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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774195/development-of-delayed-acute-subdural-hematoma-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#1
Soon O Hong, Dong Soo Kang, Min Ho Kong, Se Youn Jang, Jung Hee Kim, Kwan Young Song
We report a case involving the development of a delayed acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) after trauma, with the absence of any abnormal radiological and clinical findings at initial examination. A 54-year-old male visited the emergency department after a minor trauma. The patient only complained of mild headache after head injury. He presented no abnormal findings on neurological examination, and brain computed tomography (CT) did not show any intracranial lesion or skull fractures. However, he developed seizure with disorientation eight hours after trauma, and ASDH with midline shift was found during a follow-up CT...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761002/large-retrospective-study-of-artificial-dura-substitute-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-undergo-decompressive-craniectomy
#2
Hongtao Sun, Hongda Wang, Yunfeng Diao, Yue Tu, Xiaohong Li, Wanyong Zhao, Jibin Ren, Sai Zhang
Background: Decompressive craniectomy is widely used for treating patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Usually patients have dura mater defect due to surgery or injury itself. The defective area may left open or repaired by artificial dura substitutes. A variety of artificial dura substitutes have been used for this purpose. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bovine-derived pericardium membrane as artificial dural material for patients with decompressive craniectomy...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744119/levetiracetam-induced-transaminitis-in-a-young-male-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Vivekananda Rachamallu, Michael M Song, Jace M Reed, Manish Aligeti
Levetiracetam is a commonly prescribed antiepileptic drug for seizure prophylaxis in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Levetiracetam metabolism has been reported to be non-dependent on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzyme system. Furthermore, levetiracetam and its metabolites are reported to be eliminated from systemic circulation via renal excretion. Therefore, due to its well-known renal clearance mechanism with no dosage adjustments recommended for hepatic impairment, levetiracetam is often chosen as the drug of choice in patients with suspected or ongoing hepatic dysfunction...
November 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718832/stimulus-induced-rhythmic-periodic-or-ictal-discharges-sirpids
#4
Emily L Johnson, Peter W Kaplan, Eva K Ritzl
Stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs) are a relatively common phenomenon found on prolonged electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring that captures state changes and stimulation of critically ill patients. Common causes include hypoxic injury, traumatic brain injury, and hemorrhage, as well as toxic-metabolic disturbances. Some studies have shown an association between SIRPIDs and the presence of spontaneous electrographic seizures. Although the degree to which SIRPIDs should be treated with antiepileptic medications is unknown, the rare cases of functional imaging obtained in patients with SIRPIDs have not shown an increase in cerebral blood flow to suggest an active ictal process...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707426/is-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-treatment-for-depression-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Anja Srienc, Puneet Narang, Simrat Sarai, Yee Xiong, Steven Lippmann
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be caused by blunt or penetrating injury to the head. The pathophysiological evolution of TBI involves complex biochemical and genetic changes. Common sequelae of TBI include seizures and psychiatric disorders, particularly depression. In considering pharmacologic interventions for treating post-TBI depression, it is important to remember that TBI patients have a higher risk of seizures; therefore, the benefits of prescribing medications that lower the seizure threshold need to be weighed against the risk of seizures...
April 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702410/scared-or-scarred-could-dissociogenic-lesions-predispose-to-nonepileptic-seizures-after-head-trauma
#6
REVIEW
Stoyan Popkirov, Alan J Carson, Jon Stone
A history of head injury is common in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). This association has so far been interpreted as either spurious or psychologically mediated. Biased recall and misattribution could foster illness beliefs about brain damage that promote symptom production. Furthermore, the emotional impact of head injury could induce long-term changes in stress responsivity. Lastly, maladaptive cognitive-behavioural processes involving symptom modelling and aversive conditioning, known to play a role in functional neurological disorders, could contribute to the development of PNES after head trauma...
April 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688078/a-systemic-review-of-levetiracetam-versus-phenytoin-in-the-prevention-of-late-post-traumatic-seizures-and-survey-of-uk-neurosurgical-prescribing-practice-of-antiepileptic-medication-in-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Ahmed Bakr, Antonio Belli
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend 1 week of prophylactic phenytoin for post-traumatic seizures (PTS). Levetiracetam is gaining popularity as an alternative with a superior side-effect profile and may be suitable for extended use. We performed a systematic review comparing the efficacy of levetiracetam and phenytoin in reducing the incidence of late PTS. The secondary objectives were to compare their effects on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and length of stay. We also aimed to survey current prophylaxis prescribing practices...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676680/midline-central-fluid-percussion-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-rats
#8
Rachel K Rowe, Jordan L Harrison, Timothy W Ellis, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
OBJECTIVE Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) models hold significant validity to the human condition, with each model replicating a subset of clinical features and symptoms. TBI is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and teenagers; thus, it is critical to develop preclinical models of these ages to test emerging treatments. Midline fluid percussion injury (FPI) might best represent mild and diffuse clinical brain injury because of the acute behavioral deficits, the late onset of behavioral morbidities, and the absence of gross histopathology...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671295/monitoring-the-injured-brain
#9
Anna T Mazzeo, Deepak K Gupta
Traumatic brain injury can be defined as the most complex disease in the most complex organ. When an acute brain injury occurs, several pathophysiological cascades are triggered, leading to further exacerbation of the primary damage. A number of events potentially occurring after TBI can compromise the availability or utilization of energy substrates in the brain, ultimately leading to brain energy crisis. The frequent occurrence of secondary insults in the acute phase after TBI, such as intracranial hypertension, hypotension, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hyperthermia, seizures, can then increase cerebral damage, and adversely affect outcome...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667129/elevation-of-mmp-9-levels-promotes-epileptogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Barbara Pijet, Marzena Stefaniuk, Agnieszka Kostrzewska-Ksiezyk, Photini-Effie Tsilibary, Athina Tzinia, Leszek Kaczmarek
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a recurrent seizure disorder that often develops secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI) that is caused by an external mechanical force. Recent evidence shows that the brain extracellular matrix plays a major role in the remodeling of neuronal connections after injury. One of the proteases that is presumably responsible for this process is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The levels of MMP-9 are elevated in rodent brain tissue and human blood samples after TBI. However, no studies have described the influence of MMP-9 on the development of PTE...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664874/traumatic-brain-injury-and-infectious-encephalopathy-in-children-from-four-resource-limited-settings-in-africa
#11
Ericka L Fink, Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Rashmi Kumar, Patrick T Wilson, Tigist Bacha, Abenezer Tirsit Aklilu, Tsegazeab Laeke Teklemariam, Shubhada Hooli, Lisine Tuyisenge, Easmon Otupiri, Anthony Fabio, John Gianakas, Patrick M Kochanek, Derek C Angus, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS: Children age 1 day to 17 years old evaluated at the hospital with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of children presenting consecutively over 4 weeks to any hospital department with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663451/association-of-prolonged-qtc-interval-with-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-a-neurocardiac-syndrome-inside-the-mystery-of-the-insula-of-reil
#12
REVIEW
Vincenzo Marafioti, Giulia Turri, Vincenzo Carbone, Salvatore Monaco
The Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is often considered autochthonous to the heart, although the primary problem may be not in the heart muscle itself. Instead, similar to several Takotsubo-like cardiac pathologies seen in acute neurological diseases, it may reflect the capacity of the nervous system to injure the heart. Persuasive evidence exists that shocking emotional stress promotes direct heart injuries. Moreover, clinical and laboratory research shows that cardiac structural damage can occur in the presence of a normal heart, especially in the context of seizures, stroke, and traumatic brain injury or under conditions of psychological stress...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650049/variation-in-general-supportive-and-preventive-intensive-care-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-a-survey-in-66-neurotrauma-centers-participating-in-the-collaborative-european-neurotrauma-effectiveness-research-in-traumatic-brain-injury-center-tbi-study
#13
Jilske A Huijben, Victor Volovici, Maryse C Cnossen, Iain K Haitsma, Nino Stocchetti, Andrew I R Maas, David K Menon, Ari Ercole, Giuseppe Citerio, David Nelson, Suzanne Polinder, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester F Lingsma, Mathieu van der Jagt
BACKGROUND: General supportive and preventive measures in the intensive care management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aim to prevent or limit secondary brain injury and optimize recovery. The aim of this survey was to assess and quantify variation in perceptions on intensive care unit (ICU) management of patients with TBI in European neurotrauma centers. METHODS: We performed a survey as part of the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study...
April 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625848/seizure-severity-is-correlated-with-severity-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-in-abusive-head-trauma
#14
Andra L Dingman, Nicholas V Stence, Brent R O'Neill, Stefan H Sillau, Kevin E Chapman
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to characterize hypoxic-ischemic injury and seizures in abusive head trauma. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 58 children with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury due to abusive head trauma. Continuous electroencephalograms and magnetic resonance images were scored. RESULTS: Electrographic seizures (51.2%) and hypoxic-ischemic injury (77.4%) were common in our cohort. Younger age was associated with electrographic seizures (no seizures: median age 13...
December 12, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625256/epileptogenesis-traumatic-brain-injury-and-biomarkers
#15
REVIEW
Jerome Engel
Epilepsy is one of the most common brain disorders, causing serious disability and premature death worldwide. Approximately 1.2% of the U.S. population has active epilepsy, and 30 to 40% have seizures that do not respond to antiseizure drugs. There currently is no treatment available that prevents epilepsy following a potential epileptogenic insult, and the search for disease or syndrome modifying interventions for epilepsy is a high priority of neurobiological research. This requires better understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy, and biomarkers of this process that would permit cost-effective drug discovery, and validation in clinical trials, for potential antiepileptogenic compounds...
April 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622334/pediatric-major-head-injury-not-a-minor-problem
#16
REVIEW
Aaron N Leetch, Bryan Wilson
Traumatic brain injury is a highly prevalent and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality in children. A rapid, stepwise approach to the traumatized child should proceed, addressing life-threatening problems first. Management focuses on preventing secondary injury from physiologic extremes such as hypoxemia, hypotension, prolonged hyperventilation, temperature extremes, and rapid changes in cerebral blood flow. Initial Glasgow Coma Score, hyperglycemia, and imaging are often prognostic of outcome. Surgically amenable lesions should be evacuated promptly...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609147/the-clinical-characteristics-of-posttraumatic-epilepsy-following-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-children
#17
Amit Keret, Moatasim Shweiki, Odeya Bennett-Back, Fadia Abed-Fteiha, Israel Matoth, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
PURPOSE: Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at increased risk of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE); the risk increases according to TBI severity. We examined the long-term incidence and risk factors for developing PTE in a cohort of children hospitalised at one medical centre with moderate or severe TBI. METHODS: Moderate brain injury was classified as Glasgow Coma Score on Arrival (GCSOA) of 9-13, and severe brain injury as GCSOA ≤8. We collected demographics and clinical data from medical records and interviewed patients and parents at 5-11 years following the TBI event...
March 20, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605745/phenotypic-spectrum-in-families-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-probands
#18
Emilija Cvetkovska, Igor Kuzmanovski, Marija Babunovska, Bojan Boshkovski, Tatjana Cepreganova Cangovska, Gordana Kiteva Trencevska
PURPOSE: The traditional perception of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as a predominantly acquired disorder is challenged due to emerging evidence of familial aggregation. In this study, we ascertained the extent of familial occurrence of epilepsy in MTLE patients, as well as phenotypic heterogeneity in affected relatives. METHODS: We identified and reevaluated patients with MTLE, treated at Epilepsy Department for a period of two years. All eligible putatively affected relatives were asked to participate in the study...
March 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594463/traumatic-brain-injury-in-indian-children
#19
REVIEW
Krishna Chaitanya, Archana Addanki, Rajendra Karambelkar, Rakesh Ranjan
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents is a community-based medical and educational challenge world-over due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In India, children between 1 to 15 years constitute significant proportion of the total population, who are vulnerable for TBI. In developed countries, pediatric trauma mortality still represents more than half of all childhood fatalities, which is 18 times more common than brain tumors. In this study, we attempted to analyze epidemiological factors, management, and outcome of TBI in children at a tertiary care center in Pune, Maharashtra...
March 29, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589330/the-use-of-continuous-eeg-monitoring-in-intensive-care-units-in-the-netherlands-a-national-survey
#20
Danny M W Hilkman, Walther N K A van Mook, Werner H Mess, Vivianne H J M van Kranen-Mastenbroek
BACKGROUND: Currently, continuous electroencephalographic monitoring (cEEG) is the only available diagnostic tool for continuous monitoring of brain function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Yet, the exact relevance of routinely applied ICU cEEG remains unclear, and information on the implementation of cEEG, especially in Europe, is scarce. This study explores current practices of cEEG in adult Dutch ICU departments focusing on organizational and operational factors, development over time and factors perceived relevant for abstaining its use...
March 27, 2018: Neurocritical Care
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