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Cognitive function decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147146/relationships-between-short-and-fast-brain-timescales
#1
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141449/decisions-and-attitudes-regarding-participation-and-proxy-in-clinical-trials-among-patients-with-impaired-cognitive-function
#2
S Stormoen, I M Tallberg, O Almkvist, M Eriksdotter, E Sundström
Background Medical decision-making capacity is impaired in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Medical decision-making capacity depends on many different cognitive functions and varies due to situation and cognitive, social, and emotional status of the patient. Our aim was to analyze dementia patients' capacity to estimate risks and benefits in different clinical trials and determine how cognitive decline affects their attitude toward possible participation and proxy consent. Methods Groups: Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), mild cognitive impairment (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 33)...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137615/advance-directives-proxy-opinions-and-treatment-restrictions-in-patients-with-severe-stroke
#3
Floor A S de Kort, Marjolein Geurts, Paul L M de Kort, Julia H van Tuijl, Ghislaine J M W van Thiel, L Jaap Kappelle, H Bart van der Worp
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe stroke often do not have the capacity to participate in discussions on treatment restrictions because of a reduced level of consciousness, aphasia, or another cognitive disorder. We assessed the role of advance directives and proxy opinions in the decision-making process of incapacitated patients. METHODS: Sixty patients with severe functional dependence (Barthel Index ≤6) at day four after ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were included in a prospective two-center cohort study...
November 14, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130061/episodic-future-thinking-mechanisms-and-functions
#4
Daniel L Schacter, Roland G Benoit, Karl K Szpunar
Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging research concerning episodic future thinking has accelerated during recent years. This article discusses research that has delineated cognitive and neural mechanisms that support episodic future thinking as well as the functions that episodic future thinking serves. Studies focused on mechanisms have identified a core brain network that underlies episodic future thinking and have begun to tease apart the relative contributions of particular regions in this network, and the specific cognitive processes that they support...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128297/role-of-geriatric-oncologists-in-optimizing-care-of-urological-oncology-patients
#5
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Droz, Helen Boyle, Gilles Albrand, Nicolas Mottet, Martine Puts
CONTEXT: Urological cancers are common. Since the median age of diagnosis is 60-70 yr, many patients require geriatric as well as urological evaluation if treatment is to be tailored to individual health status including comorbidities and frailty. OBJECTIVE: To review the most important features of geriatric assessment and its expected benefits. We also consider ways in which collaboration between urologists and geriatricians and geriatric teams can benefit patient well-being...
November 8, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127529/the-impact-of-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment-decision-making-on-health-related-quality-of-life-before-treatment-onset
#6
Maarten Cuypers, Romy E D Lamers, Erik B Cornel, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse, Marieke de Vries, Paul J M Kil
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to test if patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) declines after prostate biopsy to detect Pca, and after subsequent treatment decision-making in case Pca is confirmed, and to test whether personality state and traits are associated with these potential changes in HRQoL. METHODS: Patients who were scheduled for prostate biopsy to detect Pca (N = 377) filled out a baseline questionnaire about HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30 and PR25), "big five" personality traits (BFI-10), optimism (LOT-r), and self-efficacy (Decision Self-efficacy Scale) (t0)...
November 10, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125875/drug-abusers-have-impaired-cerebral-oxygenation-and-cognition-during-exercise
#7
Kell Grandjean da Costa, Vanessa Soares Rachetti, Weslley Quirino Alves da Silva, Daniel Aranha Rego Cabral, Daniel Gomes da Silva Machado, Eduardo Caldas Costa, Rodrigo Menezes Forti, Rickson Coelho Mesquita, Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have lower baseline metabolic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with impairment of cognitive functions in decision-making and inhibitory control. Aerobic exercise has shown to improve PFC function and cognitive performance, however, its effects on SUD individuals remain unclear. PURPOSE: To verify the cognitive performance and oxygenation of the PFC during an incremental exercise in SUD individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124352/brain-waves-from-an-isolated-cortex-contribution-of-the-anterior-insula-to-cognitive-functions
#8
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Marika Berchicci, Valentina Bianco, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
Using two independent electrical neuroimaging techniques (BESA and sLORETA), we tested a fMRI-seeded source modeling indicating that in visual discriminative tasks the anterior insula (aIns) participates in the generation of three prefrontal ERP components: the pN1 (at 115 ms), the pP1 (at 170 ms), and the pP2 (at 300 ms). This latter component represented the focus of the present study. Results showed that the pP2 had different activation profiles across hemispheres. The left aIns activity peaked at 420 ms (30 ms before the response) for both Go and No-go trials, that is independently from the ultimate choice (response or inhibition)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122592/new-perspectives-on-the-brain-lesion-approach-implications-for-theoretical-models-of-human-memory
#9
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119257/risky-decision-making-and-affective-features-of-impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Alice Martini, Simon J Ellis, James A Grange, Stefano Tamburin, Denise Dal Lago, Greta Vianello, Nicola M J Edelstyn
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered dopaminergic treatment side effects. Cognitive and affective factors may increase the risk of ICD in PD. The aim is to investigate risky decision-making and associated cognitive processes in PD patients with ICDs within a four-stage conceptual framework. Relationship between ICDs and affective factors was explored. Thirteen PD patients with ICD (ICD+), 12 PD patients without ICD (ICD-), and 17 healthy controls were recruited. Overall risky decision-making and negative feedback effect were examined with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117924/red-flags-in-epilepsy-surgery-identifying-the-patients-who-pay-a-high-cognitive-price-for-an-unsuccessful-surgical-outcome
#11
Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
Preoperative estimates of cognitive and seizure outcome must be as accurate as possible if the candidate is to make an informed decision about epilepsy surgery. Significant declines in memory function are reported in approximately 30% of temporal lobe surgery patients. The percentage varies according to the ways in which a postoperative deterioration is defined but since the majority of outcome studies do not take into account the patient's capacity to deteriorate if they are functioning at or close to the floor of a memory test prior to surgery, the published percentages may be an underrepresentation of the true extent of memory decline following epilepsy surgery...
November 5, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116867/the-effects-of-smoking-abstinence-on-incentivized-spatial-working-memory
#12
Charles Geier, Nicole Roberts, David Lydon-Staley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reward processing and working memory (WM) underlie value-based decision-making; consequently, joint examination of these systems may further our understanding of why smokers choose to smoke again following a quit attempt (relapse). While previous studies have demonstrated altered reward and WM function associated with nicotine exposure, little is known about the effects of abstinence on the joint function of these systems. The current study aims to address this gap...
November 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114230/the-effects-of-simulated-wildland-firefighting-tasks-on-core-temperature-and-cognitive-function-under-very-hot-conditions
#13
F Michael Williams-Bell, Brad Aisbett, Bernadette A Murphy, Brianna Larsen
Background: The severity of wildland fires is increasing due to continually hotter and drier summers. Firefighters are required to make life altering decisions on the fireground, which requires analytical thinking, problem solving, and situational awareness. This study aimed to determine the effects of very hot (45°C; HOT) conditions on cognitive function following periods of simulated wildfire suppression work when compared to a temperate environment (18°C; CON). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters intermittently performed a simulated fireground task for 3 h in both the CON and HOT environments, with cognitive function tests (paired associates learning and spatial span) assessed at baseline (cog 1) and during the final 20-min of each hour (cog 2, 3, and 4)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114071/working-memory-and-decision-making-in-a-fronto-parietal-circuit-model
#14
John D Murray, Jorge Jaramillo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Working memory (WM) and decision making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices (PPC and PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically-based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multi-regional networks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113929/interaction-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-l-dlpfc-and-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-ofc-in-hot-and-cold-executive-functions-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#15
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche
An organizing principle which has recently emerged proposes that executive functions (EF) can be divided into cognitive (cold) and affective or reward-related (hot) processes related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) respectively. A controversial question is whether cold and hot EF are functionally and structurally independent or not. This study investigated how the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) and right OFC (r-OFC) interact in hot and cold EF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111627/quantification-of-bowling-workload-and-changes-in-cognitive-function-in-elite-fast-bowlers-in-training-compared-with-twenty20-cricket
#16
Jamie Tallent, Matthew Higgins, Nick Parker, Mark Waldron, Eoin Bradford, James Keenan, Barry V O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Bowling overs are the primary recorded measure for workloads in cricket for youth through to professionals. However, the validity of this measure has never been tested. Additionally, despite the cognitive component of cricket being suggested to be very high, changes in psychomotor processing speed has again not been explored. METHODS: Eight professional English county cricket bowlers participated in the study. Participants wore global positioning systems with a tri-axial accelerometer during a Twenty20 match and training...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111450/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-a-decision-neuroscience-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Michael N Hallquist, Nathan T Hall, Alison M Schreiber, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disadvantageous decisions that are often expressed in close relationships and associated with intense negative emotions. Although functional neuroimaging studies of BPD have described regions associated with altered social cognition and emotion processing, these correlates do not inform an understanding of how brain activity leads to maladaptive choices. Drawing on recent research, we argue that formal models of decision-making are crucial to elaborating theories of BPD that bridge psychological constructs, behavior, and neural systems...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111359/role-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-explicit-and-implicit-aspects-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-socially-conflicting-situations-a-resting-state-fmri-study-using-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations
#18
Junya Fujino, Shisei Tei, Kathryn F Jankowski, Ryosaku Kawada, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
We are constantly exposed to socially conflicting situations in everyday life, and cognitive flexibility is essential for adaptively coping with such difficulties. Flexible goal choice and pursuit are not exclusively conscious, and therefore cognitive flexibility involves both explicit and implicit forms of processing. However, it is unclear how individual differences in explicit and implicit aspects of flexibility are associated with neural activity in a resting state. Here, we measured intrinsic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) as an indicator of regional brain spontaneous activity, together with explicit and implicit aspects of cognitive flexibility using the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) and Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109237/sleep-deprivation-promotes-habitual-control-over-goal-directed-control-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#19
Jie Chen, Jie Liang, Xiao Lin, Yang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105128/do-adapted-vignettes-improve-medical-decision-making-capacity-for%C3%A2-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Liv Thalén, Katarina Heimann Mühlenbock, Ove Almkvist, Maria Eriksdotter, Erik Sundström, Ing-Mari Tallberg
Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD)...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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