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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932844/environmental-performance-of-bio-based-and-biodegradable-plastics-the-road-ahead
#1
REVIEW
Scott Lambert, Martin Wagner
Future plastic materials will be very different from those that are used today. The increasing importance of sustainability promotes the development of bio-based and biodegradable polymers, sometimes misleadingly referred to as 'bioplastics'. Because both terms imply "green" sources and "clean" removal, this paper aims at critically discussing the sometimes-conflicting terminology as well as renewable sources with a special focus on the degradation of these polymers in natural environments. With regard to the former we review innovations in feedstock development (e...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919812/the-effect-of-local-topical-analgesics-on-incisional-pain-in-a-pig-model
#2
David Castel, Itai Sabbag, Sigal Meilin
Interest in the development of new topical/local drug administration for blocking pain at peripheral sites, with maximum drug activity and minimal systemic effects, is on the rise. In the review article by Kopsky and Stahl, four critical barriers in the process of research and development of topical analgesics were indicated. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the formulation are among the major challenges. The road to the development of such drugs passes through preclinical studies. These studies, if planned correctly, should serve as guidance for choosing the right API and formulation...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911878/comparison-of-proposed-countermeasures-for-dilemma-zone-at-signalized-intersections-based-on-cellular-automata-simulations
#3
Yina Wu, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Yaoxian Ding, Bin Jia, Qi Shi, Xuedong Yan
The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations...
September 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893148/comparative-analyses-of-bicyclists-and-motorcyclists-in-vehicle-collisions-focusing-on-head-impact-responses
#4
Xinghua Wang, Yong Peng, Shengen Yi
To investigate the differences of the head impact responses between bicyclists and motorcyclists in vehicle collisions. A series of vehicle-bicycle and vehicle-motorcycle lateral impact simulations on four vehicle types at seven vehicle speeds (30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 km/h) and three two-wheeler moving speeds (5, 7.5 and 10 km/h for bicycle, 10, 12.5 and 15 km/h for motorcycle) were established based on PC-Crash software. To further comprehensively explore the differences, additional impact scenes with other initial conditions, such as impact angle (0, π/3, 2π/3 and π) and impact position (left, middle and right part of vehicle front-end), also were supplemented...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886141/the-impact-of-vehicle-moving-violations-and-freeway-traffic-flow-on-crash-risk-an-application-of-plugin-development-for-microsimulation
#5
Junhua Wang, Yumeng Kong, Ting Fu, Joshua Stipancic
This paper presents the use of the Aimsun microsimulation program to simulate vehicle violating behaviors and observe their impact on road traffic crash risk. Plugins for violations of speeding, slow driving, and abrupt stopping were developed using Aimsun's API and SDK module. A safety analysis plugin for investigating probability of rear-end collisions was developed, and a method for analyzing collision risk is proposed. A Fuzzy C-mean Clustering algorithm was developed to identify high risk states in different road segments over time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877309/a-finite-element-model-of-a-mid-size-male-for-simulating-pedestrian-accidents
#6
Costin D Untaroiu, Wansoo Pak, Yunzhu Meng, Jeremy M Schap, Bharath Koya, F Scott Gayzik
Pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road users and comprise nearly 22% the road crash related fatalities in the world. Therefore, protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian collisions (CPC) has recently generated increased attention with regulations involving three subsystem tests. The development of a finite element (FE) pedestrian model could provide a complementary component that characterizes the whole-body response of vehicle-pedestrian interactions and assesses the pedestrian injuries...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863373/plastics-in-soil-analytical-methods-and-possible-sources
#7
REVIEW
Melanie Bläsing, Wulf Amelung
At least 300 Mio t of plastic are produced annually, from which large parts end up in the environment, where it persists over decades, harms biota and enters the food chain. Yet, almost nothing is known about plastic pollution of soil; hence, the aims of this work are to review current knowledge on i) available methods for the quantification and identification of plastic in soil, ii) the quantity and possible input pathways of plastic into soil, (including first preliminary screening of plastic in compost), and iii) its fate in soil...
August 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860150/enduring-enrolments-in-west-virginia-s-medicaid-programme-due-to-severe-injury
#8
Michael Smith, Ted R Miller, Eduard Zaloshnja
OBJECTIVE: To assess frequency, duration and costs of Medicaid conversions that occur when severe injury causes patients to enrol in Medicaid to pay their hospital bills. Once enrolled, Medicaid pays all their medical bills, not simply their injury bill. DATA SOURCES: 2000-2005 West Virginia Medicaid claims data and 2000-2006 eligibility data for new enrollees under the age of 65. To model national costs, published Medicaid conversion rates across 14 states for 2003 and 2008 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Program Nationwide Inpatient Sample data...
August 31, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840557/personalised-medicine-genome-maintenance-lessons-learned-from-studies-in-yeast-as-a-model-organism
#9
Arwa A Abugable, Dahlia A Awwad, Dalia Fleifel, Mohamed M Ali, Sherif El-Khamisy, Menattallah Elserafy
Yeast research has been tremendously contributing to the understanding of a variety of molecular pathways due to the ease of its genetic manipulation, fast doubling time as well as being cost-effective. The understanding of these pathways did not only help scientists learn more about the cellular functions but also assisted in deciphering the genetic and cellular defects behind multiple diseases. Hence, yeast research not only opened the doors for transforming basic research into applied research, but also paved the roads for improving diagnosis and innovating personalized therapy of different diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832518/basic-simulation-environment-for-highly-customized-connected-and-autonomous-vehicle-kinematic-scenarios
#10
Linguo Chai, Baigen Cai, Wei ShangGuan, Jian Wang, Huashen Wang
To enhance the reality of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) kinematic simulation scenarios and to guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the verification, a four-layer CAVs kinematic simulation framework, which is composed with road network layer, vehicle operating layer, uncertainties modelling layer and demonstrating layer, is proposed in this paper. Properties of the intersections are defined to describe the road network. A target position based vehicle position updating method is designed to simulate such vehicle behaviors as lane changing and turning...
August 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819590/minimally-invasive-total-hip-replacement-in-an-ipsilateral-post-traumatic-above-knee-amputation-a-case-report
#11
Sanjeev Patnaik, Biswaranjan Nayak, Akshaya Kumar Sahoo, Nabin Kumar Sahu
INTRODUCTION: Total hip replacement (THR) is a highly successful operation in alleviating pain and improving the overall function of the hip, in end-stage arthritis of the hip, in otherwise fit patients. However, THR as a surgical option in post-traumatic hip arthritis with ipsilateral above-knee amputation is rarely reported. CASE REPORT: We are presenting a case report of a 30-year-old male, who had previously underwent an above-knee amputation due to road-traffic accident, presenting 24 h after the injury with segmental fracture femur and popliteal artery laceration, for which the limb could not be salvaged...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810224/simultaneous-leaching-of-arsenite-arsenate-selenite-and-selenate-and-their-migration-in-tunnel-excavated-sedimentary-rocks-i-column-experiments-under-intermittent-and-unsaturated-flow
#12
Carlito Baltazar Tabelin, Ryosuke Sasaki, Toshifumi Igarashi, Ilhwan Park, Shuichi Tamoto, Takahiko Arima, Mayumi Ito, Naoki Hiroyoshi
Rocks excavated in tunnel construction projects for roads and railways throughout Japan often leached out hazardous trace elements like arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) upon their exposure to the environment. In nature, the various oxyanionic species of As and Se not only coexist but also exhibit contrasting adsorption-desorption behaviors, so speciation is a crucial factor in their migration through natural geologic media. In this study, the leaching and transport of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), selenite (Se(IV)) and selenate (Se(VI)) in four tunnel-excavated rocks from the Cretaceous-Paleocene Yezo forearc basin were investigated using laboratory column experiments supplemented by batch leaching experiments...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799819/no-cardiovascular-benefit-with-evacetrapib-is-this-the-end-of-the-road-for-the-cetrapibs
#13
Sheila A Doggrell
Increasing high-density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol levels predict improved cardiovascular outcomes. However, inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to increase HDL cholesterol, with the 'cetrapibs' (torcetrapib and dalcetrapib), did not improve cardiovascular clinical outcomes. Despite these findings, the clinical outcomes trial with evacetrapib continued. Areas covered: Treatment with evacetrapib increased the levels of HDL by ~130%, and decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by ~37%...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777766/risk-factors-for-roadway-single-and-multi-vehicle-all-terrain-vehicle-crashes-in-pennsylvania-2010-2013
#14
Serap Gorucu, Dennis Murphy, Cathy Kassab
BACKGROUND: All Terrain Vehicles on public roadways become major risk factors for the motorists. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics of crashes and injury severity related to single vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) roadway crashes in Pennsylvania, USA. METHODS: Data on ATV crashes occurring on public roads during the years 2010-2013 was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and analyzed...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759259/end-of-the-road-for-adjunctive-vitamin-d-therapy-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#15
Ibrahim Abubakar, Frank Kloprogge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754013/interference-effects-redress-over-power-efficient-wireless-friendly-mesh-networks-for-ubiquitous-sensor-communications-across-smart-cities
#16
Jose Santana, Domingo Marrero, Elsa Macías, Vicente Mena, Álvaro Suárez
Ubiquitous sensing allows smart cities to take control of many parameters (e.g., road traffic, air or noise pollution levels, etc.). An inexpensive Wireless Mesh Network can be used as an efficient way to transport sensed data. When that mesh is autonomously powered (e.g., solar powered), it constitutes an ideal portable network system which can be deployed when needed. Nevertheless, its power consumption must be restrained to extend its operational cycle and for preserving the environment. To this end, our strategy fosters wireless interface deactivation among nodes which do not participate in any route...
July 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732139/advances-in-electrocatalysis-for-energy-conversion-and-synthesis-of-organic-molecules
#17
Yaovi Holade, Karine Servat, Sophie Tingry, Teko W Napporn, Hynd Remita, David Cornu, Kouakou Boniface Kokoh
The ubiquitous electrochemistry is expected to play a major role for reliable energy, and for production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. For organics-based electrocatalysis in an alkaline medium, the fundamental understandings at solid-liquid interfaces involve relatively complex mechanisms and performance descriptors (from the electrolyte and reaction intermediates), which undermine the roads towards advance and breakthroughs. Here, we review and diagnose recently designed strategies for the electrochemical conversion of organics into electricity or high added- value chemicals, and likely both...
July 21, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728062/investigation-of-factors-affecting-the-injury-severity-of-single-vehicle-rollover-crashes-a-random-effects-generalized-ordered-probit-model
#18
Alireza Jafari Anarkooli, Mehdi Hosseinpour, Adele Kardar
Rollover crashes are responsible for a notable number of serious injuries and fatalities; hence, they are of great concern to transportation officials and safety researchers. However, only few published studies have analyzed the factors associated with severity outcomes of rollover crashes. This research has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the effects of various factors, of which some have been rarely reported in the existing studies, on the injury severities of single-vehicle (SV) rollover crashes based on six-year crash data collected on the Malaysian federal roads...
July 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722536/travel-burden-associated-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-administration-in-a-medicare-aged-population-a-geospatial-analysis
#19
J Mark Stephens, Mark Bensink, Charles Bowers, Christopher S Hollenbeak
OBJECTIVE: Prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) is recommended for patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy regimens with a high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). G-CSFs should be administered starting the day after chemotherapy, necessitating return trips to the oncology clinic at the end of each cycle. We examined the travel burden related to prophylactic G-CSF injections after chemotherapy in the United States (US). METHODS: We used 2012-2014 Medicare claims data to identify a national cohort of beneficiaries age 65+ with non-myeloid cancers who received both chemotherapy and prophylactic G-CSFs...
July 19, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715678/effects-of-the-distribution-density-of-a-biomass-combined-heat-and-power-plant-network-on-heat-utilisation-efficiency-in-village-town-systems
#20
Yifei Zhang, Jian Kang
The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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