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Biomimicry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767964/a-synthetic-polymer-affinity-ligand-for-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-cry1ab-ac-protein-the-use-of-biomimicry-based-on-the-bt-protein-insect-receptor-binding-mechanism
#1
Mingming Liu, Rong Huang, Adam C Weisman, Xiaoyang Yu, Shih-Hui Lee, Yalu Chen, Chao Huang, Senhua Hu, Xiuhua Chen, Wenfeng Tan, Fan Liu, Hao Chen, Kenneth J Shea
We report a novel strategy for creating abiotic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein affinity ligands by biomimicry of the recognition process that takes place between Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins and insect receptor cadherin-like Bt-R1 proteins. Guided by this strategy, a library of synthetic polymer nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared and screened for binding to three epitopes 280FRGSAQGIEGS290, 368RRPFNIGINNQQ379 and 436FRSGFSNSSVSIIR449 located in loop α8, loop 2 and loop 3 of domain II of Bt Cry1Ab/Ac proteins. A negatively charged and hydrophilic nanoparticle (NP12) was found to have high affinity to one of the epitopes, 368RRPFNIGINNQQ379...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695266/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-root-shape-in-the-moth-orchid-phalaenopsis-sp-a-biomimicry-methodology-for-robotic-applications
#2
Anand Kumar Mishra, Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Barbara Mazzolai
OBJECTIVE: Within the field of biorobotics, an emerging branch is plant-inspired robotics. Some effort exists in particular towards the production of digging robots that mimic roots; for these, a deeper comprehension of the role of root tip geometry in excavation would be highly desirable. Here we demonstrate a photogrammetry-based pipeline for the production of computer and manufactured replicas of moth orchid root apexes. RESULTS: Our methods yields faithful root reproductions...
April 25, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682803/mechanobiological-mimicry-of-helper-t-lymphocytes-to-evaluate-cell-biomaterials-crosstalk
#3
Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, Fatemeh S Majedi, Steven J Bensinger, Benjamin M Wu, Louis-S Bouchard, Paul S Weiss, Alireza Moshaverinia
The unique properties of immune cells have inspired many efforts in engineering advanced biomaterials capable of mimicking their behaviors. However, an inclusive model capable of mimicking immune cells in different situations remains lacking. Such models can provide invaluable data for understanding immune-biomaterial crosstalk. Inspired by CD4+ T cells, polymeric microparticles with physicochemical properties similar to naïve and active T cells are engineered. A lipid coating is applied to enhance their resemblance and provide a platform for conjugation of desired antibodies...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656964/artificial-intelligence-machine-learning-deep-learning-and-cognitive-computing-what-do-these-terms-mean-and-how-will-they-impact-health-care
#4
Stefano A Bini
This article was presented at the 2017 annual meeting of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons to introduce the members gathered as the audience to the concepts behind artificial intelligence (AI) and the applications that AI can have in the world of health care today. We discuss the origin of AI, progress to machine learning, and then discuss how the limits of machine learning lead data scientists to develop artificial neural networks and deep learning algorithms through biomimicry. We will place all these technologies in the context of practical clinical examples and show how AI can act as a tool to support and amplify human cognitive functions for physicians delivering care to increasingly complex patients...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447478/dendritic-platforms-for-biomimicry-and-biotechnological-applications
#5
Kalpana Nagpal, Anand Mohan, Sourav Thakur, Pradeep Kumar
Dendrimers, commonly referred to as polymeric trees, offer endless opportunities for biotechnological and biomedical applications. By controlling the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and end groups, respectively, the chemical functionality and topology of dendrimeric archetypes can be customized which further can be applied to achieve required solubility, biodegradability, diagnosis and other applications. Given the physicochemical variability of the dendrimers and their hybrids, this review attempts to discuss a full spectrum of recent advances and strides made by these "perfectly designed structures"...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407341/natural-killer-cell-membrane-infused-biomimetic-liposomes-for-targeted-tumor-therapy
#6
Arunkumar Pitchaimani, Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Santosh Aryal
Therapeutic efficacy of a systemic drug delivery largely depends on the targeting design of the delivery system, which tackles with circulatory traffic and prevents the nonspecific distribution of the drug in the wide range of vital organs. A drawing attention has been given to a biomimetic cloaking of the synthetic drug delivery nanoparticle using mammalian cell-ghosts, which has shown the installment of the biological complexity of the original cells thereby acting as naïve cells, to precisely delivery drug to the intended target...
January 16, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371132/integrated-approaches-to-spatiotemporally-directing-angiogenesis-in-host-and-engineered-tissues
#7
REVIEW
Rajeev J Kant, Kareen L K Coulombe
The field of tissue engineering has turned towards biomimicry to solve the problem of tissue oxygenation and nutrient/waste exchange through the development of vasculature. Induction of angiogenesis and subsequent development of a vascular bed in engineered tissues is actively being pursued through combinations of physical and chemical cues, notably through the presentation of topographies and growth factors. Presenting angiogenic signals in a spatiotemporal fashion is beginning to generate improved vascular networks, which will allow for the creation of large and dense engineered tissues...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339734/au-nb-h-x-k-1-x-nbo-3-nanopeapods-with-near-infrared-active-plasmonic-hot-electron-injection-for-water-splitting
#8
Ying-Chu Chen, Yu-Kuei Hsu, Radian Popescu, Dagmar Gerthsen, Yan-Gu Lin, Claus Feldmann
Full-spectrum utilization of diffusive solar energy by a photocatalyst for environmental remediation and fuel generation has long been pursued. In contrast to tremendous efforts in the UV-to-VIS light regime of the solar spectrum, the NIR and IR areas have been barely addressed although they represent about 50% of the solar flux. Here we put forward a biomimetic photocatalyst blueprint that emulates the growth pattern of a natural plant-a peapod-to address this issue. This design is exemplified via unidirectionally seeding core-shell Au@Nb nanoparticles in the cavity of semiconducting H x K1-x NbO3 nanoscrolls...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330523/closed-loop-control-of-zebrafish-behaviour-in-three-dimensions-using-a-robotic-stimulus
#9
Changsu Kim, Tommaso Ruberto, Paul Phamduy, Maurizio Porfiri
Robotics is continuously being integrated in animal behaviour studies to create customizable, controllable, and repeatable stimuli. However, few systems have capitalized on recent breakthroughs in computer vision and real-time control to enable a two-way interaction between the animal and the robot. Here, we present a "closed-loop control" system to investigate the behaviour of zebrafish, a popular animal model in preclinical studies. The system allows for actuating a biologically-inspired 3D-printed replica in a 3D workspace, in response to the behaviour of a zebrafish...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247765/integration-of-biomimicry-and-nanotechnology-for-significantly-improved-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-ctcs
#10
Ja Hye Myung, Sin-Jung Park, Andrew Z Wang, Seungpyo Hong
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a great deal of scientific and clinical attention as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of many types of cancer. Given their potential significance in clinics, a variety of detection methods, utilizing the recent advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics, have been introduced in an effort of achieving clinically significant detection of CTCs. However, effective detection and isolation of CTCs still remain a tremendous challenge due to their extreme rarity and phenotypic heterogeneity...
December 13, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240978/biomimicry-of-volatile-based-microbial-control-for-managing-emerging-fungal-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
K T Gabriel, D Joseph Sexton, C T Cornelison
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of micro-organisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapour pressure...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226025/permeable-protein-loaded-polymersome-cascade-nanoreactors-by-polymerization-induced-self-assembly
#12
Lewis D Blackman, Spyridon Varlas, Maria C Arno, Alice Fayter, Matthew I Gibson, Rachel K O'Reilly
Enzyme loading of polymersomes requires permeability to enable them to interact with the external environment, typically requiring addition of complex functionality to enable porosity. Herein, we describe a synthetic route towards intrinsically permeable polymersomes loaded with functional proteins using initiator-free visible light-mediated polymerization-induced self-assembly (photo-PISA) under mild, aqueous conditions using a commercial monomer. Compartmentalization and retention of protein functionality was demonstrated using green fluorescent protein as a macro-molecular chromophore...
October 31, 2017: ACS Macro Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202018/precise-probing-of-residue-roles-by-post-translational-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-n-aza-michael-mutagenesis-in-enzyme-active-sites
#13
Jitka Dadová, Kuan-Jung Wu, Patrick G Isenegger, James C Errey, Gonçalo J L Bernardes, Justin M Chalker, Lluís Raich, Carme Rovira, Benjamin G Davis
Biomimicry valuably allows the understanding of the essential chemical components required to recapitulate biological function, yet direct strategies for evaluating the roles of amino acids in proteins can be limited by access to suitable, subtly-altered unnatural variants. Here we describe a strategy for dissecting the role of histidine residues in enzyme active sites using unprecedented, chemical, post-translational side-chain-β,γ C-N bond formation. Installation of dehydroalanine (as a "tag") allowed the testing of nitrogen conjugate nucleophiles in "aza-Michael"-1,4-additions (to "modify")...
November 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182082/stiffness-customization-and-patterning-for-property-modulation-of-silicone-based-soft-pneumatic-actuators
#14
Yi Sun, Hong Kai Yap, Xinquan Liang, Jin Guo, Peng Qi, Marcelo H Ang, Chen-Hua Yeow
Soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs), as novel types of motion drivers for robotic devices, excel in many applications, such as rehabilitation and biomimicry, which demand compliance and softness. To further expand their scope of utilization, the SPAs should be customizable to meet the distinctive requirements of different applications. This article proposes a novel perspective on the SPA working mechanism based on stiffness distribution and then presents a versatile method called stiffness customization and patterning (SCP) for SPA body stiffness layout as a novel attempt to customize SPAs with distinctive properties...
September 2017: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178190/a-perspective-on-bio-mediated-material-structuring
#15
REVIEW
Steffi Deuerling, Sabine Kugler, Moritz Klotz, Cordt Zollfrank, Daniel Van Opdenbosch
Bioinspiration, biomorphy, biomimicry, biomimetics, bionics, and biotemplating are terms used to describe the fabrication of materials or, more generally, systems to solve technological problems by abstracting, emulating, using, or transferring structures from biological paradigms. Herein, a brief overview of how the different terminologies are being typically applied is provided. It is proposed that there is a rich field of research that can be expanded by utilizing various novel approaches for the guidance of living organisms for "bio-mediated" material structuring purposes...
November 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149506/integrating-soft-and-hard-tissues-via-interface-tissue-engineering
#16
REVIEW
Sahishnu Patel, Jon-Michael Caldwell, Stephen B Doty, William N Levine, Scott Rodeo, Louis J Soslowsky, Stavros Thomopoulos, Helen H Lu
The enthesis, or interface between bone and soft tissues such as ligament and tendon, is prone to injury and often does not heal, even post surgical intervention. Interface tissue engineering represents an integrative strategy for regenerating the native enthesis by functionally connecting soft and hard tissues and thereby improving clinical outcome. This review focuses on integrative and cell-instructive scaffold designs that target the healing of the two most commonly injured soft tissue-bone junctions: tendon-bone interface (e...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143459/the-spatial-patterning-of-rgd-and-bmp-2-mimetic-peptides-at-the-subcellular-scale-modulates-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-osteogenesis
#17
I Bilem, L Plawinski, P Chevallier, C Ayela, E D Sone, G Laroche, M C Durrieu
Engineering artificial extracellular matrices, based on the biomimicry of the spatial distribution of proteins and growth factors within their native microenvironment, is of great importance for understanding mechanisms of bone tissue regeneration. Herein, photolithography is used to decorate glass surfaces with subcellular patterns of RGD and BMP-2 ligands; two mimetic peptides recognized to be involved in stem cells osteogenesis. The biological relevance of well-defined RGD and BMP-2 patterned surfaces is evaluated by investigating the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoblasts, in the absence of induction media...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881469/biomimicry-biofabrication-and-biohybrid-systems-the-emergence-and-evolution-of-biological-design
#18
REVIEW
Ritu Raman, Rashid Bashir
The discipline of biological design has a relatively short history, but has undergone very rapid expansion and development over that time. This Progress Report outlines the evolution of this field from biomimicry to biofabrication to biohybrid systems' design, showcasing how each subfield incorporates bioinspired dynamic adaptation into engineered systems. Ethical implications of biological design are discussed, with an emphasis on establishing responsible practices for engineering non-natural or hypernatural functional behaviors in biohybrid systems...
September 7, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852039/laser-assisted-rapid-mineralization-of-human-tooth-enamel
#19
Muyang Sun, Nier Wu, Haifeng Chen
The human body has difficulty repairing damaged dental enamel, an acellular hard tissue. Researchers have sought feasible biomimicry strategies to repair enamel defects; however, few have been successfully translated to clinical applications. In this study, we propose a new method for achieving rapid enamel mineralization under a near-physiological environment. Through treatment with a laser and chelating agents, 15 μm crystals could be grown compactly on an enamel substrate in less than 20 min. The compact crystal layer had similar structure as native enamel prisms and high elastic modulus...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822737/printing-nature-unraveling-the-role-of-nacre-s-mineral-bridges
#20
Grace X Gu, Flavia Libonati, Susan D Wettermark, Markus J Buehler
Creating materials with strength and toughness has been a long-sought goal. Conventional engineering materials often face a trade-off between strength and toughness, prompting researchers seeking to overcome these limitations to explore more sophisticated materials, such as composites. This paradigm shift in material design is spurred by nature, which exhibits a plethora of heterogeneous materials that offer outstanding material properties, and many natural materials are widely regarded as examples of high-performing hybrid materials...
December 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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