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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347878/the-effect-of-aging-on-the-mis-perception-of-intentionality-an-erp-study
#1
R Pasion, C Fernandes, A R Gonçalves, F Ferreira-Santos, R Páscoa, F Barbosa, J Marques-Teixeira
Despite the accumulated knowledge on moral decision-making in the early stages of development, empirical evidence is still limited in the old-aged adults. The current study contributes to unveil the neural correlates of judgments of moral transgressions as a function of aging, by examining the temporal dynamics of neural activation elicited by intentional and accidental harmful actions in three groups of healthy participants: young adults (18-35), adults (40-55), and older adults (60-75). Older adults were slower and less accurate in rating intentionality, compared to the younger groups...
January 18, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346033/the-psychology-of-elite-cycling-a-systematic-review
#2
David J Spindler, Mark S Allen, Stewart A Vella, Christian Swann
This systematic review sought to synthesise what is currently known about the psychology of elite cycling. Nine electronic databases were searched in March 2017 for studies reporting an empirical test of any psychological construct in an elite cycling sample. Fourteen studies (total n = 427) met inclusion criteria. Eight studies were coded as having high risk of bias. Themes extracted included mood, anxiety, self-confidence, pain, and cognitive function. Few studies had similar objectives meaning that in many instances findings could not be synthesised in a meaningful way...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345092/-known-unknowns-examining-the-burden-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-the-end-stage-renal-failure-population
#3
REVIEW
Scott Wilson, Arup Dhar, Peter Tregaskis, Gavin Lambert, David Barton, Rowan Walker
The burden of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in patients receiving maintenance dialysis represents a spectrum of deficits across multiple cognitive domains which are associated with hospitalisation, reduced quality-of-life, mortality and forced decision-making around dialysis withdrawal. Point prevalence data suggests that dialysis patients manifest NCI at rates 3-5 fold higher than the general population with executive function the most commonly affected cognitive domain. The unique physiology of the renal failure state and maintenance dialysis appears to drive an excess of vascular dementia subtype compared to the general population where classical Alzheimer's disease predominates...
January 18, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#4
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331842/predicting-1-year-disability-and-mortality-of-injured-older-adults
#5
Alvin D Jeffery, Mary S Dietrich, Cathy A Maxwell
PURPOSE: The growing incidence of elderly patients injured from falls, combined with a growing understanding of the contribution of cognition and frailty to mortality, prompted this work. Our objective was to develop a clinical risk prediction model for prognosticating disability and mortality among injured older adults 1 year after hospitalization. METHODS: Secondary analysis of prospective longitudinal data from an urban Level 1 trauma center. A proportional odds regression model was used to model mortality and functional status as ordinal outcomes...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330008/electrophysiological-brain-indices-of-risk-behavior-modification-induced-by-contingent-feedback
#6
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#7
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328501/cognitive-control-functions-in-individuals-with-obesity-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#8
Ines Kollei, Martina Rustemeier, Stefanie Schroeder, Sebastian Jongen, Stephan Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive control are thought to contribute to the maintenance of obesity (OB). Cognitive control is referred to as impulsivity and binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by high levels of impulsivity. The present study sought to elucidate which cognitive control functions differentiate between severe OB with and without BED also taking into account hunger as a moderating factor. METHOD: The study included 48 individuals with OB and BED (OB + BED), 48 individuals with OB and no BED (OB - BED) and 48 normal-weight controls (NWC)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324054/bayesian-diagnostics-of-hidden-markov-structural-equation-models-with-missing-data
#9
Jingheng Cai, Ming Ouyang, Kai Kang, Xinyuan Song
Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, cocaine dependence or abuse is highly related to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and deficits in cognitive performance, attention, and decision-making abilities. Given the chronic and persistent features of drug addiction, the progression of abstaining from cocaine often evolves across several states, such as addiction to, moderate dependence on, and swearing off cocaine. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are well suited to the characterization of longitudinal data in terms of a set of unobservable states, and have increasingly been used to uncover the dynamic heterogeneity in progressive diseases or activities...
January 11, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317606/corticotropin-releasing-factor-1-receptor-haplotype-and-cognitive-features-of-major-depression
#10
REVIEW
Elena Goetz Davis, Jennifer Keller, Joachim Hallmayer, Heather Ryan Pankow, Greer M Murphy, Ian H Gotlib, Alan F Schatzberg
Corticotropin-releasing factor signaling through CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) has been shown to contribute to learning and memory function. A haplotype of alleles T-A-T in a set of common polymorphisms in the gene encoding for CRF1 (CRHR1) has been associated with both depression vulnerability and alterations in cognitive functioning. The present study investigated the relations between the TAT haplotype and specific symptoms of depression, self-reported ruminative behaviors, and neuropsychological performance on a learning and memory task...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295583/carbohydrates-for-soccer-a-focus-on-skilled-actions-and-half-time-practices
#11
REVIEW
Samuel P Hills, Mark Russell
Carbohydrate consumption is synonymous with soccer performance due to the established effects on endogenous energy store preservation, and physical capacity maintenance. For performance-enhancement purposes, exogenous energy consumption (in the form of drinks, bars, gels and snacks) is recommended on match-day; specifically, before and during match-play. Akin to the demands of soccer, limited opportunities exist to consume carbohydrates outside of scheduled breaks in competition, such as at half-time. The link between cognitive function and blood glucose availability suggests that carbohydrates may influence decision-making and technical proficiency (e...
December 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289386/mortality-risk-factors-in-elderly-patients-in-intensive-care-without-limitation-of-therapeutic-effort
#12
S E Giannasi, M S Venuti, A D Midley, N Roux, C Kecskes, E San Román
OUTCOME: To determine mortality prognostic factors in elderly patients who are admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to acute critical illness. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was carried out. SETTING: A polyvalent Intensive Care Unit at a University Hospital in Argentina. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: We included 249 patients over 65years of age who were consecutively admitted to the ICU and required mechanical ventilation for more than 48hours, between January 2011 and December 2012...
December 27, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283467/characterizing-synchrony-patterns-across-cognitive-task-stages-of-associative-recognition-memory
#13
Oscar Portoles, Jelmer P Borst, Marieke K van Vugt
Numerous studies seek to understand the role of oscillatory synchronization in cognition. This problem is particularly challenging in the context of complex cognitive behavior, which consists of a sequence of processing steps with uncertain duration. In this study, we analyzed oscillatory connectivity measures in time windows that previous computational models had associated with a specific sequence of processing steps in an associative memory recognition task (visual encoding, familiarity, memory retrieval, decision making, and motor response)...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283001/decision-making-competence-in-younger-and-older-adults-which-cognitive-abilities-contribute-to-the-application-of-decision-rules
#14
Alessia Rosi, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Fabio Del Missier, Elena Cavallini, Riccardo Russo
Older adults perform worse than younger adults when applying decision rules to choose between options that vary along multiple attributes. Although previous studies have shown that general fluid cognitive abilities contribute to the accurate application of decision rules, relatively little is known about which specific cognitive abilities play the most important role. We examined the independent roles of working memory, verbal fluency, semantic knowledge, and components of executive functioning. We found that age-related decline in applying decision rules was statistically mediated by age-related decline in working memory and verbal fluency...
December 28, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276480/traumatic-life-events-in-relation-to-cognitive-flexibility-moderating-role-of-the-bdnf-val66met-gene-polymorphism
#15
Robert L Gabrys, Kaylyn Dixon, Hymie Anisman
Cognitive flexibility plays an important role in an individual's ability to adapt to a continuously changing environment and is considered central to goal-oriented behavior. Accordingly, increasing attention has been devoted to understanding the factors, including genetic and early life experiences, which might contribute to individual differences in this ability. In the present investigation, we examined the contribution of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism to cognitive flexibility, as assessed by set-shifting ability on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), and whether this polymorphism moderated the relation between trauma experiences (including type and timing of trauma occurrence) and cognitive flexibility...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#16
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260439/eye-movement-research-in-the-twenty-first-century-a-window-to-the-brain-mind-and-more
#17
EDITORIAL
Aasef G Shaikh, David S Zee
The study of eye movements not only addresses debilitating neuro-ophthalmological problems but has become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Eye movements are a classic way to evaluate brain function-traditionally in disorders affecting the brainstem and cerebellum. Abnormalities of eye movements have localizing value and help narrow the differential diagnosis of complex neurological problems. More recently, using sophisticated behavioral paradigms, measurement of eye movements has also been applied to disorders of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex...
December 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251801/the-role-of-replay-and-theta-sequences-in-mediating-hippocampal-prefrontal-interactions-for-memory-and-cognition
#18
Mark C Zielinski, Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
Sequential activity is seen in the hippocampus during multiple network patterns, prominently as replay activity during both awake and sleep sharp-wave ripples (SWRs), and as theta sequences during active exploration. Although various mnemonic and cognitive functions have been ascribed to these hippocampal sequences, evidence for these proposed functions remains primarily phenomenological. Here, we briefly review current knowledge about replay events and theta sequences in spatial memory tasks. We reason that in order to gain a mechanistic and causal understanding of how these patterns influence memory and cognitive processing, it is important to consider how these sequences influence activity in other regions, and in particular, the prefrontal cortex, which is crucial for memory-guided behavior...
December 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248857/catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-genotype-affects-cognitive-control-during-total-sleep-deprivation
#19
Brieann C Satterfield, John M Hinson, Paul Whitney, Michelle A Schmidt, Jonathan P Wisor, Hans P A Van Dongen
Adaptive decision making is profoundly impaired by total sleep deprivation (TSD). This suggests that TSD impacts fronto-striatal pathways involved in cognitive control, where dopamine is a key neuromodulator. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dopamine is catabolized by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). A functional polymorphism (Val158Met) influences COMT's enzymatic activity, resulting in markedly different levels of prefrontal dopamine. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on adaptive decision making during TSD...
November 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243587/human-subthalamic-nucleus-activity-during-non-motor-decision-making
#20
Baltazar A Zavala, Anthony I Jang, Kareem A Zaghloul
Recent studies have implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in decisions that involve inhibiting movements. Many of the decisions that we make in our daily lives, however, do not involve any motor actions. We studied non-motor decision making by recording intraoperative STN and prefrontal cortex (PFC) electrophysiology as participants perform a novel task that required them to decide whether to encode items into working memory. During all encoding trials, beta band (15-30 Hz) activity decreased in the STN and PFC, and this decrease was progressively enhanced as more items were stored into working memory...
December 15, 2017: ELife
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