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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218921/machine-learning-and-deep-analytics-for-biocomputing-call-for-better-explainability
#1
Dragutin Petkovic, Lester Kobzik, Christopher Re
The goals of this workshop are to discuss challenges in explainability of current Machine Leaning and Deep Analytics (MLDA) used in biocomputing and to start the discussion on ways to improve it. We define explainability in MLDA as easy to use information explaining why and how the MLDA approach made its decisions. We believe that much greater effort is needed to address the issue of MLDA explainability because of: 1) the ever increasing use and dependence on MLDA in biocomputing including the need for increased adoption by non-MLD experts; 2) the diversity, complexity and scale of biocomputing data and MLDA algorithms; 3) the emerging importance of MLDA-based decisions in patient care, in daily research, as well as in the development of new costly medical procedures and drugs...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218799/structural-factors-associated-with-methamphetamine-smoking-among-female-sex-workers-in-tijuana-mexico
#2
Erin E Conners, Tommi L Gaines, Steffanie A Strathdee, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Kimberly C Brouwer
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Smoking methamphetamine is associated with increased risk of HIV among female sex workers (FSW). The structural context of substance use is an important shaper of individual behaviour; however, structural determinants of methamphetamine use among FSWs are largely unknown. We identified individual, structural and neighbourhood factors associated with smoking methamphetamine among FSWs in the border city of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective cohort of 301 FSWs sampled from indoor and outdoor sex work venues throughout Tijuana participated in quantitative surveys on behaviours and mapping of home and work neighbourhoods across three visits...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168262/cross-border-migration-and-initiation-of-others-into-drug-injecting-in-tijuana-mexico
#3
Claudia Rafful, Jason Melo, María Elena Medina-Mora, Gudelia Rangel, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Dan Werb
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Efforts to prevent injection drug use (IDU) are increasingly focusing on the role that people who inject drugs (PWID) play in facilitating the entry of others into this behaviour. This is particularly relevant in settings experiencing high levels of IDU, such as Mexico's northern border region, where cross-border migration, particularly through forced deportation, has been found to increase a range of health and social harms related to injecting. DESIGN AND METHODS: PWID enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Tijuana, Mexico, since 2011 were interviewed semi-annually, which solicited responses on their experiences initiating others into injecting...
November 22, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074409/global-prevalence-of-injecting-drug-use-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-and-prevalence-of-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-in-people-who-inject-drugs-a-multistage-systematic-review
#4
Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock, Samantha Colledge, Janni Leung, Jason Grebely, Peter Vickerman, Jack Stone, Evan B Cunningham, Adam Trickey, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Michael Lynskey, Paul Griffiths, Richard P Mattick, Matthew Hickman, Sarah Larney
BACKGROUND: Sharing of equipment used for injecting drug use (IDU) is a substantial cause of disease burden and a contributor to blood-borne virus transmission. We did a global multistage systematic review to identify the prevalence of IDU among people aged 15-64 years; sociodemographic characteristics of and risk factors for people who inject drugs (PWID); and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PWID. METHODS: Consistent with the GATHER and PRISMA guidelines and without language restrictions, we systematically searched peer-reviewed databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO; articles published since 2008, latest searches in June, 2017), searched the grey literature (websites and databases, searches between April and August, 2016), and disseminated data requests to international experts and agencies (requests sent in October, 2016)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803503/hiv-testing-and-awareness-of-hiv-status-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-greater-kuala-lumpur-malaysia
#5
Alexander R Bazazi, Aishwarya Vijay, Forrest W Crawford, Robert Heimer, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
HIV testing services are the gateway into HIV treatment and are critical for monitoring the epidemic. HIV testing is recommended at least annually in high-risk populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). In Malaysia, the HIV epidemic is concentrated among PWID, but their adherence to testing recommendations and the proportion of HIV-positive PWID who are aware of their status remain unknown. We recruited 460 PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur using respondent-driven sampling and conducted HIV testing. We examined past testing behaviors, estimating testing frequency, correlates of testing in the past 12 months, and the proportion of those living with HIV who were aware of their status...
January 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774479/gender-differences-in-the-association-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-cancer
#6
Héctor E Alcalá, A Janet Tomiyama, Ondine S von Ehrenstein
OBJECTIVES: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to a variety of diseases in adulthood, including cancer. However, current research has yet to determine if all abuse types are associated with cancer and if women are more adversely impacted by ACEs than men. METHODS: Data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a national survey of American adults 18 and older (N = 111,964) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds of ever being diagnosed with cancer after experiencing one or more of eight different ACEs, while adjusting for potential confounders...
November 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705259/-just-not-all-ice-users-do-that-investigating-perceptions-and-potential-harms-of-australia-s-ice-destroys-lives-campaign-in-two-studies
#7
Caitlin H Douglass, Elizabeth C Early, Cassandra J C Wright, Anna Palmer, Peter Higgs, Brendan Quinn, Paul M Dietze, Megan S C Lim
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the Australian government launched the media campaign Ice Destroys Lives targeting crystal methamphetamine use. Previous research indicates mass media campaigns may have harmful effects for people engaged in drug use. This study investigated perceptions and harms of Ice Destroys Lives among adults with a history of injecting drugs and young people. METHODS: This analysis includes data from two studies: an online questionnaire with young people and in-depth interviews with adults who use crystal methamphetamine...
July 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675360/four-years-of-hepatic-transplantation-in-the-republic-of-moldova
#8
Vladimir Hotineanu, Adrian Hotineanu, Serghei Burgoci, Grigore Ivancov, Natalia Taran, Angela Peltec, Dumitru Cazacu, Vitalie Sîrghi
Ever since the first liver transplant in the Republic of Moldova in 2013 we have performed 30 liver transplantations, the first having been performed in collaboration with the surgical team from Romania, led by Professor Irinel Popescu. The serious deficit of available cadaveric organs has forced us to begin with right hemi-liver transplantation from a living donor. In one third of liver transplantations we used right hemi-liver graft from a living donor, and in 2/3 of cases whole liver graft was harvested from brain-dead donors...
May 2017: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674555/a-design-build-test-cycle-using-modeling-and-experiments-reveals-interdependencies-between-upper-glycolysis-and-xylose-uptake-in-recombinant-s-cerevisiae-and-improves-predictive-capabilities-of-large-scale-kinetic-models
#9
Ljubisa Miskovic, Susanne Alff-Tuomala, Keng Cher Soh, Dorothee Barth, Laura Salusjärvi, Juha-Pekka Pitkänen, Laura Ruohonen, Merja Penttilä, Vassily Hatzimanikatis
BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in omics measurement technologies have led to an ever-increasing amount of available experimental data that necessitate systems-oriented methodologies for efficient and systematic integration of data into consistent large-scale kinetic models. These models can help us to uncover new insights into cellular physiology and also to assist in the rational design of bioreactor or fermentation processes. Optimization and Risk Analysis of Complex Living Entities (ORACLE) framework for the construction of large-scale kinetic models can be used as guidance for formulating alternative metabolic engineering strategies...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610435/access-and-engagement-in-hiv-care-among-a-national-cohort-of-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#10
Nadine Kronfli, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Angela Kaida, Carmen Logie, Tracey Conway, V Logan Kennedy, Ann Burchell, Wangari Tharao, Neora Pick, Mary Kestler, Paul Sereda, Mona Loutfy, On Behalf Of The Chiwos Research Team
Attrition along the cascade of HIV care poses significant barriers to attaining the UNAIDS targets of 90-90-90 and achieving optimal treatment outcomes for people living with HIV. Understanding the correlates of attrition is critical and particularly for women living with HIV (WLWH) as gender disparities along the cascade have been found. We measured the proportion of the 1425 WLWH enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS) who had never accessed HIV medical care, who reported delayed linkage into HIV care (>3 months between diagnosis and initial care linkage), and who were not engaged in HIV care at interview (<1 visit in prior year)...
June 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586701/the-extent-of-and-factors-associated-with-self-reported-overdose-and-self-reported-receipt-of-naloxone-among-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland
#11
Charlotte O'Halloran, Katelyn Cullen, Jaquelyn Njoroge, Lucy Jessop, Josie Smith, Vivian Hope, Fortune Ncube
BACKGROUND: Overdose is a major cause of death among PWID, and for opioid overdoses naloxone administration can reduce harm. However, globally there is limited national level data on the extent of non-fatal overdose and naloxone uptake. The first national level data on the extent of self-reported overdose and self-reported receipt of naloxone among UK PWID, providing a baseline to monitor the impact of the recent policy change regarding naloxone availability, is presented. METHODS: Data on self-reported overdose and receipt of naloxone during the preceding year for 2013-2014 from a national survey of PWID was analysed...
June 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483724/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infection-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-visiting-antiretroviral-therapy-centres-in-nepal-a-first-nationally-representative-study
#12
G Ionita, A Malviya, R Rajbhandari, W William Schluter, G Sharma, S Kakchapati, S Rijal, S Dixit
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infections among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Nepal. METHODS: A sample of 677 PLHIV representing key affected populations (KAP) in Nepal, who were undergoing antiretroviral (ART) therapy in ART clinics around the country, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Rapid kit-based testing followed by ELISA for validation was performed, focusing on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV)...
July 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473307/the-rsvp-project-factors-related-to-disengagement-from-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-among-persons-in-san-francisco
#13
Susan Scheer, Miao-Jung Chen, Maree Kay Parisi, Maya Yoshida-Cervantes, Erin Antunez, Viva Delgado, Nicholas J Moss, Kate Buchacz
BACKGROUND: In the United States, an estimated two-thirds of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection do not achieve viral suppression, including those who have never engaged in HIV care and others who do not stay engaged in care. Persons with an unsuppressed HIV viral load might experience poor clinical outcomes and transmit HIV. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Re-engaging Surveillance-identified Viremic Persons (RSVP) project in San Francisco, CA, was to use routine HIV surveillance databases to identify, contact, interview, and reengage in HIV care persons who appeared to be out of care because their last HIV viral load was unsuppressed...
May 4, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459881/facilitators-and-barriers-for-retention-in-hiv-care-between-testing-and-treatment-in-asia-a-study-in-bangladesh-indonesia-lao-nepal-pakistan-philippines-and-vietnam
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sushil Koirala, Keshab Deuba, Oranuch Nampaisan, Gaetano Marrone, Anna Mia Ekström
INTRODUCTION: The need for efficient retention in HIV care is more evident than ever because of the expansion of earlier ART initiation and the shift towards 'Test and Treat'. This study assesses factors affecting participation in the HIV care cascade among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Asia-Pacific Region. METHODS: A total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18-50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling between October 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, across 59 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441975/seek-test-treat-substance-using-women-in-the-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-south-africa
#15
Wendee M Wechsberg, Charles van der Horst, Jacqueline Ndirangu, Irene A Doherty, Tracy Kline, Felicia A Browne, Jennifer M Belus, Robin Nance, William A Zule
BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa who use alcohol and other drugs face multiple barriers to HIV care. These barriers make it difficult for women to progress through each step in the HIV treatment cascade from diagnosis to treatment initiation and adherence. This paper examines correlates of HIV status, newly diagnosed HIV status, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Outreach workers recruited sexually active Black African women who used substances in Pretoria as part of a U...
April 26, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439993/non-smoker-assertive-behaviour-against-smoke-exposure-chinese-and-korean-american-non-smokers
#16
Anne Saw, Hao Tang, Janice Y Tsoh, Moon S Chen, Elisa K Tong
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Non-smokers' assertive behaviour towards smokers by asking them not to smoke is important in promoting smoke-free environments. Korean and Chinese Americans come from countries where most women are non-smokers and assertive behaviour may not be prevalent but may increase after migration because of social-ecological factors. This study assessed the extent to which Korean and Chinese American non-smokers ask someone not to smoke and associated factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: The 2003 California Chinese American and Korean American Tobacco Use Surveys were analysed...
November 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399349/sexually-transmitted-infections-prevalence-knowledge-and-behaviours-among-professional-defence-forces-in-estonia-a-pilot-study
#17
R. David Parker, Kristi Rüütel
OBJECTIVES: Our study assessed sexually transmitted infections (STI) occurrence and risk behaviours from a sample of the defence forces of Estonia. Previous research on military personnel yields various results on the prevalence of STIs and high risk behaviours. The increasing recognition of high risk behaviours among military personnel is evident given increased programmes that focus on education of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. Many militaries conduct routine, periodic screening for diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis at entry and pre-foreign deployment...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395249/opioid-users-with-comorbid-hepatitis-c-spent-more-time-in-agonist-therapy-a-6-year-observational-study-in-taiwan
#18
Horng-Maw Chen, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Kun-Chia Chang, Kuan-Ying Lee, Ching-Ming Cheng
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among opioid agonist therapy (OAT) patients, but little is known about long-term OAT use among this population. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed as opioid dependence were recruited from Mar. 2006 to Jul. 2008 in a psychiatry center in southern Taiwan with the OAT censored in 2012, and their socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and markers of blood-borne infection were assessed at entry. Correlates with HCV infection and OAT retention were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression...
March 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381234/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-illicit-drug-use-among-university-students-in-the-association-of-southeast-asian-nations-asean
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Siyan Yi, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid, Indri Hapsari Susilowati
BACKGROUND: Illicit drug use among university students has been recognized as a global public health issue in recent years. It may lead to poor academic performance that in turn leads to poor productivity in their later life. This study explores prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among university students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). METHODS: This multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam...
April 6, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361498/disclosure-of-sexual-orientation-to-health-professionals-in-china-results-from-an-online-cross-sectional-study
#20
Weiming Tang, Jessica Mao, Songyuan Tang, Chuncheng Liu, Katie Mollan, Bolin Cao, Terrence Wong, Ye Zhang, Michael Hudgens, Yilu Qin, Larry Han, Baoli Ma, Bin Yang, Wei Ma, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in China are "in the closet." The low rate of disclosure may impact sexual behaviours, testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and diseases transmission. This study examines factors associated with overall sexual orientation disclosure and disclosure to healthcare professionals. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September 2014 to October 2014 in China...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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