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Cognitive function decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926438/exploring-individual-differences-in-task-switching-persistence-and-other-personality-traits-related-to-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function
#1
A Umemoto, C B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015)...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923730/are-neurocognitive-factors-associated-with-repetition-of-self-harm-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Angharad N de Cates, Karen Rees, Fabrice Jollant, Benjamin Perry, Karina Bennett, Katie Joyce, Eimear Leyden, Catherine Harmer, Keith Hawton, Kees van Heeringen, Matthew R Broome
BACKGROUND: Prediction of self-harm is limited clinically. Early identification of individuals likely to repeat self-harm could improve outcomes and reduce suicide risk. Various neurocognitive deficits have been found in people who self-harm, but the ability of these to predict repetition has yet to be established AIMS: Identify neurocognitive factors that may predict repetition of self-harm. METHODS: Systematic narrative review of English language publications assessing neurocognitive functioning and self-harm repetition, searching multiple databases from inception to March 2015...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#3
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHOD: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913500/fitness-in-the-elderly-how-to-make-decisions-regarding-acute-myeloid-leukemia-induction
#4
Arati V Rao
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease of the elderly, but less than half of these patients are offered therapy despite the evidence of better survival with treatment in this patient population. Assessing fit, vulnerable, and frail older adults with AML remains a challenge for the treating oncologist. A majority of AML patients are elderly and often have significant comorbidities, lack of social support, and older caregivers. Performance status (PS), a subjective measure of how a patient will tolerate cancer chemotherapy, has been strongly correlated with mortality in older AML patients...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903334/applying-an-evidence-based-assessment-model-to-identify-students-at-risk-for-perceived-academic-problems-following-concussion
#5
Danielle M Ransom, Alison R Burns, Eric A Youngstrom, Christopher G Vaughan, Maegan D Sady, Gerard A Gioia
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of an evidence-based assessment (EBA) model to establish a multimodal set of tools for identifying students at risk for perceived post-injury academic problems. METHODS: Participants included 142 students diagnosed with concussion (age: M=14.95; SD=1.80; 59% male), evaluated within 4 weeks of injury (median=16 days). Demographics, pre-injury history, self- and parent-report measures assessing symptom severity and executive functions, and cognitive test performance were examined as predictors of self-reported post-injury academic problems...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896310/preservation-of-essential-odor-guided-behaviors-and-odor-based-reversal-learning-after-targeting-adult-brain-serotonin-synthesis
#6
Kaitlin S Carlson, Meredith S Whitney, Marie A Gadziola, Evan S Deneris, Daniel W Wesson
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894028/exploring-the-clinical-decision-making-used-by-experienced-cardiorespiratory-physiotherapists-a-mixed-method-qualitative-design-of-simulation-video-recording-and-think-aloud-techniques
#7
Debbie Thackray, Lisa Roberts
BACKGROUND: The ability of physiotherapists to make clinical decisions is a vital component of being an autonomous practitioner, yet this complex phenomenon has been under-researched in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore clinical decision-making (CDM) by experienced physiotherapists in a scenario of a simulated patient experiencing acute deterioration of their respiratory function. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this observational study was to identify the actions, thoughts, and behaviours used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists in their clinical decision-making processes...
November 14, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891023/capacity-issues-and-decision-making-in-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Soumya Hegde, Ratnavalli Ellajosyula
Capacity to make one's own decisions is fundamental to the autonomy of the individual. Capacity is a functional assessment made by a clinician to determine if a patient is capable of making a specific decision. Competency is a global assessment and legal determination made by a judge in court. Capacity evaluation for a patient with dementia is used to determine whether the patient is capable of giving informed consent, participate in research, manage their finances, live independently, make a will, and have ability to drive...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881393/food-portion-size-and-energy-density-evoke-different-patterns-of-brain-activation-in-children
#9
Laural K English, S Nicole Fearnbach, Stephen J Wilson, Jennifer O Fisher, Jennifer S Savage, Barbara J Rolls, Kathleen L Keller
BACKGROUND: Large portions of food promote intake, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unclear. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified the brain-reward and decision-making systems that are involved in the response to the energy density (ED) (kilocalories per gram) of foods, but few studies have examined the brain response to the food portion size (PS). OBJECTIVE: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the brain response to food images that differed in PSs (large and small) and ED (high and low)...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871235/development-of-the-interrai-home-care-frailty-scale
#10
John N Morris, Elizabeth P Howard, Knight R Steel
BACKGROUND: The concept of frailty, a relative state of weakness reflecting multiple functional and health domains, continues to receive attention within the geriatrics field. It offers a summary of key personal characteristics, providing perspective on an individual's life course. There have been multiple attempts to measure frailty, some focusing on physiologic losses, others on specific diseases, disabilities or health deficits. Recently, multidimensional approaches to measuring frailty have included cognition, mood and social components...
November 21, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868477/association-between-olfaction-and-higher-cortical-functions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-older-adults
#11
Amanda M Ward, Matthew Calamia, Erin Thiemann, Jamie Dunlap, Daniel Tranel
INTRODUCTION: Neural regions important for smell are proximal and closely connected to cortical areas that have been strongly implicated in higher order functions of value-based decision making and emotional memory. The integrity of these neural regions are affected in aging and neurodegenerative conditions. Two specific predictions follow from these neuroanatomical arrangements-namely, that olfaction would be associated with value-based decision making and with emotional memory. METHOD: To test these predictions, we measured these different capacities in participants with presumed varying degrees of integrity of the relevant brain structures: specifically, 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 8 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 20 healthy older adults...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867367/mentalizing-and-information-propagation-through-social-network-evidence-from-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#12
Huijun Zhang, Lei Mo
Microblogs is one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Among them, Sina Weibo is one of the largest social networking channels in China. Millions of users repost information from Sina Weibo and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study investigated participants' propensity to repost microblog messages of positive, negative, or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates during resting state with the reposting rate of each type microblog messages. Participants preferred to repost negative messages relative to positive and neutral messages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858090/dramatic-increase-in-the-utilization-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detection-and-management-of-prostate-cancer
#13
Daniel T Oberlin, David D Casalino, Frank H Miller, Joshua J Meeks
PURPOSE: Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate is an evolving technology that provides functional information of the prostate that helps distinguish benign from malignant lesions. We hypothesized that mpMRI is rapidly adopted in the US to fill the unmet need for a non-invasive, accurate screening tool. The aim of this study is to assess the increasing utilization of mpMRI for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of an institutional clinical data repository of four million patients...
November 17, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852020/-emotional-and-motivational-functions-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Masataka Watanabe
Patients with the damage to the orbital region of the prefrontal cortex and monkeys with lesions in this area show impairment in emotional and motivational behavior. They also have difficulty in the extinction of learned behavior and in the reversal learning. This brain area is concerned with not only the value estimation of reward and aversive stimuli but also the expectation of these stimuli. The lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the integration of emotion/motivation and cognition. The medial prefrontal cortex is concerned with action selection based on the previous reward history...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836926/new-horizons-the-management-of-hypertension-in-people-with-dementia
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer Kirsty Harrison, Veronika Van Der Wardt, Simon Paul Conroy, David J Stott, Tom Dening, Adam Lee Gordon, Pip Logan, Tomas James Welsh, Jaspal Taggar, Rowan Harwood, John R F Gladman
The optimal management of hypertension in people with dementia is uncertain. This review explores if people with dementia experience greater adverse effects from antihypertensive medications, if cognitive function is protected or worsened by controlling blood pressure (BP) and if there are subgroups of people with dementia for whom antihypertensive therapy is more likely to be harmful. Robust evidence is scant, trials of antihypertensive medications have generally excluded those with dementia. Observational data show changes in risk association over the life course, with high BP being a risk factor for cognitive decline in mid-life, while low BP is predictive in later life...
November 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833538/impaired-decision-making-and-loss-of-inhibitory-control-in-a-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#16
Nicole El Massioui, Charlotte Lamirault, Sara Yagüe, Najia Adjeroud, Daniel Garces, Alexis Maillard, Lucille Tallot, Libo Yu-Taeger, Olaf Riess, Philippe Allain, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Stephan von Hörsten, Valérie Doyère
Cognitive deficits associated with Huntington disease (HD) are generally dominated by executive function disorders often associated with disinhibition and impulsivity/compulsivity. Few studies have directly examined symptoms and consequences of behavioral disinhibition in HD and its relation with decision-making. To assess the different forms of impulsivity in a transgenic model of HD (tgHD rats), two tasks assessing cognitive/choice impulsivity were used: risky decision-making with a rat gambling task (RGT) and intertemporal choices with a delay discounting task (DD)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833164/periodontal-tactile-input-activates-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Nobuaki Higaki, Takaharu Goto, Tetsuo Ichikawa
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a role in complex cognitive behavioural planning, decision-making, and social behaviours. However, the effects of sensory integration during motor tasks on PFC activation have not been studied to date. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral sensory information and external information on PFC activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was increased around bilateral Brodmann areas 46 and 10 during visual and auditory information integration during an occlusal force (biting) task...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830753/lucky-rhythms-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-bias-gambling-decisions-in-humans
#18
Pierre Sacré, Matthew S D Kerr, Kevin Kahn, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Bulacio, Hyun-Joo Park, Matthew A Johnson, Susan Thompson, Jaes Jones, Vikram S Chib, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
It is well established that emotions influence our decisions, yet the neural basis of this biasing effect is not well understood. Here we directly recorded local field potentials from the OrbitoFrontal Cortex (OFC) in five human subjects performing a financial decision-making task. We observed a striking increase in gamma-band (36-50 Hz) oscillatory activity that reflected subjects' decisions to make riskier choices. Additionally, these gamma rhythms were linked back to mismatched expectations or "luck" occurring in past trials...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819843/impact-of-functional-deficits-in-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-clinical-algorithm-to-predict-progression-to-dementia
#19
Davangere P Devanand, Xinhua Liu, Patrick J Brown
BACKGROUND: The utility of functional deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment is not established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 3886 individuals with mild cognitive impairment evaluated and followed at 34 National Alzheimer Coordinating Center sites, informant-reported Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) items associated with progression to dementia were derived in a training set (n=1943) and tested in the validation set (n=1943). RESULTS: In the training set, the optimal combination comprised 6 FAQ items (FAQ6): difficulties with finances (2 items), remembering events/appointments, playing games of skill, current events, and travel...
November 4, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815406/estimating-risk-of-word-finding-problems-in-adults-undergoing-epilepsy-surgery
#20
Robyn M Busch, Darlene P Floden, Brigid Prayson, Jessica S Chapin, Kevin H Kim, Lisa Ferguson, William Bingaman, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective, observational study examined the frequency and magnitude of change in naming ability as a function of side/site of epilepsy surgery and identified predictive factors to assist clinicians in identifying patients at low, moderate, or high risk of postoperative naming decline. METHODS: A total of 875 adults with pharmacoresistant epilepsy (454 left/421 right; 763 temporal/87 frontal/25 posterior quadrant) met inclusion criteria and completed the Boston Naming Test before and after surgery...
November 29, 2016: Neurology
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