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Biomimicry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330523/closed-loop-control-of-zebrafish-behaviour-in-three-dimensions-using-a-robotic-stimulus
#1
Changsu Kim, Tommaso Ruberto, Paul Phamduy, Maurizio Porfiri
Robotics is continuously being integrated in animal behaviour studies to create customizable, controllable, and repeatable stimuli. However, few systems have capitalized on recent breakthroughs in computer vision and real-time control to enable a two-way interaction between the animal and the robot. Here, we present a "closed-loop control" system to investigate the behaviour of zebrafish, a popular animal model in preclinical studies. The system allows for actuating a biologically-inspired 3D-printed replica in a 3D workspace, in response to the behaviour of a zebrafish...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247765/integration-of-biomimicry-and-nanotechnology-for-significantly-improved-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-ctcs
#2
Ja Hye Myung, Sin-Jung Park, Andrew Z Wang, Seungpyo Hong
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a great deal of scientific and clinical attention as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of many types of cancer. Given their potential significance in clinics, a variety of detection methods, utilizing the recent advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics, have been introduced in an effort of achieving clinically significant detection of CTCs. However, effective detection and isolation of CTCs still remain a tremendous challenge due to their extreme rarity and phenotypic heterogeneity...
December 13, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240978/biomimicry-of-volatile-based-microbial-control-for-managing-emerging-fungal-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Kyle T Gabriel, Joseph D Sexton, Christopher T Cornelison
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of microorganisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapor pressure...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226025/permeable-protein-loaded-polymersome-cascade-nanoreactors-by-polymerization-induced-self-assembly
#4
Lewis D Blackman, Spyridon Varlas, Maria C Arno, Alice Fayter, Matthew I Gibson, Rachel K O'Reilly
Enzyme loading of polymersomes requires permeability to enable them to interact with the external environment, typically requiring addition of complex functionality to enable porosity. Herein, we describe a synthetic route towards intrinsically permeable polymersomes loaded with functional proteins using initiator-free visible light-mediated polymerization-induced self-assembly (photo-PISA) under mild, aqueous conditions using a commercial monomer. Compartmentalization and retention of protein functionality was demonstrated using green fluorescent protein as a macro-molecular chromophore...
October 31, 2017: ACS Macro Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202018/precise-probing-of-residue-roles-by-post-translational-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-n-aza-michael-mutagenesis-in-enzyme-active-sites
#5
Jitka Dadová, Kuan-Jung Wu, Patrick G Isenegger, James C Errey, Gonçalo J L Bernardes, Justin M Chalker, Lluís Raich, Carme Rovira, Benjamin G Davis
Biomimicry valuably allows the understanding of the essential chemical components required to recapitulate biological function, yet direct strategies for evaluating the roles of amino acids in proteins can be limited by access to suitable, subtly-altered unnatural variants. Here we describe a strategy for dissecting the role of histidine residues in enzyme active sites using unprecedented, chemical, post-translational side-chain-β,γ C-N bond formation. Installation of dehydroalanine (as a "tag") allowed the testing of nitrogen conjugate nucleophiles in "aza-Michael"-1,4-additions (to "modify")...
November 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182082/stiffness-customization-and-patterning-for-property-modulation-of-silicone-based-soft-pneumatic-actuators
#6
Yi Sun, Hong Kai Yap, Xinquan Liang, Jin Guo, Peng Qi, Marcelo H Ang, Chen-Hua Yeow
Soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs), as novel types of motion drivers for robotic devices, excel in many applications, such as rehabilitation and biomimicry, which demand compliance and softness. To further expand their scope of utilization, the SPAs should be customizable to meet the distinctive requirements of different applications. This article proposes a novel perspective on the SPA working mechanism based on stiffness distribution and then presents a versatile method called stiffness customization and patterning (SCP) for SPA body stiffness layout as a novel attempt to customize SPAs with distinctive properties...
September 2017: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178190/a-perspective-on-bio-mediated-material-structuring
#7
REVIEW
Steffi Deuerling, Sabine Kugler, Moritz Klotz, Cordt Zollfrank, Daniel Van Opdenbosch
Bioinspiration, biomorphy, biomimicry, biomimetics, bionics, and biotemplating are terms used to describe the fabrication of materials or, more generally, systems to solve technological problems by abstracting, emulating, using, or transferring structures from biological paradigms. Herein, a brief overview of how the different terminologies are being typically applied is provided. It is proposed that there is a rich field of research that can be expanded by utilizing various novel approaches for the guidance of living organisms for "bio-mediated" material structuring purposes...
November 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149506/integrating-soft-and-hard-tissues-via-interface-tissue-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Sahishnu Patel, Jon-Michael Caldwell, Stephen B Doty, William N Levine, Scott Rodeo, Louis J Soslowsky, Stavros Thomopoulos, Helen H Lu
The enthesis, or interface between bone and soft tissues such as ligament and tendon, is prone to injury and often does not heal post-surgical intervention. Interface tissue engineering represents an integrative strategy for regenerating the native enthesis by functionally connecting soft and hard tissues and thereby improving clinical outcome. This review focuses on integrative and cell-instructive scaffold designs that target the healing of the two most commonly injured soft tissue-bone junctions: the tendon-bone interface (e...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143459/the-spatial-patterning-of-rgd-and-bmp-2-mimetic-peptides-at-the-subcellular-scale-modulates-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-osteogenesis
#9
I Bilem, L Plawinski, P Chevallier, C Ayela, E D Sone, G Laroche, M C Durrieu
Engineering artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs), based on the biomimicry of the spatial distribution of proteins and growth factors within their native microenvironment, is of great importance for understanding mechanisms of bone tissue regeneration. Herein, photolithography is used to decorate glass surfaces with subcellular patterns of RGD and BMP-2 ligands; two mimetic peptides recognized to be involved in stem cells osteogenesis. The biological relevance of well-defined RGD and BMP-2 patterned surfaces is evaluated by investigating the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoblasts, in the absence of induction media...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881469/biomimicry-biofabrication-and-biohybrid-systems-the-emergence-and-evolution-of-biological-design
#10
REVIEW
Ritu Raman, Rashid Bashir
The discipline of biological design has a relatively short history, but has undergone very rapid expansion and development over that time. This Progress Report outlines the evolution of this field from biomimicry to biofabrication to biohybrid systems' design, showcasing how each subfield incorporates bioinspired dynamic adaptation into engineered systems. Ethical implications of biological design are discussed, with an emphasis on establishing responsible practices for engineering non-natural or hypernatural functional behaviors in biohybrid systems...
September 7, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852039/laser-assisted-rapid-mineralization-of-human-tooth-enamel
#11
Muyang Sun, Nier Wu, Haifeng Chen
The human body has difficulty repairing damaged dental enamel, an acellular hard tissue. Researchers have sought feasible biomimicry strategies to repair enamel defects; however, few have been successfully translated to clinical applications. In this study, we propose a new method for achieving rapid enamel mineralization under a near-physiological environment. Through treatment with a laser and chelating agents, 15 μm crystals could be grown compactly on an enamel substrate in less than 20 min. The compact crystal layer had similar structure as native enamel prisms and high elastic modulus...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822737/printing-nature-unraveling-the-role-of-nacre-s-mineral-bridges
#12
Grace X Gu, Flavia Libonati, Susan D Wettermark, Markus J Buehler
Creating materials with strength and toughness has been a long-sought goal. Conventional engineering materials often face a trade-off between strength and toughness, prompting researchers seeking to overcome these limitations to explore more sophisticated materials, such as composites. This paradigm shift in material design is spurred by nature, which exhibits a plethora of heterogeneous materials that offer outstanding material properties, and many natural materials are widely regarded as examples of high-performing hybrid materials...
December 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806646/static-flexural-properties-of-hedgehog-spines-conditioned-in-coupled-temperature-and-relative-humidity-environments
#13
Emily B Kennedy, Bor-Kai Hsiung, Nathan B Swift, Kwek-Tze Tan
Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs...
August 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791761/degree-of-biomimicry-of-artificial-spider-silk-spinning-assessed-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#14
Martins Otikovs, Marlene Andersson, Qiupin Jia, Kerstin Nordling, Qing Meng, Loren B Andreas, Guido Pintacuda, Jan Johansson, Anna Rising, Kristaps Jaudzems
Biomimetic spinning of artificial spider silk requires that the terminal domains of designed minispidroins undergo specific structural changes in concert with the β-sheet conversion of the repetitive region. Herein, we combine solution and solid-state NMR methods to probe domain-specific structural changes in the NT2RepCT minispidroin, which allows us to assess the degree of biomimicry of artificial silk spinning. In addition, we show that the structural effects of post-spinning procedures can be examined...
October 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782725/the-bio-in-the-ink-cartilage-regeneration-with-bioprintable-hydrogels-and-articular-cartilage-derived-progenitor-cells
#15
Riccardo Levato, William R Webb, Iris A Otto, Anneloes Mensinga, Yadan Zhang, Mattie van Rijen, René van Weeren, Ilyas M Khan, Jos Malda
Cell-laden hydrogels are the primary building blocks for bioprinting, and, also termed bioinks, are the foundations for creating structures that can potentially recapitulate the architecture of articular cartilage. To be functional, hydrogel constructs need to unlock the regenerative capacity of encapsulated cells. The recent identification of multipotent articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs), which share important traits with adult stem cells, represents a new opportunity for cartilage regeneration...
August 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762415/biocompatible-3d-printed-polymers-via-fused-deposition-modelling-direct-c2c12-cellular-phenotype-in-vitro
#16
Rowan P Rimington, Andrew J Capel, Steven D R Christie, Mark P Lewis
The capability to 3D print bespoke biologically receptive parts within short time periods has driven the growing prevalence of additive manufacture (AM) technology within biological settings, however limited research concerning cellular interaction with 3D printed polymers has been undertaken. In this work, we used skeletal muscle C2C12 cell line in order to ascertain critical evidence of cellular behaviour in response to multiple bio-receptive candidate polymers; polylactic acid (PLA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) 3D printed via fused deposition modelling (FDM)...
August 22, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751113/tissue-engineering-in-hand-surgery-a%C3%A2-technology-update
#17
REVIEW
Hayman Lui, Cedryck Vaquette, Randip Bindra
The field of hand surgery is constantly evolving to meet the challenges of repairing intricate anatomical structures with limited availability of donor tissue. The past 10 years have seen an exponential growth in tissue engineering, which has broadened the perspectives of tackling these age-old problems. Various fabrication techniques such as melt electrospinning and fused deposition modelling have been employed to synthesize 3-dimensional bioscaffolds that can be used to replace lost tissue. These bioscaffolds with strategic biomimicry have been shown to allow for integrative and functional repair of tissue injuries...
September 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745057/nanoscale-ion-pump-derived-from-a-biological-water-channel
#18
Karl Decker, Martin Page, Aleksei Aksimentiev
Biological molecular machines perform the work of supporting life at the smallest of scales, including the work of shuttling ions across cell boundaries and against chemical gradients. Systems of artificial channels at the nanoscale can likewise control ionic concentration by way of ionic current rectification, species selectivity, and voltage gating mechanisms. Here, we theoretically show that a voltage-gated, ion species-selective, and rectifying ion channel can be built using the components of a biological water channel aquaporin...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685239/a-biodesign-approach-to-obtain-high-yields-of-biosimilars-by-anti-apoptotic-cell-engineering-a-case-study-to-increase-the-production-yield-of-anti-tnf-alpha-producing-recombinant-cho-cells
#19
Sultan Gulce Iz, Muge Anil Inevi, Pelin Saglam Metiner, Duygu Ayyildiz Tamis, Nazli Kisbet
Recent developments in medical biotechnology have facilitated to enhance the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Human mAbs for clinical applications have focused on three areas, particularly cancer, immunological disorders, and infectious diseases. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which has both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory functions, is an important target in biopharmaceutical industry. In this study, a humanized anti-TNF-α mAb producing stable CHO cell line which produces a biosimilar of Humira (adalimumab) was used...
July 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675029/binary-doping-of-strontium-and-copper-enhancing-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis-of-bioactive-glass-nanofibers-while-suppressing-osteoclast-activity
#20
Lin Weng, Sunil Kumar Boda, Matthew J Teusink, Franklin D Shuler, Xiaoran Li, Jingwei Xie
Electrospun bioactive glass fibers show great potential as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering due to their architectural biomimicry of the bone extracellular matrix and their composition capable of providing soluble bioactive cues for bone regeneration and remodeling. Trace elements can be doped to further promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis during bone regeneration. Cationic substitution of strontium for calcium in bioactive glass positively enhances osteoblast phenotype, while suppressing osteoclast activity...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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