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Cognitive function decision making

Farhaan S Vahidy, Ellie G Meyer, Arvind B Bambhroliya, Jennifer R Meeks, Charles E Begley, Tzu-Ching Wu, Jon E Tyson, Charles C Miller, Ritvij Bowry, Wamda O Ahmed, Gretchel A Gealogo, Louise D McCullough, Steven Warach, Sean I Savitz
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disease with no specific treatment modalities. A significant proportion of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage are transferred to large stroke treatment centers, such as Comprehensive Stroke Centers, because of perceived need for higher level of care. However, evidence of improvement in patient-centered outcomes for these patients treated at larger stroke treatment centers as compared to community hospitals is lacking. METHODS / DESIGN: "Efficient Resource Utilization for Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage (EnRICH)" is a prospective, multisite, state-wide, cohort study designed to assess the impact of level of care on long-term patient-centered outcomes for patients with primary / non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage...
March 21, 2018: BMC Neurology
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Mitsuya Horiba, Shogo Itamoto, Yoshino Ueki, Ikuo Wada, Ippei Nojima
Start hesitation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs predominantly during distractive and conflictual situations. The aim of this study was to investigate how differently an auditory stimulus (AS) influences execution function and execution time during a cognitively demanding stepping task in PD patients as compared to healthy controls. PD patients and healthy controls stepped forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus of an arrow. We applied a Simon task that comprised congruent and incongruent conditions...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
While the refinement of existing and the development of new chemotherapeutic regimens has significantly improved cancer treatment outcomes and patient survival, chemotherapy still causes many persistent side effects. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity is of particular concern, as cancer patients experience significant deficits in memory, learning, cognition, and decision-making. These chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes are termed chemo brain, and manifest in more than half of cancer survivors. Moreover, recent studies have emerged suggesting that neurocognitive deficits manifest prior to cancer diagnosis and treatment, and thus may be associated with tumor presence, a phenomenon recently termed "tumor brain...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Jéssica Ribeiro, Thomaz Oliveira, Carla Ayres, Thalys Bento, Francisca Leite, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is described as resulting from dopaminergic cells progressive degeneration, specifically in the substantia nigra pars compacta that influence the voluntary movements control, decision making and time perception. AIM: This review had a goal to update the relation between time perception and Parkinson's Disease. METHODOLOGY: We used the PRISMA methodology for this investigation built guided for subjects dopaminergic dysfunction in the time judgment, pharmacological models with levodopa and new studies on the time perception in Parkinson's Disease...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Vanessa Bates, Ashim Maharjan, Jessica Millar, David K Bilkey, Ryan D Ward
Maternal immune activation (MIA) during gestation is a significant risk factor for development of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental diseases. In animal models of this risk factor, MIA during pregnancy can produce offspring that recapitulate certain aspects of the behavioral and neurophysiological impairments seen in schizophrenia. Here, the authors tested the effect of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-induced MIA in a task that explicitly assays the interaction between motivation and cognition...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Grant M Walker, Gregory Hickok, Julius Fridriksson
Picture naming impairments are a typical feature of stroke-induced aphasia. Overall accuracy and rates of different error types are used to make inferences about the severity and nature of damage to the brain's language network. Currently available assessment tools for picture naming accuracy treat it as a unidimensional measure, while assessment tools for error types treat items homogenously, contrary to findings from psycholinguistic investigations of word production. We created and tested a new cognitive psychometric model for assessment of picture naming responses, using cognitive theory to specify latent processing decisions during the production of a naming attempt, and using item response theory to separate the effects of item difficulty and participant ability on these internal processing decisions...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Luisa Flohr, Shaylene Beaudry, K Taneille Johnson, Nicholas West, Catherine M Burns, J Mark Ansermino, Guy A Dumont, David Wensley, Peter Skippen, Matthias Gorges
The pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex environment, in which a multidisciplinary team of clinicians (registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians) continually observe and evaluate patient information. Data are provided by multiple, and often physically separated sources, cognitive workload is high, and team communication can be challenging. Our aim is to combine information from multiple monitoring and therapeutic devices in a mobile application, the VitalPAD , to improve the efficiency of clinical decision-making, communication, and thereby patient safety...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan, Xiaohui Xu, Fuchou Tang, Jun Zhang, Jie Qiao, Xiaoqun Wang
The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Bei-Bei Wu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Zhi-Duo Hou, Rui-Wei Guo, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shou-Xing Duan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yao-Xie, Dan-Miao Sun, Chun-Min Zhu, Shu-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE. SUBJECTS: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Adriana Schatton, Ezequiel Mendoza, Kathrin Grube, Constance Scharff
Mutations in the transcription factors FOXP1, FOXP2 and FOXP4 affect human cognition, including language. The FoxP gene locus is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved in its DNA-binding domain. In Drosophila melanogaster FoxP has been implicated in courtship behavior, decision making and specific types of motor-learning. Because honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) excel at navigation and symbolic dance communication, they are a particularly suitable insect species to investigate a potential link between neural FoxP expression and cognition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jonathan W Brandon, Justin K Solarczyk, Timur S Durrani
Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body can be devastating. Unique exposures to Special Operations Forces personnel may include use of firing ranges, use of automotive fuels, production of ammunition, and bodily retention of bullets. Toxicity may degrade physical and psychological fitness, and cause long-term negative health outcomes. Specific effects on fine motor movements, reaction times, and global function could negatively affect shooting skills and decision-making...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Alison Ward, Kim Alberg Sorensen, Helle Kousgaard, Diana Schack Thoft, Jacqueline Parkes
The provision of lifelong learning for older people is often promoted as a way of engaging socially and maintaining cognitive function. The concept is also used with people with dementia, but is often limited to short-term programmes. Innovative practice from Denmark takes this concept further, offering people with early stage dementia the opportunity to return to school to attend classes in cognitive training, music, art and woodcraft. A pilot study conducted by the school of teaching and communication (Voksenskolen For Undervisning og Kommunikation) offers evidence for the benefits of prolonged educational programmes for people with dementia in maintaining decision-making, cognitive function and social interactions, with limited evidence of the impact on memory...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Supriya G Mohile, Allison Magnuson, Chintan Pandya, Carla Velarde, Paul Duberstein, Arti Hurria, Kah Poh Loh, Megan Wells, Sandy Plumb, Nikesha Gilmore, Marie Flannery, Marsha Wittink, Ronald Epstein, Charles E Heckler, Michelle Janelsins, Karen Mustian, Judith O Hopkins, Jane Liu, Srihari Peri, William Dale
Background: This study's objectives were to describe community oncologists' beliefs about and confidence with geriatric care and to determine whether geriatric-relevant information influences cancer treatment decisions. Methods: Community oncologists were recruited to participate in 2 multisite geriatric oncology trials. Participants shared their beliefs about and confidence in caring for older adults. They were also asked to make a first-line chemotherapy recommendation (combination vs single-agent vs no chemotherapy) for a hypothetical vignette of an older patient with advanced pancreatic cancer...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Janet L MacNeil Vroomen, Ling Han, Joan K Monin, Kasia J Lipska, Heather G Allore
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the associations between diabetes, heart disease, and dementia, which may increase the difficulty of self-care; model functional disability trajectories jointly with attrition (death or dropout) over 5 years. DESIGN: Population-based complex survey design. SETTING: National Health and Aging Trends Study. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older (N=7,609). MEASUREMENTS: National estimates were generated using sampling weights...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Nicole R Fowler, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Alexia M Torke, Kathleen A Lane, Samir Saba, Amber E Barnato
Background: The decision to implant a cardiac device in a person with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia requires considering the possible trade-offs of quality of life (QOL) and quantity of life. This study measured the decision-making experience of patients with and without cognitive impairment (CI) who received a cardiac device and their family members who were involved in the decision. Methods and Results: Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were administered with 15 patient-family member dyads...
2018: Cardiol Cardiovasc Med
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Maria Angela Cerruto, Carolina D'Elia, Salvatore Siracusano, Omar Saleh, Mauro Gacci, Giovanni Cacciamani, Vincenzo De Marco, Antonio Benito Porcaro, Matteo Balzarro, Mauro Niero, Cristina Lonardi, Massimo Iafrate, Pierfrancesco Bassi, Ciro Imbimbo, Marco Racioppi, Renato Talamini, Stefano Ciciliato, Sergio Serni, Marco Carini, Paolo Verze, Walter Artibani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) outcomes in elderly patients with different type of urinary diversion (UD), ileal conduit (IC) and ileal orthotopic neobladder (IONB), after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer, by using validated self-reported cancer-specific instruments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients who received an IC or an IONB after RC. HR-QoL was assessed with specific and validated disease questionnaires, administered at last follow-up...
March 7, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Song Qi, Demis Hassabis, Jiayin Sun, Fangjian Guo, Nathaniel Daw, Dean Mobbs
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which an organism flees from an approaching threat, is an ecological metric of cost-benefit functions of escape decisions. We adapted the FID paradigm to investigate how fast- or slow-attacking "virtual predators" constrain escape decisions. We show that rapid escape decisions rely on "reactive fear" circuits in the periaqueductal gray and midcingulate cortex (MCC), while protracted escape decisions, defined by larger buffer zones, were associated with "cognitive fear" circuits, which include posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, circuits implicated in more complex information processing, cognitive avoidance strategies, and behavioral flexibility...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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