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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#1
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112665/long-term-risk-of-a-seizure-disorder-after-eclampsia
#2
Kara A Nerenberg, Alison L Park, Simone N Vigod, Gustavo Saposnik, Howard Berger, Michelle A Hladunewich, Shital Gandhi, Candice K Silversides, Joel G Ray
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence rate and relative risk of a seizure disorder after eclampsia. METHODS: We evaluated 1,565,733 births in a retrospective data linkage cohort study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2014. We included females aged 15-50 years and excluded patients with epilepsy, conditions predisposing to seizure, and those who died within 30 days of the delivery discharge date. The exposure was defined as a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, namely 1) eclampsia, 2) preeclampsia, or 3) gestational hypertension...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101814/injuries-associated-with-bunk-beds-that-occur-in-jail
#3
Randall T Loder, Jocelyn Cole Young
BACKGROUND: There are many studies of bunk bed injuries, but none specifically addressing those occurring in jails. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the magnitude and patterns of bunk bed injuries occurring in correctional institutions. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data for the 10 year period 2006 through 2015 due to bunk beds was accessed. Injuries involving bunk beds were identified and the mechanism of injury determined...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101073/malignant-cerebral-swelling-after-a-cranioplasty-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Liang Shen, Yue Zhou, Jie Xu, Zhongzhou Su
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty is considered a low-risk operation in the field of neurosurgery following decompression craniectomy (DC). Well-known complications after cranioplasty, such as infection, seizure, and titanium plate exposure, may not threaten the lives of patients. Unfortunately, there are many fatal complications that are under reported. In this study, we report a case and perform a literature review to introduce malignant cerebral swelling, which is regarded as a devastating complication...
October 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076412/efficacy-duration-and-timing-of-withdrawal-of-prophylactic-treatment-with-antiepileptic-drugs-in-neurosurgical-conditions
#5
Daniel R Calnan, Erin D'Agostino, Matthew R Reynolds, Kimon Bekelis
Seizure control is a critical component of care in many neurosurgical conditions. The development of seizures in patients without a previously identified seizure disorder occurs in a significant proportion of traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain tumor patients. In this literature review and synthesis, we will discuss the incidence of seizures in selected conditions, indications and evidence for the initiation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), suggested duration of usage for AEDs, and current AED guidelines by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS), American Academy of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) and international committees...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051745/traumatic-brain-injury-severity-neuropathophysiology-and-clinical-outcome-insights-from-multimodal-neuroimaging
#6
Andrei Irimia, Sheng-Yang Matthew Goh, Adam C Wade, Kavi Patel, Paul M Vespa, John D Van Horn
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the acute clinical presentation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), long-term changes in brain structure prompted by injury and chronic functional outcome is insufficiently understood. In this preliminary study, we investigate how acute Glasgow coma score (GCS) and epileptic seizure occurrence after TBIs are statistically related to functional outcome (as quantified using the Glasgow Outcome Score) and to the extent of cortical thinning observed 6 months after the traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049948/altered-responsiveness-in-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-and-its-implication-to-underlying-psychopathology
#7
Gaston Baslet, Benjamin Tolchin, Barbara A Dworetzky
PURPOSE: Altered responsiveness during psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) is a distinct semiological feature that may signal a psychological vulnerability. We hypothesized that altered responsiveness is related to difficulties with emotion tolerance, experiential avoidance, difficulty coping, dissociation and trauma and prior experiences of loss of awareness. METHODS: 71 patients with video-EEG confirmed PNES were divided into two groups based on their responsiveness at the time of the captured event during long-term monitoring...
October 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049053/treatment-options-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy
#8
Lara L Zimmermann, Ryan M Martin, Fady Girgis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are common and debilitating consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early PTS result in secondary brain injury by raising intracranial pressure and worsening cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. PTE is a localization-related epilepsy strongly associated with TBI severity, but risk factors for PTE and epileptogenesis are incompletely understood and are active areas of research. Medical management of PTS in adults and children is reviewed...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975867/the-pharmacogenomics-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Solomon M Adams, Yvette P Conley, Amy K Wagner, Ruchira M Jha, Robert Sb Clark, Samuel M Poloyac, Patrick M Kochanek, Philip E Empey
Pharmacotherapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) is focused on resuscitation, prevention of secondary injury, rehabilitation and recovery. Pharmacogenomics may play a role in TBI for predicting therapies for sedation, analgesia, seizure prevention, intracranial pressure-directed therapy and neurobehavioral/psychiatric symptoms. Research into genetic predictors of outcomes and susceptibility to complications may also help clinicians to tailor therapeutics for high-risk individuals. Additionally, the expanding use of genomics in the drug development pipeline has provided insight to novel investigational and repurposed medications that may be useful in the treatment of TBI and its complications...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958355/acute-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
REVIEW
Michael A Vella, Marie L Crandall, Mayur B Patel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in patients with trauma. Management strategies must focus on preventing secondary injury by avoiding hypotension and hypoxia and maintaining appropriate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which is a surrogate for cerebral blood flow. CPP can be maintained by increasing mean arterial pressure, decreasing intracranial pressure, or both. The goal should be euvolemia and avoidance of hypotension. Other factors that deserve important consideration in the acute management of patients with TBI are venous thromboembolism, stress ulcer, and seizure prophylaxis, as well as nutritional and metabolic optimization...
October 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948085/apolipoprotein-e-epsilon-4-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-is-associated-with-decreased-6-month-verbal-memory-performance-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
John K Yue, Caitlin K Robinson, John F Burke, Ethan A Winkler, Hansen Deng, Maryse C Cnossen, Hester F Lingsma, Adam R Ferguson, Thomas W McAllister, Jonathan Rosand, Esteban G Burchard, Marco D Sorani, Sourabh Sharma, Jessica L Nielson, Gabriela G Satris, Jason F Talbott, Phiroz E Tarapore, Frederick K Korley, Kevin K W Wang, Esther L Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Alex B Valadka, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey T Manley
INTRODUCTION: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele associates with memory impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Its association with memory after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is unclear. METHODS: mTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15, no neurosurgical intervention, extracranial Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤1) aged ≥18 years with APOE genotyping results were extracted from the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944696/suicidal-bupropion-ingestions-in-adolescents-increased-morbidity-compared-with-other-antidepressants
#12
David C Sheridan, Amber Lin, B Zane Horowitz
OBJECTIVE: Bupropion is often categorized as a newer generation antidepressant and assessed with serotonin reuptake inhibitors as a lower risk than older tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in adolescent suicide from ingestions between bupropion and TCA medications. STUDY DESIGN: An analysis of the National Poison Data System for exposures coded "suspected suicide" in adolescents (age: 13-19) was undertaken for the years 2013-2016 and included TCAs or bupropion...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933218/effects-of-human-es-derived-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-and-kindling-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Stefania Beretta, Kelly M Cunningham, Daniel L Haus, Eric M Gold, Harvey Perez, Luci López-Velázquez, Brian J Cummings
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the population worldwide, with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. Posttraumatic hyperexcitability is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect people after a head injury. A reliable animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability induced by TBI which allows one to test effective treatment strategies is yet to be developed. To address these issues, in the present study, we tested human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in an animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability in which the brain injury was produced in one hemisphere of immunodeficient athymic nude rats by controlled cortical impact, and spontaneous seizures were produced by repeated electrical stimulation (kindling) in the contralateral hemisphere...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919762/risk-of-post-traumatic-epilepsy-after-severe-head-injury-in-patients-with-at-least-one-seizure
#14
Wei Chen, Ming-De Li, Gui-Fang Wang, Xia-Feng Yang, Lin Liu, Fan-Gang Meng
BACKGROUND: To explore the incidence and risk factors, including type of seizures for post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective follow-up study of patients discharged from Liaocheng People's Hospital between March 2011 and June 2015 with a diagnosis of post-traumatic seizures. Risk factors for PTE were evaluated in 68 inpatients by using Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox model. RESULTS: Complete clinical information was available for 68 patients...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889274/neurotoxicity-of-zinc
#15
Deborah R Morris, Cathy W Levenson
Zinc-induced neurotoxicity has been shown to play a role in neuronal damage and death associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures, and neurodegenerative diseases. During normal firing of "zinc-ergic" neurons, vesicular free zinc is released into the synaptic cleft where it modulates a number of postsynaptic neuronal receptors. However, excess zinc, released after injury or disease, leads to excitotoxic neuronal death. The mechanisms of zinc-mediated neurotoxicity appear to include not only neuronal signaling but also regulation of mitochondrial function and energy production, as well as other mechanisms such as aggregation of amyloid beta peptides in Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881122/traumatic-brain-injury-in-children-under-age-24-months-analysis-of-demographic-data-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-post-traumatic-seizure
#16
Sang-Youl Yoon, Yeon-Ju Choi, Seong-Hyun Park, Jeong-Hyun Hwang, Sung Kyoo Hwang
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children under age 24 months has characteristic features because the brain at this age is rapidly growing and sutures are opened. Moreover, children this age are completely dependent on their parents. We analyzed the demographic data and risk factors for outcomes in TBI patients in this age group to elucidate their clinical characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiological films of children under 24 months who were admitted to Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 2004 to December 2013 for TBI...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868043/metabolomics-profiling-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
Jussi P Posti, Alex M Dickens, Matej Orešič, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Olli Tenovuo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease with a multifaceted pathophysiology. Impairment of energy metabolism is a key component of secondary insults. This phenomenon is a consequence of multiple potential mechanisms including diffusion hypoxia, mitochondrial failure, and increased energy needs due to systemic trauma responses, seizures, or spreading depolarization. The degree of disturbance in brain metabolism is affected by treatment interventions and reflected in clinical patient outcome. Hence, monitoring of these secondary events in peripheral blood will provide a window into the pathophysiological course of severe TBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856464/dosage-of-methylphenidate-and-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adhd-a-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#18
Yin-To Liao, Yao-Hsu Yang, Ting-Yu Kuo, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuo-You Huang, Tsu-Nai Wang, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
Preventive effect of stimulants on the risk of brain injuries had been reported. The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which methylphenidate (MPH) prescription moderates the risk of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals with a recent diagnosis of ADHD between January 1997 and December 2013 (n = 163,618) were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 124,438 adolescents and children with ADHD and without prior TBI diagnoses were included and evaluated for subsequent TBI...
August 30, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841884/early-post-traumatic-seizures-are-associated-with-valproic-acid-plasma-concentrations-and-ugt1a6-cyp2c9-genetic-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Yirui Sun, Jian Yu, Qiang Yuan, Xing Wu, Xuehai Wu, Jin Hu
BACKGROUND: Seizure is a common complication for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line antiepileptic drug, though its metabolism is affected by genetic polymorphisms and varies between individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate such association and to explore its influence on the occurrence of early post-traumatic seizure. METHODS: A prospective case control study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 recruiting adult patients with severe TBI...
August 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826852/enhanced-dentate-neurogenesis-after-brain-injury-undermines-long-term-neurogenic-potential-and-promotes-seizure-susceptibility
#20
Eric J Neuberger, Bogumila Swietek, Lucas Corrubia, Anagha Prasanna, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar
Hippocampal dentate gyrus is a focus of enhanced neurogenesis and excitability after traumatic brain injury. Increased neurogenesis has been proposed to aid repair of the injured network. Our data show that an early increase in neurogenesis after fluid percussion concussive brain injury is transient and is followed by a persistent decrease compared with age-matched controls. Post-injury changes in neurogenesis paralleled changes in neural precursor cell proliferation and resulted in a long-term decline in neurogenic capacity...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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