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protease inhibitors with lipoprotein in hiv

Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Ivan Kasamba, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Namakoola, Patrick Kazooba, Jackson Were, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
Billy Nsubuga Mayanja, Ivan Kasamba, Jonathan Levin, Ivan Namakoola, Patrick Kazooba, Jackson Were, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the survival and quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, but the effects of long-term ART use do eventually manifest. The Complications of Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy cohort study in Uganda (CoLTART) was established to investigate the metabolic and renal complications of long-term ART use among Ugandan adults. We describe the CoLTART study set-up, aims, objectives, study methods, and also report some preliminary cross-sectional study enrolment metabolic and renal complications data analysis results...
May 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
Leonardo Calza, Vincenzo Colangeli, Eleonora Magistrelli, Nicolo' Rossi, Elena Rosselli Del Turco, Linda Bussini, Marco Borderi, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: The combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically improved the life expectancy of patients with HIV infection, but may lead to several long-term metabolic abnormalities. However, data about the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected people vary considerably across different observational studies. METHODS: The prevalence of MS among HIV-infected patients was evaluated by a cross-sectional study conducted among subjects naive to cART or receiving the first antiretroviral regimen and referring to our Clinics from January 2015 to December 2015...
April 19, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
Daniel E Nixon, Ronald J Bosch, Ellen S Chan, Nicholas T Funderburg, Sally Hodder, Jordan E Lake, Michael M Lederman, Karin L Klingman, Judith A Aberg
BACKGROUND: Persistent immune activation and inflammation in virologically suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are linked to excess cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate atorvastatin as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A5275 was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study of atorvastatin (10 mg/day for 4 weeks then 20 mg/day for 16 weeks) with a planned enrollment of 97 HIV-infected participants ≥18 years old, receiving boosted protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy for ≥6 months, with plasma HIV-1 RNAs below limits of quantification ≥180 days, and fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥70 and <130 mg/dL...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Amr Menshawy, Ammar Ismail, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Hussien Ahmed, Esraa Menshawy, Ahmed Elmaraezy, Mohamed Gadelkarim, Mohamed Abdel-Maboud, Attia Attia, Ahmed Negida
Atazanavir (ATZ) is a well-tolerated protease inhibitor that can be boosted with ritonavir (r) to treat infection with resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy, safety, and metabolic effects of ATZ/r regimen versus commonly used antiretroviral drugs such as lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV) in HIV-1-infected patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL, using relevant keywords. Data were extracted from eligible randomized trials and pooled as risk ratios (RR) or standardized mean differences (SMD) in a meta-analysis model using RevMan software...
March 30, 2017: Archives of Virology
Randa Bittar, Élisabeth Aslangul, Philippe Giral, Lambert Assoumou, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Olga Kalmykova, Marie-Christine Federspiel, Corinne Cherfils, Dominique Costagliola, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of 45 days of rosuvastatin or pravastatin treatment on the distribution of HDL subfractions in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) with cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The distribution of HDL subclasses by gradient gel electrophoresis was blindly assessed in 74 HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted PIs at baseline and at day 45 of statin treatment, and compared with the distribution obtained in 63 healthy normolipidemic individuals taken as controls...
February 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Mitch M Matoga, Mina C Hosseinipour, Evgenia Aga, Heather J Ribaudo, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, John Bartlett, Michael D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an emerging concern for HIV-infected patients. Hyperlipidaemia is a risk factor for CVD and a complication of protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy, but little is known about its incidence and risk factors in treated patients in resource-limited settings (RLS). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of ACTG A5230 trial in which HIV-infected adults from India, Malawi, Tanzania, Thailand and South Africa, with virological relapse on first-line therapy were initiated on lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Theodoros Kelesidis, Thuy Tien T Tran, Todd T Brown, Carlee Moser, Heather J Ribaudo, Michael P Dube, Otto O Yang, Grace A McComsey, James H Stein, Judith S Currier
BACKGROUND: The role of oxidized lipoproteins (high-density [HDLox] and low-density [LDLox]) and total lipoprotein particle (Lp) number and size in HIV-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes of these biomarkers and their associations with rate of carotid intima media thickness progression over 3 years (ΔCIMT) in chronic HIV infection. METHODS: Prospective study of 234 HIV-infected antiretroviral treatment-naive participants without CVD who were randomized to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir or raltegravir (RAL) and achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter...
2017: Antiviral Therapy
Theodoros Kelesidis, Nicholas Jackson, Grace A McComsey, Xiaoyan Wang, David Elashoff, Michael P Dube, Todd T Brown, Otto O Yang, James H Stein, Judith S Currier
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of immune dysfunction in chronic HIV-1 infection is unclear, and a potential role for oxidized lipids has been suggested. We hypothesize that both oxidized HDL and LDL (HDLox and LDLox) contribute to HIV-1-related immune dysfunction. STUDY: In the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5260, 234 HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants were randomized to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine and protease inhibitors or raltegravir and had HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
Changzhong Jin, Shujing Ji, Tiansheng Xie, Stefan Höxtermann, Wolfgang Fuchs, Xiangyun Lu, Haibo Wu, Linfang Cheng, Adriane Skaletz-Rorowski, Norbert H Brockmeyer, Nanping Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, the relationship between dysglycemia, lipid metabolism, and immune activation in HIV patients is poorly understood. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 180 HIV patients, including 153 patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 27 HAART-naive patients. DM was defined as fasting serum glucose levels ≥126 mg/dl, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined as serum glucose levels of 101-125 mg/dl at two different time points...
September 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
Asita Wongprikorn, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Apichaya Puangpetch, Pawin Numthavej, Ammarin Thakkinstian, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease is common especially in HIV-infected patients who are using protease inhibitors (PIs) including atazanavir. Pitavastatin has less drug-drug interactions and demonstrable efficacy in decreasing lipid levels in non HIV-infected individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study comparing the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin vs placebo in HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia and receiving atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)...
2016: PloS One
Rudolph L Gleason, Alexander W Caulk, Daniel Seifu, Julia C Rosebush, Alyssa M Shapiro, Matthew H Schwartz, Allison Ross Eckard, Wondwossen Amogne, Workeabeba Abebe
BACKGROUND: HIV patients on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have shown elevated incidence of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and markers of cardiovascular disease. Evidence is beginning to emerge that implicates efavirenz (EFV) as a potential mediator of early on-set cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Pediatric and adult HIV-infected HAART-naïve, EFV-treated, nevirapine (NVP)-treated, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-treated subjects were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Laura C R Aranalde, Bruna S Pederzoli, Thais Marten, Flavio C Barros, Rossana P Basso, Jussara M Silveira, Sandra C Valle, Simone Pieniz, Ronaldo C Araujo, Edgar J Paredes-Gamero, Ines Schadock, Augusto Schneider, Carlos C Barros
The hypothesis of the present study is that the polymorphisms in the APOC3, CEPT, ACE, and ACTN3 genes can affect the outcome of nutritional intervention and the plasma lipid profile of HIV+ patients. To test the hypothesis, genetic material was collected from buccal cells, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Sixty-five patients were analyzed. The incorporation of protease inhibitor (PI) was more frequent in women (77% vs 33% in men). Nutritional intervention improved anthropometric parameters independent of the genotype...
June 2016: Nutrition Research
F J Lee, P Monteiro, D Baker, M Bloch, N Roth, R Finlayson, R Moore, J Hoy, E Martinez, A Carr
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin initiation with those of switching of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/rs) in HIV-1-infected adults with hypercholesterolaemia and increased cardiovascular risk scores. METHODS: In this open-label, multicentre study, HIV-1-infected adults on PI/r-based therapy with viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL, fasting total cholesterol ≥ 5.5 mmol/L (both for ≥ 6 months) and elevated cardiovascular risk (Framingham score ≥ 8% or diabetes or family history), and not on lipid-lowering therapy, were randomized to open-label rosuvastatin 10 mg/day or to PI/r switching, both with standardized diet/exercise advice...
September 2016: HIV Medicine
Rosario Palacios, Marisa Mayorga, Isabel A Pérez-Hernández, Antonio Rivero, Alfonso Del Arco, Fernando Lozano, Jesús Santos
We carried out a retrospective, multicenter study of a cohort of 298 asymptomatic HIV-infected patients who switched from a regimen based on 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors + protease inhibitor (PI)/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy to emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/RPV/TDF) to analyze lipid changes. At 24 weeks, 284 (95.3%) patients were still taking the same regimen, maintaining similar CD4 counts as at baseline (651 versus 672 cells/mm(3), P = ...
May 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Ahmed Bakillah, Fasika Tedla, Isabelle Ayoub, Devon John, Allen J Norin, M Mahmood Hussain, Clinton Brown
BACKGROUND: Functional abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) could contribute to cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients. We measured a validated marker of HDL dysfunction, nitrated apolipoprotein A-I, in kidney transplant recipients to test the hypothesis that a functioning kidney transplant reduces serum nitrated apoA-I concentrations. METHODS: Concentrations of nitrated apoA-I and apoB were measured using indirect sandwich ELISA assays on sera collected from each transplant subject before transplantation and at 1, 3, and 12 months after transplantation...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
Tumnyak Ete, Salam Ranabir, Narmada Thongam, Biplab Ningthoujam, Narendra Rajkumar, Bhimo Thongam
CONTEXT: Several studies have reported metabolic abnormalities in patients taking protease inhibitor (PI) based therapy from several parts of the world. But there is no prospective study in India after switching from PI sparing regimen to PI based regimen. AIMS: To assess whether North-East Indian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients also develop similar metabolic abnormalities to PI. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This prospective study was conducted in Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) Centre of Excellence, at a tertiary care Medical Institute...
July 2014: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
James H Stein, Heather J Ribaudo, Howard N Hodis, Todd T Brown, Thuy Tien T Tran, Mingzhu Yan, Elizabeth Lauer Brodell, Theodore Kelesidis, Grace A McComsey, Michael P Dube, Robert L Murphy, Judith S Currier
OBJECTIVE: This article compares the effects of initiating three contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens on progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) over 3 years. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Multicenter (26 institutions). PATIENTS: ART-naive HIV-infected individuals (n = 328) without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. INTERVENTION: Random assignment to tenofovir/emtricitabine along with atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), or raltegravir (RAL)...
September 10, 2015: AIDS
Marc O Siegel, Alison G Borkowska, Larisa Dubrovsky, Mary Roth, Ruth Welti, Afsoon D Roberts, David M Parenti, Gary L Simon, Dmitri Sviridov, Samuel Simmens, Michael Bukrinsky, Michael L Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronary artery disease is a growing clinical problem in HIV-infected subjects. The increased risk of coronary events in this population has been linked to low levels of HDL, but the effects of HIV infection and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) on HDL structure and function remain unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the composition and function of HDL particles isolated from ART-naive and ART-positive HIV-infected patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proteomic profiling revealed decreased levels of paraoxonase (PON) 1 and PON 3 in HDL from HIV patients relative to HDL from uninfected controls (p < 0...
November 2015: Atherosclerosis
Nicola Gianotti, Andrea Poli, Silvia Nozza, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Giuseppe Tambussi, Simona Bossolasco, Paola Cinque, Myriam Maillard, Massimo Cernuschi, Laura Galli, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
INTRODUCTION: Switching to a rilpivirine, tenofovir and emtricitabine (RTE) single-tablet regimen (STR) has been evaluated in a limited number of virologically suppressed patients. The aim of this study was to describe clinical outcomes in HIV-positive patients switched from a suppressive antiretroviral regimen to RTE STR in routine clinical practice. METHODS: In this retrospective study of antiretroviral-treated patients with <50 copies of HIV RNA/mL switched to RTE STR, virological failure (VF) was defined as two consecutive measurements of ≥50 copies/mL or a single measurement of ≥50 copies/mL followed by any change in treatment...
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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