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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#1
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#2
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294336/adenosine-production-by-brain-cells
#3
Edwin K Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Elizabeth V Menshikova, Raghvendra K Dubey, Travis C Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
The early release of adenosine following traumatic brain injury (TBI) suppresses seizures and brain inflammation; thus, it is important to elucidate the cellular sources of adenosine following injurious stimuli triggered by TBI so that therapeutics for enhancing the early adenosine-release response can be optimized. Using mass spectrometry with (13) C-labelled standards, we investigated in cultured rat neurons, astrocytes, and microglia the effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD; models energy failure), H2 O2 (produces oxidative stress), and glutamate (induces excitotoxicity) on intracellular and extracellular levels of 5'-AMP (adenosine precursor), adenosine, and inosine and hypoxanthine (adenosine metabolites)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269163/structural-and-functional-changes-during-epileptogenesis-in-the-mouse-model-of-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin
An important issue in epilepsy research is to understand the structural and functional modifications leading to chronic epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, after initial brain insult. To address this issue, we recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data during epileptogenesis in the in vivo mouse model of Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE, kainate). Besides, this model of epilepsy is a particular form of drug-resistant epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261100/endocannabinoids-a-promising-impact-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
REVIEW
Lesley D Schurman, Aron H Lichtman
The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system regulates a diverse array of physiological processes and unsurprisingly possesses considerable potential targets for the potential treatment of numerous disease states, including two receptors (i.e., CB1 and CB2 receptors) and enzymes regulating their endogenous ligands N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Increases in brain levels of endocannabinoids to pathogenic events suggest this system plays a role in compensatory repair mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242476/an-investigation-of-the-characteristics-of-outpatients-with-epilepsy-and-antiepileptic-drug-utilization-in-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study-in-china
#6
Peimin Yu, Dong Zhou, Weiping Liao, Xin Wang, Yuping Wang, Tiancheng Wang, Yuan Wu, Senyang Lang, Weihong Lin, Yijun Song, Heqing Zhao, Meng Cai, Zhen Hong
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the distribution of seizure types, clinical characteristics, and antiepileptic drug (AED) utilization in patients with epilepsy visiting tertiary hospitals in China. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional epidemiology study conducted at 11 tertiary hospitals across China from May 2014 to November 2014. A total of 1603 patients, of either sex or any age with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy, visiting outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals were screened and enrolled...
February 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227392/structural-and-functional-changes-during-epileptogenesis-in-the-mouse-model-of-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin, Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Charles Pineau, Benoit Martin, Gabriel Dieuset, Yvan Dietrich, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Fabrice Wendling
An important issue in epilepsy research is to understand the structural and functional modifications leading to chronic epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, after initial brain insult. To address this issue, we recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data during epileptogenesis in the in vivo mouse model of Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE, kainate). Besides, this model of epilepsy is a particular form of drug-resistant epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195958/rehospitalization-in-the-first-year-following-veteran-and-service-member-tbi-a-va-tbi-model-systems-study
#8
Johanna Tran, Flora Hammond, Kristen Dams-OʼConnor, Xinyu Tang, Blessen Eapen, Marissa McCarthy, Risa Nakase-Richardson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and causes of rehospitalization following military or Veteran traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Veterans Health Administration Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers (VHA PRCs). PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive sample of VHA TBI Model System participants (N = 401). DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. MAIN MEASURES: Number and type of rehospitalizations in first year post-TBI...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187807/neuropulmonology
#9
REVIEW
A Balofsky, J George, P Papadakos
Neuropulmonology refers to the complex interconnection between the central nervous system and the respiratory system. Neurologic injury includes traumatic brain injury, hemorrhage, stroke, and seizures, and in each there are far-reaching effects that can result in pulmonary dysfunction. Systemic changes can induce impairment of pulmonary function due to changes in the core structure and function of the lung. The conditions and disorders that often occur in these patients include aspiration pneumonia, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but also several abnormal respiratory patterns and sleep-disordered breathing...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180123/repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-from-kashan-iran
#10
Esmaeil Fakharian, Mahdi Mohammadzadeh, Shirin Behdadmehr, Hamid Reza Sabri, Azadeh Sadat Mirzadeh, Javad Mohammadzadeh
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide problem, especially in countries with high incidence of road traffic accidents such as Iran. Patients with a single occurrence of TBI have been shown to be at increased risk to sustain future TBI. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present the incidence and characteristics of repeated TBI (RTBI) in Iranian patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During one year, all admitted TBI patients with prior TBI history were enrolled into the study...
September 2016: Trauma Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179120/novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-disease-modification-of-epileptogenesis-for-curing-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Bryan L Clossen, Doodipala Samba Reddy
This article describes the recent advances in epileptogenesis and novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention of epilepsy, with a special emphasis on the pharmacological basis of disease-modification of epileptogenesis for curing epilepsy. Here we assess animal studies and human clinical trials of epilepsy spanning 1982-2016. Epilepsy arises from a number of neuronal factors that trigger epileptogenesis, which is the process by which a brain shifts from a normal physiologic state to an epileptic condition...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170143/prevalence-of-brain-injuries-and-recurrence-of-seizures-in-children-with-post-traumatic-seizures
#12
Mohamed K Badawy, Peter S Dayan, Michael G Tunik, Frances M Nadel, Kathleen A Lillis, Michelle Miskin, Dominic A Borgialli, Michael C Bachman, Shireen M Atabaki, John D Hoyle, James F Holmes, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography (CT) is often used in the emergency department (ED) evaluation of children with post-traumatic seizures (PTS); however, the frequency of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and short-term seizure recurrence is lacking. Our main objective was to evaluate the frequency of TBI on CT and short-term seizure recurrence in children with PTS. We also aimed to determine the associations between the likelihood of TBI on CT with the timing of onset of PTS after the traumatic event and duration of PTS...
February 7, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167446/various-modifications-of-the-intrahippocampal-kainate-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-rats-fail-to-resolve-the-marked-rat-to-mouse-differences-in-type-and-frequency-of-spontaneous-seizures-in-this-model
#13
Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Kathrin Töllner, Wolfgang Löscher
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of acquired epilepsy in adults. TLE can develop after diverse brain insults, including traumatic brain injury, infections, stroke, or prolonged status epilepticus (SE). Post-SE rodent models of TLE are widely used to understand mechanisms of epileptogenesis and develop treatments for epilepsy prevention. In this respect, the intrahippocampal kainate model of TLE in mice is of interest, because highly frequent spontaneous electrographic seizures develop in the kainate focus, allowing evaluation of both anti-seizure and anti-epileptogenic effects of novel drugs with only short EEG recording periods, which is not possible in any other model of TLE, including the intrahippocampal kainate model in rats...
February 3, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142100/epilepsy-and-treatment-gap-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-the-southern-kazakhstan-in-adults
#14
Alla Guekht, Nazira Zharkinbekova, Alexander Shpak, W Allen Hauser
PURPOSE: There are no data in the English literature about the epidemiology of epilepsy in the large countries in the Asian region of the former Soviet Union. This paper presents the results of epidemiological studies of active epilepsy in the population 14years of age and older in the Province of South Kazakhstan. METHODS: The study population consisted of 306.44 thousand persons: 139.42 in the urban Enbekshinskiy district of the city of Shymkent and 167.02 in the rural Sairam district...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123622/full-outline-of-unresponsiveness-score-and-the-glasgow-coma-scale-in-prediction-of-pediatric-coma
#15
Atahar Jamal, Naveen Sankhyan, Murlidharan Jayashree, Sunit Singhi, Pratibha Singhi
BACKGROUND: This study was done to compare the admission Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as predictors of outcome in children with impaired consciousness. METHODS: In this observational study, children (5-12 years) with impaired consciousness of <7 days were included. Children with traumatic brain injury, on sedatives or neuromuscular blockade; with pre-existing cerebral palsy, mental retardation, degenerative brain disease, vision/hearing impairment; and seizure within last 1 hour were excluded...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111355/epigenetics-in-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
K Kobow, I Blümcke
Approximately 50 million people have epilepsy, making it the most common chronic and severe neurological disease worldwide, with increased risk of mortality and psychological and socioeconomic consequences impairing quality of life. More than 30% of patients with epilepsy have inadequate control of their seizures with drug therapy. Any structural brain lesion can provoke epilepsy. However, progression of seizure activity as well as the development of drug-resistance remains difficult to predict, irrespective of the underlying epileptogenic condition, i...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088802/interplay-between-cortical-spreading-depolarization-and-seizures
#17
Daniel R Kramer, Tatsuhiro Fujii, Ifije Ohiorhenuan, Charles Y Liu
Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is an electrophysiologic phenomenon found mostly in the setting of neurologic injury resulting in the disturbance of ion homeostasis and leading to changes in the local vascular response. The bioelectric etiology of CSD shares similarities to those in epileptic disorders, yet the relationship between seizures and CSD is unclear, with several studies observing cortical depression before, during, and after seizure activity, thus obscuring our understanding of whether CSD activity potentiates or limits seizures and vice versa...
2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086980/inflammation-in-epileptogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
Kyria M Webster, Mujun Sun, Peter Crack, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Bridgette D Semple
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common and debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seizures contribute to progressive neurodegeneration and poor functional and psychosocial outcomes for TBI survivors, and epilepsy after TBI is often resistant to existing anti-epileptic drugs. The development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) occurs in a complex neurobiological environment characterized by ongoing TBI-induced secondary injury processes. Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury process, though how it contributes to epileptogenesis, and the development of chronic, spontaneous seizure activity, remains poorly understood...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060157/posttraumatic-seizures-in-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
John Kuluz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059678/letter-to-the-editor-early-seizure-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-still-a-long-way-to-go
#20
Eduardo Mekitarian Filho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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