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Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine E Chaisson, Evgeny Krupitsky, Philip O Coffin, Jeffrey H Samet
OBJECTIVES: Among Russians living with HIV/AIDS who inject drugs, we examined the incidence of fatal and non-fatal overdoses following discharge from a narcology hospital and the associations with more advanced HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of data collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from HIV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use who were not treated with anti-retroviral therapy. Participants were recruited between 2012-2014 from a narcology (addiction) hospital in St...
November 28, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
S Fernando, R McNeil, K Closson, H Samji, S Kirkland, C Strike, R Baltzer Turje, W Zhang, R S Hogg, S Parashar
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also marginalized by social and structural inequities often face barriers to accessing and adhering to HIV treatment and care. The Dr. Peter Centre (DPC) is a non-profit integrated care facility with a supervised injection room that serves PLHIV experiencing multiple barriers to social and health services in Vancouver, Canada. This study examines whether the DPC is successful in drawing in PLHIV with complex health issues, including addiction...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Daudi Simba, Deodatus Kakoko, Innocent Semali, Anna Kessy, Martha Embrey
INTRODUCTION: Private sector drug shops are an important source of medicines in Tanzania. In 2003, the government introduced the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program to improve access to good-quality medicines in rural and peri-urban areas that have frequent drug shortages in public health facilities and few or no registered pharmacies. However, increasing access may also contribute to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to the potential overuse and misuse of drugs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional household survey in four regions in mainland Tanzaniato characterize consumer care-seeking habits and medicines use and to determine the extent to which members of the community are knowledgeable about antimicrobials and AMR...
2016: PloS One
Liis Lemsalu, Kristi Rüütel, Kaja-Triin Laisaar, Liilia Lõhmus, Aire Raidvee, Anneli Uusküla
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal...
September 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Mostafa Shokoohi, Mohammad Karamouzian, Ali Mirzazadeh, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Ali-Ahmad Rafierad, Abbas Sedaghat, Hamid Sharifi
INTRODUCTION: The evidence is mixed on the HIV knowledge, attitude, and practices of youth in Iran. The aim of the current study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Iranian youth towards HIV through a national survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study with multistage cluster sampling, we administered a pilot-tested standard questionnaire to assess the levels of HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of individuals aged 15-29 years old...
2016: PloS One
D Liebhart, P Ganas, T Sulejmanovic, M Hess
Histomonosis is a parasitic disease of poultry with worldwide prevalence. The disease can cause morbidity and mortality in chicken and turkey flocks entailing severe economic losses. In the first half of the last century there was a high demand to control histomonosis as the turkey industry was severely affected by the disease. Consequently, numerous chemical compounds were tested for their efficacy against H. meleagridis with varying outcomes, altogether summarized and specified in this review. At the same time, preliminary attempts to protect birds with cultured histomonads indicated the possibility of vaccination...
September 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Kate A Salters, Marina Irick, Aranka Anema, Wendy Zhang, Surita Parashar, Thomas L Patterson, Yalin Chen, Julian Somers, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
People living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) often concurrently cope with mental health disorders that may greatly influence HIV and other health-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported mental health disorder diagnosis among a cohort of harder-to-reach HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia, Canada. Between 2007 and 2010, 1000 PHA who had initiated ART were enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigation into Supportive and Ancillary health services (LISA) study...
September 9, 2016: AIDS Care
David U Olveda, Donald P McManus, Allen G P Ross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventive chemotherapy is advocated for the global control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Despite the well known short-term benefits of treating patients for schistosomiasis, the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns to control the disease in the long term remains unresolved. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies have advocated the success of MDA programs in order to attract donor funds for elimination efforts but such successes are often short-lived given the drug does not alter the life cycle of the organism or prevent reinfection...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
S Lanini, P J Easterbrook, A Zumla, G Ippolito
It is estimated that globally there are 100 million persons with serological evidence of current or past HCV infection, and that HCV causes about 700 000 deaths each year. The prevalence of infection is the highest in lower and middle income countries, in which a significant number of past infections were caused by iatrogenic transmission and sub-optimal injection safety. In contrast, in developed countries, infections are caused mainly by high-risk exposures and behaviours among specific populations, such as persons who inject drugs...
August 11, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Lucy Watchirs Smith, Bette Liu, Louisa Degenhardt, Juliet Richters, George Patton, Handan Wand, Donna Cross, Jane S Hocking, S Rachel Skinner, Spring Cooper, Catharine Lumby, John M Kaldor, Rebecca Guy
Background: Social networking and digital media increasingly have an impact on the lives of young people. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit websites (SEWs) and 'sexting' (i.e. sending semi-nude or nude photos from a mobile phone) and the sexual attitudes and practices of young people. Methods: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for papers that described the statistical association between viewing SEWs or sexting by young people (defined as 10-24 years) and their sexual attitudes and behaviours...
August 11, 2016: Sexual Health
Cherrie B Boyer, Lauren Greenberg, Kate Chutuape, Bendu Walker, Dina Monte, Jennifer Kirk, Jonathan M Ellen
The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Timothy O Ihongbe, Saba W Masho
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of heroin use, abuse, and dependence has increased considerably over the past decade. This increase has largely been driven by young adults (18-25years). This study aims to improve the understanding of heroin use among young adults by determining the prevalence, correlates, patterns and attitude of heroin use among young adults in the US. METHODS: The 2011-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was analyzed. Study population included 55,940 young adults with valid interviews...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Robert S Remis, Juan Liu, Mona R Loutfy, Wangari Tharao, Anuradha Rebbapragada, Sanja Huibner, Maya Kesler, Roberta Halpenny, Troy Grennan, Jason Brunetta, Graham Smith, Tatjana Reko, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been associated with HIV transmission risk and disease progression among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM), but the frequency and distribution of STIs in this community in Canada has not been extensively studied. METHODS: We recruited MSM living with and without HIV from a large primary care clinic in Toronto. Participants completed a detailed socio-behavioural questionnaire using ACASI and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, HBV and HCV, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and a self-collected anal swab for human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular diagnostics...
2016: PloS One
Elif Mutlu, Arash Alaei, Melissa Tracy, Katherine Waye, Mustafa Kemal Cetin, Kamiar Alaei
BACKGROUND: The number of individuals seeking treatment for drug use has been increasing in recent years in Turkey. However, existing research on patterns and risk factors for drug use and how they vary by age and location in Turkey is limited. METHODS: We examined the socio-demographic characteristics, drug use behaviors, and treatment history of citizens admitted to inpatient substance use treatment at public and private facilities in Turkey during 2012 and 2013 and identified correlates of lifetime and current injection drug use...
July 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ralph Hingson, Wenxing Zha, Bruce Simons-Morton, Aaron White
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related blackouts are periods of amnesia that reflect the failure of the brain to record memories of what transpires while drinking. This paper examined the incidence, predictors, and behavioral correlates of blackouts among emerging adults and examined whether questions about blackouts could serve as better markers of risk for other alcohol related harms than questions about levels of consumption. METHODS: In 2012 to 2013, 1,463 (68%) of 2,140 respondents 1-year past high school reported having consumed alcohol...
April 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yu Liu, Juan Wang, Han-Zhu Qian, Hongjie Liu, Lu Yin, Hongyan Lu, Chen Zhang, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sten H Vermund
The dynamic nature of finding male sexual partners (sex-finding) among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) may play a substantial role in the HIV epidemic. We compared characteristics and behaviors of MSM who mostly sought sex via the Internet versus traditional venues in a cross-sectional survey among 3588 Chinese MSM. We assessed the sociodemographic predictors and compared high-risk behaviors of using Internet versus traditional venues for sex-finding. Compared to non-Internet MSM, Internet-user MSM were more likely to have been: younger, currently single, better educated, health-insured, with higher income, with Beijing residency ('Hukou'), living longer in the city, HIV-positive, ever using drug and engaging in condomless receptive anal sex...
October 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Héctor E Alcalá, Ondine S von Ehrenstein, A Janet Tomiyama
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44...
October 2016: Journal of Community Health
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Gianpietro Zampogna, Robert Taylor, Edmundo Gonima, Jose Posada, Robert B Raffa
Most patients who present with cancer have advanced disease and often suffer moderate to severe pain. Opioid therapy can be safe and effective for use in cancer patients with pain, but there are rightful concerns about inappropriate opioid use even in the cancer population. Since cancer patients live longer than ever before in history (and survivors may have long exposure times to opioid therapy), opioid misuse among cancer patients is an important topic worthy of deeper investigation. Cancer patients with pain must be evaluated for risk factors for potential opioid misuse and aberrant drug-taking behaviors assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Julie Bouscaillou, Jérome Evanno, Myrtille Prouté, André Inwoley, Mathieu Kabran, Thierry N'Guessan, Samedi Djé-Bi, Souleymane Sidibé, Marguerite Thiam-Niangoin, Badou Roger N'guessan, Pascale Blanchetière, Niklas Luhmann
BACKGROUND: The number of people who use drugs (PWUD) has dramatically increased in West Africa over the last 15 years, but targeted interventions are falling behind, notably because of the lack of awareness of the health needs of PWUD. We aimed to assess prevalence and factors associated with HIV and other infections in PWUD in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one of the countries most affected by HIV in Western Africa. METHODS: We used respondent-driven-sampling to obtain a representative sample of heroin or cocaine/crack users aged 18 years or more...
April 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Chengyi Tu, Loredana Santo, Yuko Mishima, Noopur Raje, Zeev Smilansky, Janet Zoldan
Protein synthesis is generally under sophisticated and dynamic regulation to meet the ever-changing demands of a cell. Global up or down-regulation of protein synthesis and the shift of protein synthesis location (as shown, for example, during cellular stress or viral infection) are recognized as cellular responses to environmental changes such as nutrient/oxygen deprivation or to alterations such as pathological mutations in cancer cells. Monitoring protein synthesis in single live cells can be a powerful tool for cancer research...
May 16, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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