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Young-Duk Kim, Guk-Jin Son, Chan-Ho Song, Hee-Kang Kim
Recently, radar technology has attracted attention for the realization of an intelligent transportation system (ITS) to monitor, track, and manage vehicle traffic on the roads as well as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and automatic emergency braking (AEB) for driving assistance of vehicles. However, when radar is installed on roads or in tunnels, the detection performance is significantly dependent on the deployment conditions and environment around the radar. In particular, in the case of tunnels, the detection accuracy for a moving vehicle drops sharply owing to the diffuse reflection of radio frequency (RF) signals...
March 11, 2018: Sensors
Yutong Cai, Susan Hodgson, Marta Blangiardo, John Gulliver, David Morley, Daniela Fecht, Danielle Vienneau, Kees de Hoogh, Tim Key, Kristian Hveem, Paul Elliott, Anna L Hansell
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. METHODS: In pooled complete-case sample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom (N = 355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5259 ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 2871 cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010) and end of follow-up (2008-2013) through medical record linkage...
March 5, 2018: Environment International
L U Ding, T Ben-Fu, D Qi-Hua, C Lin, Z Bo
Objective To study the effect of schistosomiasis transmission interruption model based on intensive agriculture in hilly endemic areas, so as to provide the reference for the similar endemic areas. Methods Based on the development of intensive agriculture in Guanghan City, a comprehensive demonstration area of schistosomiasis control with measures such as new rural construction, hardening ditches, the adjustment of industrial structure and water remediation measures was constructed. Jinhua, Shiguan and Hongyan villages were chosen as the evaluation sites to comparatively analyze the indexes of intensive agriculture and schistosomiasis control effects...
August 9, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
A Ηatzioannou, M Karanikola, E Papathanasoglou, Aik Kaikoushi, M Nystazaki, G Alevizopoulos
Bipolar disorder (BD) encompasses neuro-cognitive disturbances leading to psychological and social consequences affecting the quality of life of those suffering from it. However, the number of studies on the lived experience of people with BD about the treatment provided is relatively scant. The aim of this study is to investigate the lived experience of people with BD, focused on their perceptions and meanings about the treatment provided for their disorder. A qualitative, phenomenological design was applied...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
André L Teixeira, Milena Samora, Jeann L Sabino-Carvalho
The cardiovascular response to exercise is governed by both central and peripheral mechanisms that promote alterations in parasympathetic and sympathetic neural activities to the heart and blood vessels to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle in an intensity-dependent manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Marie Hasselberg, Marie Kirsebom, Josefin Bäckström, Hans-Yngve Berg, Ritva Rissanen
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, injuries represent one of the leading causes of mortality, and nearly one-quarter of all injuries are road traffic related. In many high-income countries, the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) has shifted from premature death to injury and disability with long-term consequences; therefore, it is important to assess the full burden of an RTI on individual lives. OBJECTIVE: To describe how men and women with minor and moderate injuries reported the consequences of an RTI on their health and lives...
February 24, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
María Pilar Sánchez González, Francisco Escribano Sotos, Ángel Tejada Ponce
This study has two aims. The first is to determine how various factors impact on the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for the level of traffic on interurban roads in Spain. The second is to establish the number of victims per million vehicle-kilometres (veh-km) travelled on interurban roads in each province resulting from the effect of its specific characteristics. To this end, we developed six fixed effect panel data models with panel corrected standard errors for the 1999-2015 period...
February 21, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jonathan B Kruskal, Amy K Patel, Deborah Levine, Cheri L Canon, Katarzyna J Macura, Brenda J Allen, Carolyn Meltzer
The 39th radiology Intersociety Committee reviewed the current state of diversity among trainees and in our workplaces and addressed future strategies for fostering diversity through inclusion. The assembled participants addressed the imperatives and drivers for diversity and developed a road map to foster diversity. Themes included the need to be proactive in increasing awareness of our own biases and their potential impact on workplace decisions, overcoming blind spots, and being culturally sensitive. The need to identify and eliminate barriers to diversity was discussed at both the organizational and practice level and included efforts to break down structural and clinical barriers, such as training in multicultural awareness...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Elise van Kempen, Maribel Casas, Göran Pershagen, Maria Foraster
To update the current state of evidence and assess its quality, we conducted a systematic review on the effects of environmental noise exposure on the cardio-metabolic systems as input for the new WHO environmental noise guidelines for the European Region. We identified 600 references relating to studies on effects of noise from road, rail and air traffic, and wind turbines on the cardio-metabolic system, published between January 2000 and August 2015. Only 61 studies, investigating different end points, included information enabling estimation of exposure response relationships...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Darren Shannon, Finbarr Murphy, Martin Mullins, Julian Eggert
An extensive number of research studies have attempted to capture the factors that influence the severity of vehicle impacts. The high number of risks facing all traffic participants has led to a gradual increase in sophisticated data collection schemes linking crash characteristics to subsequent severity measures. This study serves as a departure from previous research by relating injuries suffered in road traffic accidents to expected trauma compensation payouts and deriving a quantitative cost function. Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database for the years 2005-2014 is combined with the Book of Quantum, an Irish governmental document that offers guidelines on the appropriate compensation to be awarded for injuries sustained in accidents...
February 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Carlos Aibar-Remón, Ignacio Barrasa-Villar, Javier Moliner-Lahoz, Isabel Gutiérrez-Cía, Laura Aibar-Villán, Blanca Obón-Azuara, Rosa Mareca-Doñate, David Ríos-Faure
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences between the need and degree of implementation of safe practices recommended for patient safety and to check the usefulness of traffic sign iconicity to promote their implementation. METHOD: The study was developed in two stages: 1) review of safe practices recommended by different organizations and 2) a survey to assess the perceptions for the need and implementation of them and the usefulness of signs to improve their implementation...
January 27, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
Eric Song, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Jerome Uriot, Pascal Potier, Denis Dubois, Richard Douard
This study aims to provide a set of reference post-mortem human subject tests which can be used, with easily reproducible test conditions, for developing and/or validating pedestrian dummies and computational human body models against a road vehicle. An adjustable generic buck was first developed to represent vehicle front-ends. It was composed of four components: two steel cylindrical tubes screwed on rigid supports in V-form represent the bumper and spoiler respectively, a quarter of a steel cylindrical tube represents the bonnet leading edge, and a steel plate represents the bonnet...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
David Hui, Donna S Zhukovsky, Eduardo Bruera
Serious illness conversations can influence the direction of care by supporting decision-making compatible with the patient's goals. Effective use of core communication techniques, such as active listening and empathic statements, allows for a deeper understanding of the patients' goals, concerns, communication preferences, and questions. Metaphors can be used to augment end-of-life care planning. Used inappropriately, metaphors can cause misunderstandings and confusion. Applied skillfully, metaphors can personalize challenging discussions, improving patient comprehension and helping patients and their families to plan ahead...
January 25, 2018: Oncologist
Yannick Molgat-Seon, Paolo B Dominelli, Andrew H Ramsook, Michele R Schaeffer, Stefan Molgat Sereacki, Glen Edward Foster, Lee M Romer, Jeremy D Road, Jordan A Guenette, Andrew William Sheel
We examined the effects of age, sex, and their interaction on mechanical ventilatory constraint and dyspnea during exercise in 22 older (age=68{plus minus}1y, n=12 women) and 22 younger (age=25{plus minus}1y, n=11 women) subjects. During submaximal exercise, older subjects had higher end-inspiratory (EILV) and end-expiratory (EELV) lung volumes than younger subjects (both p<0.05). During maximal exercise, older subjects had similar EILV ( p>0.05), but higher EELV than younger subjects ( p<0.05). No sex-differences in EILV or EELV were observed...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Cristhian Iza-Paredes, Ahmad Mohamad Mezher, Mónica Aguilar Igartua, Jordi Forné
Road safety applications envisaged for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) depend largely on the dissemination of warning messages to deliver information to concerned vehicles. The intended applications, as well as some inherent VANET characteristics, make data dissemination an essential service and a challenging task in this kind of networks. This work lays out a decentralized stochastic solution for the data dissemination problem through two game-theoretical mechanisms. Given the non-stationarity induced by a highly dynamic topology, diverse network densities, and intermittent connectivity, a solution for the formulated game requires an adaptive procedure able to exploit the environment changes...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
Sam D Doecke, Craig N Kloeden, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock
Objective To provide empirical evidence for 'safe' speed limits that will meet the objectives of the Safe System by examining the relationship between speed limit and injury severity for different crash types, using police-reported crash data. Method Police reported crashes from two Australian jurisdictions were used to calculate a fatal crash rate by speed limit and crash type. Example 'safe' speed limits were defined using threshold risk levels. Results A positive exponential relationship between speed limit and fatality rate was found...
January 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ana Martín, Cristina Caldelas, Dominik Jakob Weiss, Iker Aranjuelo, Enrique Navarro
A thorough understanding of spatial and temporal emission and immission patterns of air pollutants in urban areas is challenged by the low number of air quality monitoring stations available. Plants are promising low cost biomonitoring tools. However, source identification of the trace metals incorporated in plant tissues (i.e. natural vs. anthropogenic) and the identification of the best plant to use remain fundamental challenges. To this end, Nerium oleander L. collected in the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has been investigated as a biomonitoring tool for assessing the spatial immission patterns of airborne metals (Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Ce, and Zn)...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wenwei Zuo, Chi Guo, Jingnan Liu, Xuan Peng, Min Yang
Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
Lynn M Sibley, Yared Amare, Solomon Tesfaye Abebe, Mulusew Lijalem Belew, Kemeredin Shiffra, Danika Barry
BACKGROUND: In 2014, USAID and University Research Co., LLC, initiated a new project under the broader Translating Research into Action portfolio of projects. This new project was entitled Systematic Documentation of Illness Recognition and Appropriate Care Seeking for Maternal and Newborn Complications. This project used a common protocol involving descriptive mixed-methods case studies of community projects in six low- and middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. In this paper, we present the Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) case study...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Danish, Muhammad Awais Baloch
The focus of the present research work is to investigate the dynamic relationship between economic growth, road transport energy consumption, and environmental quality. To this end, we rely on time series data for the period 1971 to 2014 in the context of Pakistan. To use sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from transport sector as a new proxy for measuring environmental quality, the present work employs time series technique ARDL which allows energy consumption from the transport sector, urbanization, and road infrastructure to be knotted by symmetric relationships with SO2 emissions and economic growth...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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