulation of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. KCC2 levels are developmentally regulated, and a postnatal upregulation of KCC2 generates a low intracellular chloride concentration that allows the neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine to exert inhibitory neurotransmission through its Cl(-) permeating channel...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093568/experimental-preeclampsia-in-rats-affects-vascular-gene-expression-patterns
#12
Simone V Lip, Anne Marijn van der Graaf, Marjon J Wiegman, Sicco A Scherjon, Mark V Boekschoten, Torsten Plösch, Marijke M Faas
Normal pregnancy requires adaptations of the maternal vasculature. During preeclampsia these adaptations are not well established, which may be related to maternal hypertension and proteinuria. The effects of preeclampsia on the maternal vasculature are not yet fully understood. We aimed to evaluate gene expression in aortas of pregnant rats with experimental preeclampsia using a genome wide microarray. Aortas were isolated from pregnant Wistar outbred rats with low-dose LPS-induced preeclampsia (ExpPE), healthy pregnant (Pr), non-pregnant and low-dose LPS-infused non-pregnant rats...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091893/isoflurane-post-conditioning-down-regulates-expression-of-aquaporin-4-in-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-is-possibly-related-to-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-smad1-5-8-signaling-pathway
#13
Min Yuan, Mingyue Ge, Jiangwen Yin, Zhigang Dai, Liping Xie, Yan Li, Xuejiao Liu, Li Peng, Guixing Zhang, Junqiang Si, Ketao Ma, Sheng Wang
AIM: Aquaporins (AQPs) are water-channels that play important roles in brain water homeostasis and cerebral edema induced by brain injury. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between AQP4, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway and isoflurane post-conditiong, which has effects on brain edema in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Cerebral I/R injury was induced in rats by using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model for 90min, followed by 24h of reperfusion...
October 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023772/negative-modulation-of-the-gabaa-%C3%AF-1-receptor-function-by-l-cysteine
#14
Andrea N Beltrán González, Florencia Vicentini, Daniel J Calvo
L-Cysteine is an endogenous Sulphur containing amino acid with multiple and varied roles in the central nervous system, including neuroprotection and the maintenance of the redox balance. However, it was also suggested as an excitotoxic agent implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. L-Cysteine can modulate the activity of ionic channels, including voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic NMDA receptors, whereas its effects on GABAergic neurotransmission had not been studied before...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969375/using-an-engineered-glutamate-gated-chloride-channel-to-silence-sensory-neurons-and-treat-neuropathic-pain-at-the-source
#15
Greg A Weir, Steven J Middleton, Alex J Clark, Tarun Daniel, Nikita Khovanov, Stephen B McMahon, David L Bennett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968469/effects-of-glutamate-and-ivermectin-on-single-glutamate-gated-chloride-channels-of-the-parasitic-nematode-h-contortus
#16
Mohammed Atif, Argel Estrada-Mondragon, Bindi Nguyen, Joseph W Lynch, Angelo Keramidas
Ivermectin (IVM) is a widely-used anthelmintic that works by binding to and activating glutamate-gated chloride channel receptors (GluClRs) in nematodes. The resulting chloride flux inhibits the pharyngeal muscle cells and motor neurons of nematodes, causing death by paralysis or starvation. IVM resistance is an emerging problem in many pest species, necessitating the development of novel drugs. However, drug optimisation requires a quantitative understanding of GluClR activation and modulation mechanisms. Here we investigated the biophysical properties of homomeric α (avr-14b) GluClRs from the parasitic nematode, H...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924007/multiple-signaling-pathways-coordinately-regulate-forgetting-of-olfactory-adaptation-through-control-of-sensory-responses-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Tomohiro Kitazono, Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Osamu Matsuda, Akitoshi Inoue, Manabi Fujiwara, Takeshi Ishihara
Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 (ok1052), which shows excessive forgetting...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680296/distribution-and-function-of-the-bestrophin-1-best1-channel-in-the-brain
#18
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee
Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel identified from retinal pigment epithelium where human mutations are associated with Best's macular degeneration. Best1 is known to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain, and is thought to be involved in many physiological processes. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on aspects of expression and function of Best1 in the brain. Best1 protein is observed in cortical and hippocampal astrocytes, in cerebellar Bergmann glia and lamellar astrocytes, in thalamic reticular neurons, in meninges and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611584/glial-and-neuronal-glutamate-transporters-differ-in-the-na-requirements-for-activation-of-the-substrate-independent-anion-conductance
#19
Christopher B Divito, Jenna E Borowski, Nathan G Glasgow, Aneysis D Gonzalez-Suarez, Delany Torres-Salazar, Jon W Johnson, Susan G Amara
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are secondary active transporters of L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate. These carriers also mediate a thermodynamically uncoupled anion conductance that is gated by Na(+) and substrate binding. The activation of the anion channel by binding of Na(+) alone, however, has only been demonstrated for mammalian EAAC1 (EAAT3) and EAAT4. To date, no difference has been observed for the substrate dependence of anion channel gating between the glial, EAAT1 and EAAT2, and the neuronal isoforms EAAT3, EAAT4 and EAAT5...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575529/abnormal-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-neurotransmission-in-a-kcnq2-model-of-early-onset-epilepsy
#20
Taku Uchida, Christoph Lossin, Yukiko Ihara, Masanobu Deshimaru, Yuchio Yanagawa, Susumu Koyama, Shinichi Hirose
OBJECTIVE: Mutations of the KCNQ2 gene, which encodes the Kv 7.2 subunit of voltage-gated M-type potassium channels, have been associated with epilepsy in the neonatal period. This developmental stage is unique in that the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is inhibitory in adults, triggers excitatory action due to a reversed chloride gradient. METHODS: To examine whether KCNQ2-related neuronal hyperexcitability involves neonatally excitatory GABA, we examined 1-week-old knockin mice expressing the Kv 7...
August 2017: Epilepsia
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