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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792190/novel-insights-into-neuroinflammation-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-ureaplasma-species-differentially-modulate-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-responses-in-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Christine Silwedel, Christian P Speer, Axel Haarmann, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Mathias Buttmann, Kirsten Glaser
BACKGROUND: Atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3, synonym CXCR7) is increasingly considered relevant in neuroinflammatory conditions, in which its upregulation contributes to compromised endothelial barrier function and may ultimately allow inflammatory brain injury. While an impact of ACKR3 has been recognized in several neurological autoimmune diseases, neuroinflammation may also result from infectious agents, including Ureaplasma species (spp.). Although commonly regarded as commensals of the adult urogenital tract, Ureaplasma spp...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789657/the-cooh-terminal-domain-of-huntingtin-interacts-with-rhogef-kalirin-and-modulates-cell-survival
#2
Hollis McClory, Xiaolong Wang, Ellen Sapp, Leah W Gatune, Maria Iuliano, Chiu-Yi Wu, Gina Nathwani, Kimberly B Kegel-Gleason, Marian DiFiglia, Xueyi Li
Human huntingtin (Htt) contains 3144 amino acids and has an expanded polyglutamine region near the NH2 -terminus in patients with Huntington's disease. While numerous binding partners have been identified to NH2 -terminal Htt, fewer proteins are known to interact with C-terminal domains of Htt. Here we report that kalirin, a Rac1 activator, is a binding partner to C-terminal Htt. Kalirin and Htt co-precipitated from mouse brain endosomes and co-localized at puncta in NRK and immortalized striatal cells and primary cortical neurons...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789564/establishing-quasi-steady-state-operations-of-microphysiological-systems-mps-using-tissue-specific-metabolic-dependencies
#3
Christian Maass, Matthew Dallas, Matthew E LaBarge, Michael Shockley, Jorge Valdez, Emily Geishecker, Cynthia L Stokes, Linda G Griffith, Murat Cirit
Microphysiological systems (MPS), consisting of tissue constructs, biomaterials, and culture media, aim to recapitulate relevant organ functions in vitro. MPS components are housed in fluidic hardware with operational protocols, such as periodic complete media replacement. Such batch-like operations provide relevant nutrients and remove waste products but also reset cell-secreted mediators (e.g. cytokines, hormones) and potentially limit exposure to drugs (and metabolites). While each component plays an essential role for tissue functionality, MPS-specific nutrient needs are not yet well-characterized nor utilized to operate MPSs at more physiologically-relevant conditions...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789551/epidermal-glucocorticoid-and-mineralocorticoid-receptors-act-cooperatively-to-regulate-epidermal-development-and-counteract-skin-inflammation
#4
Judit Bigas, Lisa M Sevilla, Elena Carceller, Julia Boix, Paloma Pérez
Endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) regulate epidermal development and combat skin inflammatory diseases. GC actions can be mediated through the GC receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), highly homologous ligand-activated transcription factors. While the role of GR as a potent anti-inflammatory mediator is well known, that of MR is not as clear, nor is whether these receptors cooperate or antagonize each other in the epidermis. To address this, we generated mice with epidermal-specific loss of both receptors (double knockout, DKO), and analyzed the phenotypical and functional consequences relative to single KOs or controls (CO)...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788964/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-quiescent-microglia-isolation-methods-from-postnatal-mouse-brains-and-limitations-of-bv2-cells
#5
Yingbo He, Xiang Yao, Natalie Taylor, Yuchen Bai, Timothy Lovenberg, Anindya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Microglia play key roles in neuron-glia interaction, neuroinflammation, neural repair, and neurotoxicity. Currently, various microglial in vitro models including primary microglia derived from distinct isolation methods and immortalized microglial cell lines are extensively used. However, the diversity of these existing models raises difficulty in parallel comparison across studies since microglia are sensitive to environmental changes, and thus, different models are likely to show widely varied responses to the same stimuli...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786552/intestinal-organoids-for-modelling-intestinal-development-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Kathryn L Fair, Jennifer Colquhoun, Nicholas R F Hannan
Gastrointestinal diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent in developed countries. Immortalized cells and animal models have delivered important but limited insight into the mechanisms that initiate and propagate these diseases. Human-specific models of intestinal development and disease are desperately needed that can recapitulate structure and function of the gut in vitro Advances in pluripotent stem cells and primary tissue culture techniques have made it possible to culture intestinal epithelial cells in three dimensions that self-assemble to form 'intestinal organoids'...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782526/decreased-risk-of-pneumonia-in-stroke-patients-receiving-acupuncture-a-nationwide-matched-pair-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Chuen-Chau Chang, Ta-Liang Chen, Chao-Shun Lin, Chi-Li Chung, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Chaur-Jong Hu, Hsin-Long Lane, Chien-Chang Liao, Chun-Chuan Shih
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture treatment is common among stroke patients, but there is limited information available on whether acupuncture effectively prevents post-stroke pneumonia. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential risk of pneumonia after stroke between patients who did and did not receive acupuncture after discharge. METHODS: We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to conduct a retrospective cohort study using propensity score matched-pairs of new stroke patients in 2000-2004 who did and did not receive acupuncture post-stroke...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780854/immunofluorescence-analysis-of-human-endocervical-tissue-explants-infected-with-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#8
Liang-Chun Wang, Qian Yu, Daniel C Stein, Wenxia Song
Colonization and penetration of the epithelium is the infection-initiating route of mucosal pathogens. The epithelium counteracts infection by eliciting host cell responses while maintaining the mucosal barrier function. The obligate human sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or gonococcus (GC) infects the female reproductive tract primarily from the endocervical epithelium. Due to lack of an infection model that mimics all aspects of human infections in the female reproductive tract, GC pathogenesis is poorly understood...
February 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780367/expression-of-mir-34a-in-t-cells-infected-by-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-1
#9
Varun K Sharma, Vittoria Raimondi, Katia Ruggero, Cynthia A Pise-Masison, Ilaria Cavallari, Micol Silic-Benussi, Vincenzo Ciminale, Donna M D'Agostino
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) immortalizes T-cells and is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). HTLV-1 replication and transformation are governed by multiple interactions between viral regulatory proteins and host cell factors that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the impact of HTLV-1 infection on the expression of miR-34a, a microRNA whose expression is downregulated in many types of cancer. Results of RT-PCR assays showed that five out of six HTLV-1-positive cell lines expressed higher levels of miR-34a compared to normal PBMC or purified CD4+ T-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777397/telomeres-and-telomerase-during-human-papillomavirus-induced-carcinogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Anna Pańczyszyn, Ewa Boniewska-Bernacka, Grzegorz Głąb
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) belong to a small spherical virus family and are transmitted through direct contact, most often through sexual behavior. More than 200 types of HPV are known, a dozen or so of which are classified as high-risk viruses (HR HPV) and may contribute to the development of cervical cancer. HPV is a small virus with a capsid composed of L1 and L2 proteins, which are crucial for entry to the cell. The infection begins at the basal cell layer and progresses to involve cells from higher layers of the cervical epithelium...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775646/the-rna-binding-protein-ars2-supports-hematopoiesis-at-multiple-levels
#11
Seerat Elahi, Shawn M Egan, G Aaron Holling, Rachel L Kandefer, Michael J Nemeth, Scott H Olejniczak
Recent biochemical characterization of Arsenic resistance protein 2 (Ars2) has established it as central to determining the fate of nascent RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcripts. Through interactions with the nuclear 5'-7-methylguanosine (7mG) cap binding complex (CBC), Ars2 promotes co-transcriptional processing coupled with nuclear export or degradation of several classes of RNAPII transcripts, allowing for gene expression programs that facilitate rapid and sustained proliferation of immortalized cells in culture...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775624/characterization-and-comparative-analysis-of-a-new-mouse-microglial-cell-model-for-studying-neuroinflammatory-mechanisms-during-neurotoxic-insults
#12
Souvarish Sarkar, Emir Malovic, Deeksha Sarda, Vivek Lawana, Dharmin Rokad, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Microglia are the first responders of the central nervous system, acting as the key modulators of neuroinflammation observed during neurotoxic insults as well as in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD). The number of publications on microglia has increased steadily throughout the past decade because of immense interests in the neuroinflammation that precedes the neurodegenerative process. To study microglial biology and its role in modulating neuroinflammation, immortalized microglial cell lines derived from mice, rats, and humans have been developed...
May 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774996/-study-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-on-suppressing-migrationg-and-invationg-of-human-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-cne2
#13
Y H Sun, T T Kong, T T Wang, H F Zhu, T W Zhuang, D P Wang
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on suppressing cell viability, apoptosis, migrationg and invationg of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells CNE2. Method: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and postnasal catarrh tissues were collected, the expression of GnRH positive cells and GnRH mRNA were detected by immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR. The human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 were cultured in vitro, and the expression of GnRH positive cells and GnRH mRNA were detected by immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774963/glucocorticoid-signaling-regulates-cell-invasion-and-migration-in-the-human-first-trimester-trophoblast-cell-line-sw-71
#14
Edwina P Kisanga, Zhonghua Tang, Seth Guller, Shannon Whirledge
PROBLEM: The development of the placenta and its functions are sensitive to infection and stress, which can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adrenally produced glucocorticoids are the body's primary mediators of the inflammatory and stress response. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in all human villous trophoblast tissue, the effect of glucocorticoids on placentation is not well understood. METHOD OF STUDY: Using microarray analysis, we identified the glucocorticoid-regulated transcriptional profile in the immortalized first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line Swan...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773904/methanol-fixed-fibroblasts-serve-as-feeder-cells-to-maintain-stem-cells-in-the-pluripotent-state-in-vitro
#15
Yahui Ren, Ziyu Ma, Tong Yu, Min Ling, Huayan Wang
Preparation of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells to maintain pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is time consuming and involved in animal issues. Here, we demonstrated a novel method to prepare feeder cells with high efficiency, timesaving, and low costs. MEFs in 3 × 104 cell/cm2 were fixed by methanol for 5 min and air drying for 5 min. Thereafter, the methanol fixed MEF cells (MT-MEF) were able to be used directly to culture PSCs or stored at room temperature for the future usage. PSCs cultured on MT-MEF could be continuously expanded for over 40 passages with the naïve pluripotency...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773556/prdx1-and-mth1-cooperate-to-prevent-ros-mediated-inhibition-of-telomerase
#16
Wareed Ahmed, Joachim Lingner
Telomerase counteracts telomere shortening and cellular senescence in germ, stem, and cancer cells by adding repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres are susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the consequences of oxidation of telomeres on telomere length and the mechanisms that protect from ROS-mediated telomere damage are not well understood. In particular, 8-oxoguanine nucleotides at 3' ends of telomeric substrates inhibit telomerase in vitro, whereas, at internal positions, they suppress G-quadruplex formation and were therefore proposed to promote telomerase activity...
May 17, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768523/extracellular-calcium-increases-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-gene-expression-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-and-protein-kinase-a-signaling-in-mouse-dental-papilla-cells
#17
Sousuke Kanaya, Binlu Xiao, Yukihiko Sakisaka, Mizuki Suto, Kentaro Maruyama, Masahiro Saito, Eiji Nemoto
We previously reported that elevated extracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels increase bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression in human dental pulp (hDP) cells. However, it is unknown whether extracellular Ca2+ affects the expression of other growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). The present study aimed to examine the effect of extracellular Ca2+ on FGF2 gene expression in hDP and immortalized mouse dental papilla (mDP) cells. Cells were stimulated with 10 mM CaCl2 in the presence or absence of cell signaling inhibitors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767264/elemental-diet-inhibits-pro%C3%A2-inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-keratinocytes-through-the-suppression-of-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#18
Koji Harada, Tarannum Ferdous, Yoichi Mizukami, Katsuaki Mishima
An elemental diet (ED) has been reported to reduce oral mucositis and dermatitis induced by chemotherapy. However, its molecular mechanism of action as an anti‑inflammatory agent is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether ED confers its anti‑inflammatory action via reduction of pro‑inflammatory cytokine production in keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy of ED in the treatment of 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)‑induced dermatitis of nude mice, and examined the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 using immunohistochemistry...
May 16, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764003/a-bioartificial-kidney-device-with-polarized-secretion-of-immune-modulators
#19
N V Chevtchik, M Mihajlovic, M Fedecostante, L Bolhuis-Versteeg, J Sastre Toraño, R Masereeuw, D Stamatialis
The accumulation of protein-bound toxins in dialyzed patients is strongly associated with their high morbidity and mortality. The bioartificial kidney device (BAK), containing proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) seeded on functionalized synthetic hollow fiber membranes (HFM), may be a powerful solution for the active removal of those metabolites. In an earlier study, we developed an upscaled BAK containing conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) with functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763934/inactivation-of-usp14-perturbs-ubiquitin-homeostasis-and-delays-the-cell-cycle-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-and-in-fruit-fly-drosophila
#20
Jung Hoon Lee, Seoyoung Park, Yejin Yun, Won Hoon Choi, Min-Ji Kang, Min Jae Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 26S proteasome is the key proteolytic complex for recognition and degradation of polyubiquitinated target substrates in eukaryotes. Among numerous proteasome-associated proteins, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) USP14 has been identified as an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome. Here, we explored the complex regulatory functions of USP14 that involve ubiquitin (Ub) homeostasis and substrate degradation in flies and mammals. METHODS: USP14-null primary and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and USP14 knocked-down Drosophila were analyzed in this study...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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