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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132924/impact-of-capsaicin-an-active-component-of-chili-pepper-on-pathogenic-chlamydial-growth-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-chlamydia-pneumoniae-in-immortal-human-epithelial-hela-cells
#1
Kazuya Yamakawa, Junji Matsuo, Torahiko Okubo, Shinji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Capsaicin, a component of chili pepper, which can stimulate actin remodeling via capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) and anti-inflammatory effects via PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) and LXRα (liver X receptor α), is a potential candidate to control chlamydial growth in host cells. We examined whether capsaicin could inhibit C. trachomatis growth in immortal human epithelial HeLa cells...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129222/both-cytopathic-and-non-cytopathic-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-induced-autophagy-at-a-similar-rate
#2
Mrigendra K S Rajput, Karim Abdelsalam, Mahmoud F Darweesh, Lyle J Braun, Jason Kerkvliet, Adam D Hoppe, Christopher C L Chase
Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains cellular homeostasis by the proteolytic recycling of cytoplasm. Autophagy occurs at basal levels in almost all cells. It is upregulated in cellular stress including starvation, oxidative stress or during infection. Several viruses including flavivirus have developed strategies to subvert or use autophagy for their efficient replication. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the pestivirus virus group. BVDV is responsible for significant economic loss in cattle industry worldwide...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120489/in-vitro-chemosensitivity-of-feline-injection-site-associated-sarcoma-cell-lines-to-carboplatin
#3
Elizabeth A Maxwell, Heidi Phillips, David J Schaeffer, Timothy M Fan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro chemosensitivity of feline injection site-associated sarcoma (FISAS) cells to carboplatin concentrations generated by elution of carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CI-CSH) beads. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study. SAMPLE: Five immortalized cell lines from histologically confirmed, primary FISASs. METHODS: For each cell line, one 96-well microplate was used for each time point (24, 48, 72 hours)...
November 9, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074462/correlation-between-telomerase-and-mtor-pathway-in-cancer-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Fatma Dogan, Cigir Biray Avci
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are defined as a subset of tumor cells, are able to self-renew, proliferate, differentiate similar to normal stem cells. Therefore, targeting CSCs has been considered as a new approach in cancer therapy. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase which plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, cell growth, self-renewal in CSCs. On the other hand, hTERT overactivation provides replicative feature and immortality to CSCs, so the stemness and replicative properties of CSCs depend on telomerase activity...
October 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061644/comprehensive-pharmacogenomic-profiling-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-identifies-a-subgroup-sensitive-to-fgfr-inhibition
#5
Josine M Quispel-Janssen, Jitendra Badhai, Laurel Schunselaar, Stacey Price, Jonathan S Brammeld, Francesco Iorio, Krishna K Kolluri, Mathew J Garnett, Anton Berns, Paul Baas, Ultan McDermott, Jacques Neefjes, Constantine Alifrangis
PURPOSE: Despite intense research, treatment options for patients with mesothelioma are limited and offer only modest survival advantage. We screened a large panel of compounds in multiple mesothelioma models, and correlated sensitivity with a range of molecular features to detect biomarkers of drug response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We utilised a high-throughput chemical inhibitor screen in a panel of 889 cancer cell lines, including both immortalised and primary early passage mesothelioma lines, alongside comprehensive molecular characterisation using Illumina whole exome sequencing, copy number analysis and Affymetrix array whole transcriptome profiling...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059256/identification-of-two-immortalized-cell-lines-ecv304-and-bend3-for-in-vitro-permeability-studies-of-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Shu Yang, Shenghui Mei, Hong Jin, Bin Zhu, Yue Tian, Jiping Huo, Xu Cui, Anchen Guo, Zhigang Zhao
To identify suitable cell lines for a mimetic system of in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug permeability assessment, we characterized two immortalized cell lines, ECV304 and bEnd3 in the respect of the tightness, tight junction proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and discriminative brain penetration. The ECV304 monoculture achieved higher transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and lower permeability to Lucifer yellow than bEnd3. However, co-culture with rat glioma C6 cells impaired the integrity of ECV304 and bEnd3 cell layers perhaps due to the heterogeneity among C6 cells in inducing BBB characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055717/development-of-3d-culture-models-of-plexiform-neurofibroma-and-initial-application-for-phenotypic-characterization-and-drug-screening
#7
REVIEW
Janice M Kraniak, Anita Chalasani, Margaret R Wallace, Raymond R Mattingly
Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs), which may be present at birth in up to half of children with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), can cause serious loss of function, such as quadriparesis, and can undergo malignant transformation. Surgery is the first line treatment although the invasive nature of these tumors often prevents complete resection. Recent clinical trials have shown promising success for some drugs, notably selumetinib, an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase (MEK). We have developed three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models of immortalized cells from NF1 PNs and of control Schwann cells (SCs) that we believe mimic more closely the in vivo condition than conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture...
October 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040544/mutation-specific-downregulation-of-cftr2-variants-by-gating-potentiators
#8
Radu G Avramescu, Yukari Kai, Haijin Xu, Aurélien Bidaud-Meynard, Andrea Schnúr, Saul Frenkiel, Elias Matouk, Guido Veit, Gergely L Lukacs
Approximately 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are heterozygous with a rare mutation on at least one allele. Several mutants exhibit functional defects, correctable by gating potentiators. Long-term exposure (≥24h) to the only available potentiator drug, VX-770, leads to the biochemical and functional downregulation of F508del-CFTR both in immortalized and primary human airway cells, and possibly other CF mutants, attenuating its beneficial effect. Based on these considerations, we wanted to determine the effect of chronic VX-770 exposure on the functional and biochemical expression of rare CF processing/gating mutants in human airway epithelia...
October 4, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035327/immortalized-muscle-cell-model-to-test-the-exon-skipping-efficacy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#9
REVIEW
Quynh Nguyen, Toshifumi Yokota
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal genetic disorder that most commonly results from mutations disrupting the reading frame of the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Among the therapeutic approaches employed, exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) is one of the most promising strategies. This strategy aims to restore the reading frame, thus producing a truncated, yet functioning dystrophin protein. In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conditionally approved the first AO-based drug, eteplirsen (Exondys 51), developed for DMD exon 51 skipping...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990525/a-human-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cell-model-to-explore-a-knowledge-gap-on-neonatal-drug-disposition
#10
Ahmed Reda, Anke Raaijmakers, Saskia van Dorst, Charlotte G G M Pauwels, Karel Allegaert, Mohamed A Elmonem, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Lambertus van den Heuvel, Elena Levtchenko, Fanny Oliveira Arcolino
BACKGROUND: Finding the right drug-dosage for neonates is still a challenge. Until now, neonatal doses are extrapolated from adults and children doses. However, there are differences between neonatal and adult kidney physiology that should be considered, especially when it comes to drug metabolism and/or transport. Studying renal drug disposition in neonates is limited by the lack of reliable human cell models. OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the feasibility of developing an in vitro model for neonatal proximal tubule epithelial cells (nPTECs) to study renal drug disposition at this age...
October 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970102/the-proteome-speciation-of-an-immortalized-cystic-fibrosis-cell-line-new-perspectives-on-the-pathophysiology-of-the-disease
#11
Michele Puglia, Claudia Landi, Assunta Gagliardi, Loretta Breslin, Alessandro Armini, Jlenia Brunetti, Alessandro Pini, Laura Bianchi, Luca Bini
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a recessively inherited disease caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR has a pivotal role in the onset of CF, and several proteins are involved in its homeostasis. To study CFTR interactors at protein species level, we used a functional proteomics approach combining 2D-DIGE, mass spectrometry and enrichment analysis. A human bronchial epithelial cell line with cystic fibrosis (CFBE41o-) and the control (16HBE14o-) were used for the comparison...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948092/the-effect-of-benzothiazolone-2-on-the-expression-of-metallothionein-3-in-modulating-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Sudeep Roy, Jaromir Gumulec, Akhil Kumar, Martina Raudenska, Mohd Hassan Baig, Hana Polanska, Jan Balvan, Mansi Gupta, Petr Babula, Jan Odstrčilík, Inho Choi, Ivo Provaznik, Michal Masarik
INTRODUCTION: Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of ubiquitously occurring low-molecular-weight cysteine- and metal-rich proteins containing sulfur-based metal clusters. MT-3 exhibits neuro-inhibitory activity. The possibility to enhance the expression of MT-3 or protect it from degradation is an attractive therapeutic target, because low levels of MT-3 were found in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to test an enhancement of MT-3 cellular concentration after MT-3 binding treatment, which could prevent MT-3 degradation...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933914/comparison-of-cellular-transforming-activity-of-oct4-nanog-and-sox2-in-immortalized-astrocytes
#13
Sunyoung Seo, Hee-Young Jeon, Hyunggee Kim
Embryonic stem cell factors-OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2-contribute to the maintenance of stem cell properties and malignant progression in various cancers, including glioblastoma. Although functional roles of each of these genes are well documented in stem cell and cancer biology, no study has directly compared their cellular transforming activity under same experimental conditions. In this study, we compared the cellular transforming activity of OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 using human immortalized astrocytes cultured under serum-free stem cell culture conditions...
November 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932105/changes-in-alternative-splicing-as-pharmacodynamic-markers-for-sudemycin-d6
#14
Morgan Thurman, Jacob van Doorn, Barbara Danzer, Thomas R Webb, Stefan Stamm
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to define pharmacodynamic markers for sudemycin D6, an experimental cancer drug that changes alternative splicing in human blood. METHODS: Blood samples from 12 donors were incubated with sudemycin D6 for up to 24 hours, and at several time points total RNA from lymphocytes was prepared and the pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing patterns were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Similar to immortalized cells, blood lymphocytes change alternative splicing due to sudemycin D6 treatment...
2017: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928444/immortalized-n-tert-keratinocytes-as-an-alternative-cell-source-in-3d-human-epidermal-models
#15
Jos P H Smits, Hanna Niehues, Gijs Rikken, Ivonne M J J van Vlijmen-Willems, Guillaume W H J F van de Zande, Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Joost Schalkwijk, Ellen H van den Bogaard
The strong societal urge to reduce the use of experimental animals, and the biological differences between rodent and human skin, have led to the development of alternative models for healthy and diseased human skin. However, the limited availability of primary keratinocytes to generate such models hampers large-scale implementation of skin models in biomedical, toxicological, and pharmaceutical research. Immortalized cell lines may overcome these issues, however, few immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines are available and most do not form a fully stratified epithelium...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922619/identification-of-angiogenesis-inhibitors-using-a-co-culture-cell-model-in-a-high-content-and-high-throughput-screening-platform
#16
Shuaizhang Li, Chia-Wen Hsu, Srilatha Sakamuru, Chaozhong Zou, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia
Angiogenesis is an important hallmark of cancer, contributing to tumor formation and metastasis. In vitro angiogenesis models for analyzing tube formation serve as useful tools to study these processes. However, current in vitro co-culture models using primary cells have limitations in usefulness and consistency. Therefore, in the present study, an in vitro co-culture assay system was optimized in a 1536-well format for high-throughput screening using human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells and aortic endothelial cells...
September 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902204/rational-design-and-structure-activity-relationship-studies-of-quercetin-amino-acid-hybrids-targeting-the-anti-apoptotic-protein-bcl-xl
#17
Tahsin F Kellici, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Min-Sung Lee, Nisar Sayyad, Elena G Geromichalou, Eirinaios I Vrettos, Antonis D Tsiailanis, Seung-Wook Chi, George D Geromichalos, Thomas Mavromoustakos, Andreas G Tzakos
Anti-apoptotic proteins, like the Bcl-2 family proteins, present an important therapeutic cancer drug target. Their activity is orchestrated through neutralization upon interaction of pro-apoptotic protein counterparts that leads to immortality of cancer cells. Therefore, generating compounds targeting these proteins is of immense therapeutic importance. Herein, Induced Fit Docking (IFD) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to rationally design quercetin analogues that bind in the BH3 site of the Bcl-xL protein...
September 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892653/saliva-derived-commensal-and-pathogenic-biofilms-in-a-human-gingiva-model
#18
J K Buskermolen, M M Janus, S Roffel, B P Krom, S Gibbs
In vitro models that closely mimic human host-microbiome interactions can be a powerful screening tool for antimicrobials and will hold great potential for drug validation and discovery. The aim of this study was to develop an organotypic oral mucosa model that could be exposed to in vitro cultured commensal and pathogenic biofilms in a standardized and scalable manner. The oral mucosa model consisted of a tissue-engineered human gingiva equivalent containing a multilayered differentiated gingiva epithelium (keratinocytes) grown on a collagen hydrogel, containing gingiva fibroblasts, which represented the lamina propria...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865998/quantitative-antisense-screening-and-optimization-for-exon-51-skipping-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#19
Yusuke Echigoya, Kenji Rowel Q Lim, Nhu Trieu, Bo Bao, Bailey Miskew Nichols, Maria Candida Vila, James S Novak, Yuko Hara, Joshua Lee, Aleksander Touznik, Kamel Mamchaoui, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Shin'ichi Takeda, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Vincent Mouly, Rika Maruyama, William Duddy, Toshifumi Yokota
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common lethal genetic disorder, is caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Exon skipping is a therapeutic approach that uses antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) to modulate splicing and restore the reading frame, leading to truncated, yet functional protein expression. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conditionally approved the first phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (morpholino)-based AO drug, eteplirsen, developed for DMD exon 51 skipping...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838312/docosahexaenoic-acid-containing-choline-phospholipid-modulates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-vivo-and-in-microglia-in-vitro
#20
Célia Fourrier, Julie Remus-Borel, Andrew D Greenhalgh, Michel Guichardant, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac, Michel Lagarde, Corinne Joffre, Sophie Layé
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory processes are considered a double-edged sword, having both protective and detrimental effects in the brain. Microglia, the brain's resident innate immune cells, are a key component of neuroinflammatory response. There is a growing interest in developing drugs to target microglia and control neuroinflammatory processes. In this regard, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the brain's n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is a promising molecule to regulate pro-inflammatory microglia and cytokine production...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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