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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920208/genetic-modification-of-er-hoxb8-osteoclast-precursors-using-crispr-cas9-as-a-novel-way-to-allow-studies-on-osteoclast-biology
#1
Irene Di Ceglie, Guus G H van den Akker, Giuliana Ascone, Bas Ten Harkel, Hans Häcker, Fons A J van de Loo, Marije I Koenders, Peter M van der Kraan, Teun J de Vries, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Peter L E M van Lent
Osteoclasts are cells specialized in bone resorption. Currently, studies on murine osteoclasts are primarily performed on bone marrow-derived cells with the use of many animals and limited cells available. ER-Hoxb8 cells are conditionally immortalized monocyte/macrophage murine progenitor cells, recently described to be able to differentiate toward functional osteoclasts. Here, we produced an ER-Hoxb8 clonal cell line from C57BL/6 bone marrow cells that strongly resembles phenotype and function of the conventional bone marrow-derived osteoclasts...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919950/development-of-a-novel-experimental-in-vitro-model-of-isothiocyanate-induced-apoptosis-in-human-malignant-melanoma-cells
#2
Theodora Mantso, Aristeidis P Sfakianos, Aithne Atkinson, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotirios Botaitis, Sebachedin Perente, Constantinos Simopoulos, Stavros Vasileiadis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I Panayiotidis
BACKGROUND: Isothiocyanates are constituents of cruciferous vegetables which have been associated with reduced cancer risk partially through their ability to induce apoptosis in malignant cells including melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have utilized human malignant melanoma (A375), epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells exposed to various isothiocyanates, under different experimental conditions. RESULTS: An experimental in vitro model utilizing low isothiocyanate concentrations (0...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916791/different-phases-of-breast-cancer-cells-raman-study-of-immortalized-transformed-and-invasive-cells
#3
Deepika Chaturvedi, Sai A Balaji, Vinay Kumar Bn, Freek Ariese, Siva Umapathy, Annapoorni Rangarajan
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cause of cancer-associated death in women the world over, but if detected early it can be treated successfully. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this disease at an early stage and to understand the biochemical changes associated with cellular transformation and cancer progression. Deregulated lipid metabolism has been shown to contribute to cell transformation as well as cancer progression. In this study, we monitored the biomolecular changes associated with the transformation of a normal cell into an invasive cell associated with breast cancer using Raman microspectroscopy...
November 28, 2016: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914922/negative-regulation-of-hepatic-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-expression-by-insulin
#4
Tooru M Mizuno, Pei San Lew, Yanming Luo, Arnold Leckstrom
AIMS: To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. MAIN METHODS: To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12...
November 30, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911395/preparation-of-primary-mixed-glial-cultures-from-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-tissue
#5
Jennifer T Malon, Ling Cao
It has been well-accepted that spinal cord glial responses contribute significantly to the development of neuropathic pain. Tremendous information regarding glial activities at the cellular and molecular levels has been obtained through in vitro cell culture systems. The in vitro systems utilized, mainly include primary glia derived from neonatal brain cortical tissue and immortalized cell lines. However, these systems may not reflect the characteristics of spinal cord glial cells in vivo. In order to further investigate the roles of spinal cord glial cells in the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using a culture system that better reflects the in vivo condition, our laboratory has developed a method to establish primary spinal cord mixed glial cultures from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908660/targeting-of-multiple-senescence-promoting-genes-and-signaling-pathways-by-triptonide-induces-complete-senescence-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#6
Yanyan Pan, Mei Meng, Nana Zheng, Zhifei Cao, Ping Yang, Xiaodong Xi, Quansheng Zhou
Leukemia cells aberrantly overexpress senescence-suppression telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and down-regulate key senescence-promoting genes to escape complete senescence, resulting in immortalization and malignant progression. Accordingly, induction of complete senescence is a sensible strategy for anti-leukemia therapy. However, effective senescence-based anti-leukemia drugs with low toxicity are currently lacking. In this study, we found that triptonide (chemical name diterpene triepoxide), a small molecule derived from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook, strongly induced complete senescence in cultured acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, and potently inhibited growth and colony formation of U937 and HL-60 AML cell line with IC50 values of 7...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907098/identification-of-qtl-for-fiber-quality-and-yield-traits-using-two-immortalized-backcross-populations-in-upland-cotton
#7
Hantao Wang, Cong Huang, Wenxia Zhao, Baosheng Dai, Chao Shen, Beibei Zhang, Dingguo Li, Zhongxu Lin
Two immortalized backcross populations (DHBCF1s and JMBCF1s) were developed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population crossed with the two parents DH962 and Jimian5 (as the males), respectively. The fiber quality and yield component traits of the two backcross populations were phenotyped at four environments (two locations, two years). One hundred seventy-eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected including 76 for fiber qualities and 102 for yield components, explaining 4.08-17.79% of the phenotypic variation (PV)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905518/pesticide-toxicogenomics-across-scales-in-vitro-transcriptome-predicts-mechanisms-and-outcomes-of-exposure-in-vivo
#8
Immacolata Porreca, Fulvio D'Angelo, Lucia De Franceschi, Alessandro Mattè, Michele Ceccarelli, Achille Iolascon, Alberto Zamò, Filomena Russo, Maria Ravo, Roberta Tarallo, Marzia Scarfò, Alessandro Weisz, Mario De Felice, Massimo Mallardo, Concetta Ambrosino
In vitro Omics analysis (i.e. transcriptome) is suggested to predict in vivo toxicity and adverse effects in humans, although the causal link between high-throughput data and effects in vivo is not easily established. Indeed, the chemical-organism interaction can involve processes, such as adaptation, not established in cell cultures. Starting from this consideration we investigate the transcriptomic response of immortalized thyrocytes to ethylenthiourea and chlorpyrifos. In vitro data revealed specific and common genes/mechanisms of toxicity, controlling the proliferation/survival of the thyrocytes and unrelated hematopoietic cell lineages...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905300/intravital-imaging-of-mouse-urothelium-reveals-activation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-by-stretch-induced-intravesical-release-of-atp
#9
Takeshi Sano, Takashi Kobayashi, Hiromitsu Negoro, Atsushi Sengiku, Takuya Hiratsuka, Yuji Kamioka, Louis S Liou, Osamu Ogawa, Michiyuki Matsuda
To better understand the roles played by signaling molecules in the bladder, we established a protocol of intravital imaging of the bladder of mice expressing a Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which plays critical roles not only in cell growth but also stress responses. With an upright two-photon excitation microscope and a vacuum-stabilized imaging window, cellular ERK activity was visualized in the whole bladder wall, from adventitia to urothelium...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904673/microrna-206-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-bladder-cancer-via-targeting-yrdc
#10
Bisheng Huang, Wei Zhai, Guanghui Hu, Chi Huang, Tiancheng Xie, Jingwei Zhang, Yunfei Xu
Accumulating evidence suggested that microRNA (miRNA) plays important regulatory roles in the initiation and development of various cancers. Previous study showed that microRNA-206 (miR-206) is dysregulated in human bladder cancer tissues, however, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-206 in human bladder cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of miR-206 and its target gene YRDC in human bladder cancer, and to determine its effects on oncogenic phenotypes of this disease...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902468/synthesis-of-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-modified-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-and-mri-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#11
Chen Ding, Kaijie Wu, Weiyi Wang, Zhenfeng Guan, Lei Wang, Xinyang Wang, Rong Wang, Li Liu, Jinhai Fan
Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract for which the accurate measurement of minimal residual disease is critical to treatment and determining prognosis. Although cystoscope examination and voided urine cytology remain the current standard of care for detecting residual disease, these approaches are limited by mechanical trauma and lack sensitivity. To develop a new accurate noninvasive method, we developed a novel contrast agent where the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles is functionalized with a bladder cancer-specific fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled cell penetrating peptide (CPP)-polyarginine peptides (R11) for active targeting and imaging...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899960/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-melanoma
#12
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Cancer affects multiple organs in the body Malignant melanoma involves the invasion of skin and occasionally mucosal membrane or eye choroidal tissues. The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma is on the increase worldwide and is a major concern in current research. The increase is associated with UV irradiation-induced genetic aberrations that stimulate skin melanocytes to develop unlimited growth. This eventually leads to cell immortality, which in turn causes metastases. The present review examines the genetics and epigenetics of this pathological state together with recent perspectives of the therapeutic management of disease...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894093/new-use-of-an-old-drug-inhibition-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-by-benztropine-mesylate
#13
Jihong Cui, Maija Hollmén, Lina Li, Yong Chen, Steven T Proulx, Daniel Reker, Gisbert Schneider, Michael Detmar
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play major roles in cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence and therapeutic resistance. Targeting CSCs represents a promising strategy for cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify selective inhibitors of breast CSCs (BCSCs). We carried out a cell-based phenotypic screening with cell viability as a primary endpoint, using a collection of 2,546 FDA-approved drugs and drug-like molecules in spheres formed by malignant human breast gland-derived cells (HMLER-shEcad cells, representing BCSCs) and control immortalized non-tumorigenic human mammary cells (HMLE cells, representing normal stem cells)...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893783/role-of-pten-in-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-the-liver-of-whole-body-pten-haplodeficient-mice
#14
Ezgi Eyluel Bankoglu, Oliver Tschopp, Johannes Schmitt, Philipp Burkard, Daniel Jahn, Andreas Geier, Helga Stopper
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and with an elevated cancer incidence. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in this context are only partially understood. High blood insulin levels are typical in early T2DM and excessive insulin can cause elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and genomic instability. ROS are important for various cellular functions in signaling and host defense. However, elevated ROS formation is thought to be involved in cancer induction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893782/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-and-or-salicylate-on-palmitate-or-tnf%C3%AE-induced-neuroinflammatory-marker-and-neuropeptide-gene-regulation-in-immortalized-npy-agrp-neurons
#15
Wenqing Ye, Ernesto H Ramos, Brian C Wong, Denise D Belsham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893713/phosphorylation-of-nfat3-by-cdk3-induces-cell-transformation-and-promotes-tumor-growth-in-skin-cancer
#16
T Xiao, J J Zhu, S Huang, C Peng, S He, J Du, R Hong, X Chen, A M Bode, W Jiang, Z Dong, D Zheng
The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family proteins are transcription factors that regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other genes during the immune response. Although the NFAT proteins have been extensively investigated in the immune system, their role in cancer progression remains controversial. Here, we report that NFAT3 is highly expressed in various skin cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. Knockdown of endogenous NFAT3 expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent cell growth...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893342/person-environment-mergence-and-separation-otto-rank-s-psychology-of-emotion-personality-and-culture
#17
Daniel Sullivan
Between 1924 and 1939 Otto Rank put forward three major elements of a comprehensive theoretical edifice that has yet to be fully articulated. These are conceptually linked by the fundamental importance of person-environment mergence and separation. Rank's theory of emotions highlights anxiety as the affect of separation, and guilt as the feeling that binds the individual to others. His personality theory distinguishes between the partialist, who responds to life fear with identification, and the totalist, who responds to death fear with projection...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892610/beside-to-bench-jak-inhibitor-ruxolitinib-inhibits-the-expression-of-cytokines-characteristic-of-cutaneous-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Anna Sophie Klaeschen, Dominik Wolf, Peter Brossart, Thomas Bieber, Joerg Wenzel
This study was stimulated by the clinical observation of a rapid response of a chilblain lupus patient to treatment with JAK1/2-kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib. We investigated the in-vivo expression of phospho-JAK2 in CLE skin samples as well as the immunomodulatory in-vitro effect of ruxolitinib in cultured immortalized keratinocytes and in a 3D human epidermis model (epiCS). Our results demonstrate that ruxolitinib significantly decreases the production of CLE-typical cytokines (CXCL10, CXCL9, MxA) and might be a promising drug for future clinical studies in patients with CLE and related autoimmune skin diseases...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892528/sphingomyelin-generated-by-sphingomyelin-synthase-1-is-involved-in-attachment-and-infection-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#19
Makoto Taniguchi, Takafumi Tasaki, Hideaki Ninomiya, Yoshibumi Ueda, Koh-Ichi Kuremoto, Susumu Mitsutake, Yasuyuki Igarashi, Toshiro Okazaki, Tsutomu Takegami
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus which infects target cells via the envelope protein JEV-E. However, its cellular targets are largely unknown. To investigate the role of sphingomyelin (SM) in JEV infection, we utilized SM-deficient immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (tMEF) established from SM synthase 1 (SMS1)/SMS2 double knockout mice. SMS deficiency significantly reduced both intracellular and extracellular JEV levels at 48 h after infection. Furthermore, after 15 min treatment with JEV, the early steps of JEV infection such as attachment and cell entry were also diminished in SMS-deficient tMEFs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892468/somatic-increase-of-cct8-mimics-proteostasis-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-extends-c-elegans-lifespan
#20
Alireza Noormohammadi, Amirabbas Khodakarami, Ricardo Gutierrez-Garcia, Hyun Ju Lee, Seda Koyuncu, Tim König, Christina Schindler, Isabel Saez, Azra Fatima, Christoph Dieterich, David Vilchez
Human embryonic stem cells can replicate indefinitely while maintaining their undifferentiated state and, therefore, are immortal in culture. This capacity may demand avoidance of any imbalance in protein homeostasis (proteostasis) that would otherwise compromise stem cell identity. Here we show that human pluripotent stem cells exhibit enhanced assembly of the TRiC/CCT complex, a chaperonin that facilitates the folding of 10% of the proteome. We find that ectopic expression of a single subunit (CCT8) is sufficient to increase TRiC/CCT assembly...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
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