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Cognitive function decision making

Edwina A Brown, Frederic O Finkelstein, Osasuyi U Iyasere, Alan S Kliger
Management of older people on dialysis requires focus on the wider aspects of aging as well as dialysis. Almost all frail and older patients receiving dialysis will default to in-center hemodialysis, although the availability of assisted peritoneal dialysis enables dialysis at home. As with any disease management decision, patients approaching end-stage renal disease need all the appropriate facts about their prognosis, the natural history of their disease without dialysis, and the resulting outcomes and complications of the different dialysis modalities...
October 20, 2016: Kidney International
Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Manavi Tyagi, Theodora Fteropoulli, Catherine S Hurt, Shashivadan P Hirani, Lorna Rixon, Anna Davies, Nathalie Picaut, Fiona Kennedy, John Deanfield, Shay Cullen, Stanton P Newman
OBJECTIVE: We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess cognitive function in a sample of adult CHD patients, within the Functioning in Adult Congenital Heart Disease study London. The association between cognitive functioning and disease complexity was examined. METHODS: A total of 310 patients participated in this study. Patients were classified into four structural complexity groups - tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, single ventricle, and simple conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Miranda C Staples, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Conxa Perpiñá, Mara Segura, Sergio Sánchez-Reales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare decision-making and cognitive flexibility in patients with disordered eating and weight, ranging from anorexia nervosa to obesity, and a healthy group. METHOD: Participants were 113 patients (86 with eating disorders and 27 with obesity), and a group of 39 healthy subjects; all completed the Iowa gambling task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and several clinical self-report measures. RESULTS: Eating disordered and obese patients showed impaired performance on the decision-making task, and the obese group showed the worst performance on the set-shifting task...
October 15, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
C Elaine Little, Carolyn Emery, Stephen H Scott, Willem Meeuwisse, Luz Palacios-Derflingher, Sean P Dukelow
BACKGROUND: KINARM end point robotic testing on a range of tasks evaluating sensory, motor and cognitive function in children/adolescents with no neurologic impairment has been shown to be reliable. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in baseline performance on multiple robotic tasks could be identified between pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players (age range 10-14) with and without a history of concussion. METHODS: Three hundred and eighty-five pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players (ages 10-14) completed robotic testing (94 with and 292 without a history of concussion)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
The habenula is a tiny brain region the size of a pea in humans. This region is highly conserved across vertebrates and has been traditionally overlooked by neuroscientists. The name habenula is derived from the Latin word habena, meaning "little rein", because of its elongated shape. Originally its function was thought to be related to the regulation of the nearby pineal gland (which Rene Descartes described as the "principal seat of the soul"). More recent evidence, however, demonstrates that the habenula acts as a critical neuroanatomical hub that connects and regulates brain regions important for divergent motivational states and cognition...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Kimberley S Mak, Angela B Smith, Alec Eidelman, Rebecca Clayman, Andrzej Niemierko, Jed-Sian Cheng, Jonathan Matthews, Michael R Drumm, Matthew E Nielsen, Adam S Feldman, Richard J Lee, Anthony L Zietman, Ronald C Chen, William U Shipley, Matthew I Milowsky, Jason A Efstathiou
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (QOL) has not been well-studied in survivors of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The present study compared long-term QOL in MIBC patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) versus bladder-sparing trimodality therapy (TMT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This cross-sectional bi-institutional study identified 226 patients with nonmetastatic cT2-cT4 MIBC, diagnosed in 1990 to 2011, who were eligible for RC and were disease free for ≥2 years...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Teige C Bourke, Catherine R Lowrey, Sean P Dukelow, Stephen D Bagg, Kathleen E Norman, Stephen H Scott
BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect our ability to perform daily activities, although it can be difficult to identify the underlying functional impairment(s). Recent theories highlight the importance of sensory feedback in selecting future motor actions. This selection process can involve multiple processes to achieve a behavioural goal, including selective attention, feature/object recognition, and movement inhibition. These functions are often impaired after stroke, but existing clinical measures tend to explore these processes in isolation and without time constraints...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Vipan K Parihar, Barrett D Allen, Chongshan Caressi, Stephanie Kwok, Esther Chu, Katherine K Tran, Nicole N Chmielewski, Erich Giedzinski, Munjal M Acharya, Richard A Britten, Janet E Baulch, Charles L Limoli
The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Luisa Baker, Bernard Lanz, Fausto Andreola, Javier Ampuero, Anisha Wijeyesekera, Elaine Holmes, Nicolaas Deutz
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which frequently accompanies acute or chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms of different severity such as cognitive deficits and impaired motor functions. Currently, HE is seen as a consequence of a low grade cerebral oedema associated with the formation of cerebral oxidative stress and deranged cerebral oscillatory networks. However, the pathogenesis of HE is still incompletely understood as liver dysfunction triggers exceptionally complex metabolic derangements in the body which need to be investigated by appropriate technologies...
September 30, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Thomas P Schmidt, David L Pennington, Stephanie L Cardoos, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
INTRODUCTION: Intact neurocognition and early cognitive recovery during abstinence are important for substance use treatment outcome. Yet, little is known about them in the largest group of treatment seekers today, individuals with polysubstance use disorders (PSU). This study primarily contrasted PSU and individuals with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) on neurocognitive and inhibitory control measures and, secondarily, measured changes during abstinence in PSU. METHOD: At one month of abstinence from all substances except tobacco, 36 PSU and 69 AUD completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function, general intelligence, auditory-verbal learning/memory, visuospatial learning/memory/skills, processing speed, working memory, fine motor skills, and cognitive efficiency...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jyoti Savla, Zhe Wang, Karen A Roberto, Rosemary Blieszner
Introduction: An emerging perspective of dyadic coping with chronic illness argues that concordance in the appraisal of illness is crucial for collaborative attempts at seeking information, making treatment decisions, and planning for long-term management of the illness and psychological and physical adjustments of both the care provider and care recipient. The present study examined whether persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCIs) and their family care partners (CPs) exhibited concordance in their awareness of deficits in the PwMCIs...
September 29, 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Annemarie de Vos, Jane-Murray Cramm, Jeroen D H van Wijngaarden, Ton J E M Bakker, Johan P Mackenbach, Anna P Nieboer
BACKGROUND: The Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP) provides a novel approach targeting hospital-related functional decline among elderly patients. Despite the high expectations, the PReCaP was not effective in preventing functional decline (ADL and iADL) among older patients. Although elderly PReCaP patients demonstrated slightly better cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination; 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.6]), lower depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15; -0...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Michael W Rich, Deborah A Chyun, Adam H Skolnick, Karen P Alexander, Daniel E Forman, Dalane W Kitzman, Mathew S Maurer, James B McClurken, Barbara M Resnick, Win K Shen, David L Tirschwell
The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults aged 75 and older. Despite the effect of CVD on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, individuals aged 75 and older have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older adults with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in nursing homes and assisted living facilities...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Glenda Lassi, Silvia Maggi, Edoardo Balzani, Ilaria Cosentini, Celina Garcia-Garcia, Valter Tucci
Abnormal feeding behavior is one of the main symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). By studying a PWS mouse mutant line, which carries a paternally inherited deletion of the small nucleolar RNA 116 (Snord116), we observed significant changes in working-for-food behavioral responses at various timescales. In particular, we report that PWS mutant mice show a significant delay compared to wild-type littermate controls in responding to both hour-scale and seconds-to-minutes- scale time intervals. This timing shift in mutant mice is associated with better performance in the working-for-food task and results in better decision making in these mutant mice...
September 26, 2016: Genetics
Eitan Schechtman, Maria Imelda Noblejas, Aviv D Mizrahi, Omer Dauber, Hagai Bergman
The basal ganglia (BG) network has been divided into interacting actor and critic components, modulating the probabilities of different state-action combinations through learning. Most models of learning and decision making in the BG focus on the roles of the striatum and its dopaminergic inputs, commonly overlooking the complexities and interactions of BG downstream nuclei. In this study, we aimed to reveal the learning-related activity of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), a downstream structure whose computational role has remained relatively unexplored...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rebecca L Davis, Jennifer M Ohman
One of the most difficult decisions for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is when to stop driving. Because driving is a fundamental activity linked to socialization, independent functioning, and well-being, making the decision to stop driving is not easy. Cognitive decline in older adults can lead to getting lost while driving, difficulty detecting and avoiding hazards, as well as increased errors while driving due to compromised judgment and difficulty in making decisions. The purpose of the current literature review was to synthesize evidence regarding how individuals with early-stage AD, their families, and providers make determinations about driving safety, interventions to increase driving safety, and methods to assist cessation and coping for individuals with early-stage AD...
September 23, 2016: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiangwei Yang, David Chun-Hei Poon, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Justin Che-Yuen Wu, Ying Li
There is considerable evidence to suggest early life experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), play a role in the prevalence of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairment. At the same time, optimal decision making requires functional integrity between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and any dysfunction of this system is believed to induce decision-making deficits. However, the impact of MS on decision-making behavior and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied...
September 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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