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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622071/survival-in-out-of-hospital-rapid-sequence-intubation-of-non-traumatic-brain-pathologies
#1
Pieter Francsois Fouche, Paul Andrew Jennings, Karen Smith, Malcolm Boyle, Gabriel Blecher, Jonathan Knott, Mani Raji, Pamela Rosengarten, Michael Roberto Augello, Stephen Bernard
INTRODUCTION: Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is not only used in traumatic brain injuries in the out-of-hospital setting, but also for non-traumatic brain pathologies (NTBP) such as brain tumors, meningitis, encephalitis, hypoxic/anoxic brain injury, stroke, arteriovenous malformations, tumors, aneurysms, brain hemorrhage, as well as brain injury due to diabetes, seizures and toxicity, metabolic conditions, and alcohol and drug overdose. Previous research suggests that RSI is common in non-traumatic coma, but with an unknown prevalence of NTBP in those that receive RSI...
June 16, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589257/traumatic-brain-injury-causes-long-term-behavioral-changes-related-to-region-specific-increases-of-cerebral-blood-flow
#2
Bruno Pöttker, Franziska Stöber, Regina Hummel, Frank Angenstein, Konstantin Radyushkin, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Michael K E Schäfer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death and survivors often suffer from long-lasting motor impairment, cognitive deficits, anxiety disorders and epilepsy. Few experimental studies have investigated long-term sequelae after TBI and relations between behavioral changes and neural activity patterns remain elusive. We examined these issues in a murine model of TBI combining histology, behavioral analyses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a proxy for neural activity...
June 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584438/neurogenic-pulmonary-edema-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Ramanan Rajagopal, Swaminathan Ganesh, Muralidharan Vetrivel
A 29-year-old male admitted with severe traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident was sedated and ventilated uneventfully for 72 h. On the fourth posttrauma day, after stopping sedation to assess readiness for extubation, he developed sudden onset desaturation; arterial blood gas showed severe diffusion defect with very low PaO2/FiO2 ratio following an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The differential diagnoses and further management are discussed.
May 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576511/elucidating-opportunities-and-pitfalls-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-to-optimize-and-facilitate-clinical-translation
#4
REVIEW
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Darik A O'Neil, Megan J LaPorte, Jeffrey P Cheng, Joshua A Beitchman, Theresa Currier Thomas, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
The aim of this review is to discuss the research presented in a symposium entitled "Current progress in characterizing therapeutic strategies and challenges in experimental CNS injury" which was presented at the 2016 International Behavioral Neuroscience Society annual meeting. Herein we discuss diffuse and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ensuing chronic behavioral deficits as well as potential rehabilitative approaches. We also discuss the effects of stress on executive function after TBI as well as the response of the endocrine system and regulatory feedback mechanisms...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#5
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities, and antiabsence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515545/traumatic-brain-injury-and-neuropsychiatric-complications
#6
REVIEW
Saeed Ahmed, Hema Venigalla, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Sara Dar, Mudasar Hassan, Shahana Ayub
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating injury results in damage to the brain. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in young people with a higher prevalence in men. TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality between the ages 1 and 45. TBI can be caused either by the direct result of trauma or due to a complication of the primary injury. The most common etiological factors for TBI are falls, road traffic accidents, violent physical assaults, and injuries associated with athletic activities...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492297/recent-anti-seizure-medications-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#7
Cindy Orinx, Benjamin Legros, Nicolas Gaspard
BACKGROUND: Seizures and status epilepticus (SE), both clinical and subclinical, are frequent in critically ill patients. The list of available anti-seizure medications (ASMs) is expanding and now includes older and widely used drugs as well as more recent medications with a better safety and pharmacokinetics profile. METHODS: We review a selection of recent publications about the indications and administration of ASMs in critical care for the prophylaxis and treatment of seizures and SE, focusing on recent ASMs available as intravenous formulation and emphasizing pharmacokinetics and safety issues in relation to several aspects of critical illness...
May 11, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482744/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-is-not-epilepsy-specific-evidence-from-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Suncica Lah, Carly Black, Michael Gascoigne, Chloe Gott, Adrienne Epps, Louise Parry
Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is characterised by adequate recall after short, but not long delays. ALF is not detected by standardised neuropsychological memory tests. Currently, the prevailing conceptualisation of ALF is of a temporal-lobe seizure related phenomenon. Nevertheless, Mayes and colleagues (2003) proposed that ALF may arise when any of the components of the brain network involved in long-term memory formation, or their interaction is disrupted. This disruption does not have to be caused by temporal lobe seizures for ALF to occur...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480741/a-practical-guide-to-the-use-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-by-neurosurgeons
#9
Fardad T Afshari, Sophia Michael, Ismail Ughratdar, Shanika Samarasekera
Initiation of anti-epileptic drugs is increasingly relevant to daily neurosurgical practice. Intracranial pathologies ranging from brain tumours to subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury are commonly associated with the subsequent development of seizures. The scope and range of anti-epileptic drugs available has increased dramatically in recent years and understanding the evidence base behind this class of drugs in addition to their interaction/side effect profiles is essential. In this review we aim to generate a practical guide for neurosurgeons regarding the use of different anti-epileptic medications in common neurosurgical conditions, including considerations for their use in pregnancy...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479338/effects-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-and-impaired-glutamate-transport-on-cortical-spreading-depression
#10
Mahshid Sadat Hosseini-Zare, Feng Gu, Ahmad Abdulla, Simon Powell, Jokūbas Žiburkus
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, migraines, and seizures. Typically, following TBIs and other insults, neuronal excitability in and around the area of the injury is affected, with reported increases in local glutamate signaling. Astrocytic glutamate transporters are critical for precise regulation of the extracellular glutamate availability. However, it remains unclear how impaired astrocytic glutamate transport or an acute TBI affect characteristics of the CSD...
May 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474982/posttraumatic-epilepsy-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Amit Keret, Odeya Bennett-Back, Guy Rosenthal, Tal Gilboa, Moatasim Shweiki, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a known complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The true incidence of PTE in children is still uncertain, because most research has been based primarily on adults. This study aimed to determine the true incidence of PTE in a pediatric population with mild TBI (MTBI) and to identify risk factors for the development of epileptic events. METHODS Data were collected from electronic medical records of children 0-17 years of age, who were admitted to a single medical center between 2007 and 2009 with a diagnosis of MTBI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469651/elevated-nkcc1-transporter-expression-facilitates-early-post-traumatic-brain-injury-seizures
#12
Buqing Liang, Jason H Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461273/post-traumatic-seizures-in-a-rural-nigerian-neurosurgical-service
#13
T B Rabiu, B Adetunmbi
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a recognized risk factor for seizures. In Nigeria, there is paucity of literature on post-traumatic seizures (PTS). This study provides the profile and pattern of PTS in TBI patients in a rural Nigerian neurosurgical service. METHOD: A prospective observational study of TBI patients was done. Clinical and radiological data including outcomes of care were analysed with SPSS version 15. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant...
April 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461213/survival-and-late-effects-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-hematologic-malignancy-at-less-than-three-years-of-age
#14
Lynda M Vrooman, Heather R Millard, Ruta Brazauskas, Navneet S Majhail, Minoo Battiwalla, Mary E Flowers, Bipin N Savani, Görgün Akpek, Mahmoud Aljurf, Rajinder Bajwa, K Scott Baker, Amer Beitinjaneh, Menachem Bitan, David Buchbinder, Eric Chow, Christopher Dandoy, Andrew C Dietz, Lisa Diller, Robert Peter Gale, Shahrukh K Hashmi, Robert J Hayashi, Peiman Hematti, Rammurti T Kamble, Kimberly A Kasow, Morris Kletzel, Hillard M Lazarus, Adriana K Malone, David I Marks, Tracey A O'Brien, Richard F Olsson, Olle Ringden, Sachiko Seo, Amir Steinberg, Lolie C Yu, Anne Warwick, Bronwen Shaw, Christine Duncan
Very young children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are a unique and vulnerable population. We analyzed outcomes of 717 patients from 117 centers who survived relapse free for ≥1 year after allogeneic myeloablative HCT for hematologic malignancy at <3 years of age, between 1987 and 2012. The median follow-up was 8.3 years (range, 1.0 to 26.4 years); median age at follow-up was 9 years (range, 2 to 29 years). Ten-year overall and relapse-free survival were 87% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85% to 90%) and 84% (95% CI, 81% to 87%)...
April 28, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452872/combination-therapy-of-levetiracetam-and-gabapentin-against-nonconvulsive-seizures-induced-by-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Xi-Chun M Lu, Ying Cao, Andrea Mountney, Zhilin Liao, Deborah A Shear, Frank C Tortella
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic seizures are a medical problem affecting patients with traumatic brain injury. Yet effective treatment is lacking owing to the limitations of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) applicable to these patients. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the dose-response efficacy of levetiracetam (12.5-100.0 mg/kg) and gabapentin (1.25-25.0 mg/kg) administered either individually or in pairs at fixed-dose ratios as a combination in mitigating posttraumatic nonconvulsive seizures induced by severe penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434268/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-as-a-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-target-in-neurodegeneration-neurotrauma-and-neuro-injuries
#16
REVIEW
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, George Sarkis, Isabel Torres, Vijaya Raghavan
Since its discovery as a major CNS-abundant protein 25 years ago, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has emerged as an important enzyme in regulating brain protein metabolism, by coupling to the proteasome pathway of protein degradation. Areas covered: UCH-L1 is implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson disease and other chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Also, UCH-L1 has been recently emerging as a biofluid-based biomarker for various forms of acute neurotrauma and CNS injury. Expert opinion: The loss of UCH-L1 activity coupled with the gain of proteinopathy function are linked to neurodegeneration such as Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431741/chloride-dysregulation-seizures-and-cerebral-edema-a-relationship-with-therapeutic-potential
#17
REVIEW
Joseph Glykys, Volodymyr Dzhala, Kiyoshi Egawa, Kristopher T Kahle, Eric Delpire, Kevin Staley
Pharmacoresistant seizures and cytotoxic cerebral edema are serious complications of ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) regulation impacts on both cell volume homeostasis and Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptor-dependent membrane excitability. Understanding the pleiotropic molecular determinants of neuronal [Cl(-)]i - cytoplasmic impermeant anions, polyanionic extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins, and plasmalemmal Cl(-) transporters - could help the identification of novel anticonvulsive and neuroprotective targets...
May 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430697/abusive-head-trauma-and-mortality-an-analysis-from-an-international-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Nikki Miller Ferguson, Ajit Sarnaik, Darryl Miles, Nadeem Shafi, Mark J Peters, Edward Truemper, Monica S Vavilala, Michael J Bell, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Adam L Hartman, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. DESIGN: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial-a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429236/the-course-of-headache-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-headache-due-to-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#19
Chang-Ki Hong, Jin-Yang Joo, Yu Shik Shim, Sook Young Sim, Min A Kwon, Yong Bae Kim, Joonho Chung
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term course of headache in patients with moderate-to-severe headache due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We evaluated the course of headache in patients with moderate-to-severe headache due to mild TBI. METHODS: Since September 2009, patients with TBI prospectively rated their headache using a numeric rating scale (NRS). From the database containing 935 patients with TBI between September 2009 and December 2013, 259 patients were included according to following criteria: (1) newly onset moderate-to-severe headache (NRS ≥ 4) due to head trauma; (2) age ≥ 15 years; (3) Glasgow Coma Scale ≥ 13; (4) transient loss of consciousness ≤ 30 min; and (5) radiographic evaluation, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance image...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412926/acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-geriatric-patients-with-multiple-risk-factors-a-diagnostic-challenge
#20
Ralf Landwehr, Robert Liszka
Acute symptomatic seizures and epileptic disorders are frequent health problems of elderly patients. An early and reliable distinction of the seizure etiology is important to ensure adequate treatment, and to prevent unwarranted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The most common causes of acute symptomatic seizures - acute cerebrovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, traumatic brain injury, meningo-encephalitis, cerebral tumors, and withdrawal of alcohol and other central agents - are well-defined and seem to permit straightforward diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
April 13, 2017: Current Aging Science
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