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medicine, surgery, research

Oren Schwartz, Boris Kanevsky, M A J Sergey Kutikov, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz
Introduction: Attrition from training is associated with substantial financial and personnel loss. There is a plethora of medical literature and research of attrition rates related to initial/phase 1 training (basic combat training); however, the analysis of second phase training (commanders training, consisting of schools that qualify junior commanders and officers for infantry and non-infantry combat units) is limited. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive survey regarding to medical attrition from commanders training in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to present the commanders of the IDF a detailed situation report that will serve as an evidence-based platform for future policy planning and implementation...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ting Dong, Annesley Copeland, Matthew Gangidine, Deanna Schreiber-Gregory, E Matthew Ritter, Steven J Durning
PURPOSE: We conducted an in-depth empirical investigation to achieve a better understanding of the surgery clerkship from multiple perspectives, including the influence of clerkship sequence on performance, the relationship between self-logged work hours and performance, as well as the association between surgery clerkship performance with subsequent USMLE Step exams' scores. METHOD: The study cohort consisted of medical students graduating between 2015 and 2018 (n = 687)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
David L Chan, Lesley Moody, Eva Segelov, David Metz, Jonathan Strosberg, Nick Pavlakis, Simron Singh
<br>Objectives: There is no consensus regarding optimal follow-up in resected GEP-NETS. We aimed to perform a practice survey to ascertain follow-up patterns by health care practitioners and highlight areas of variation that may benefit from further quantitative research. METHODS: A web-based survey targeted at NET health care providers in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States was developed by a steering committee of medical oncologists and a research methodologist...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
David Macku, Pavel Hedvicak, John Quinn, Vladimir Bencko
Due to the hybrid warfare currently experienced by multiple NATO coalition and NATO partner nations, the tactical combat casualty care (TCCC) paradigm is greatly challenged. One of the major challenges to TCCC is the ad hoc extension phase in resource-poor environments, referred to as prolonged field care (PFC) and forward resuscitative care (FRC). The nuanced clinical skills with limited resources required by warfighters and auxiliary health care professionals to mitigate death on the battlefield and prevent morbidity and mortality in the PFC phase represent a balance that is still under review...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Angelo Castello, Laura Olivari, Egesta Lopci
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the oldest modalities for cancer treatment. However, as part of a continuous research in medicine, in order to improve therapeutic precision and biological effectiveness, there is an increasing interest into the use of heavy particle (e.g. protons or heavy ions) in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the restricted availability of the technology has concentrated the expertise in highly specialized centers that take care and treat extreme cases and rare pathologies...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Patrick G Chan, Lara W Schaheen, Ernest G Chan, Chris C Cook, James D Luketich, Jonathan D'Cunha
OBJECTIVE: Transitioning from medical school and general surgery training to cardiothoracic (CT) surgical training poses unique challenges for trainees and patient care. We hypothesized that participation in technology-enhanced simulation modules that provided early exposure to urgent/emergent CT patient problems would improve cognitive skills and readiness to manage common urgencies/emergencies. DESIGN: Traditional and integrated cardiothoracic residents at our institution participated in a technology-enhanced simulation curriculum...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Suprakash Chaudhury, Ajay Kumar Bakhla, Subhas Soren
Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS; Ranchi Indian Mental Hospital; Ranchi Manasik Aryogyashala) traces its origin from a lunatic asylum for Indian soldiers established at Munghyr in Bihar in 1795 and thus is the first mental hospital in India established by the British purely for Indian patients as well as the second oldest functioning mental hospital in India. The hospital made great strides in improving patients care and using modern methods of assessment and treatment as well as education and research during the tenure of Dr J E Dhunjibhoy the first Indian medical superintendent...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Shubha Singhal, Vandana Roy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitude, perception and practice of Ayurveda, yoga, Unani, Siddha, homeopathy and naturopathy (AYUSH) among allopathic doctors and interns and determine their opinion regarding integration of AYUSH education within the allopathic curriculum. METHODS: This prospective, cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching Hospital, New Delhi, India, from March 2016 to March 2017. A survey of 500 allopathic doctors and 150 interns was performed using a structured questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Xinning Li, Paul H Yi, Emily J Curry, Akira M Murakami
Ultrasonography is an imaging modality that facilitates the diagnosis of pathology and injection therapy without exposing the patient to radiation. In addition, ultrasonography has become popular because of its portability, low cost, and production of real-time tomographic images that provide a cross-sectional view of anatomic structures. Despite its benefits and widespread adoption in general medicine and other specialties, however, ultrasonography is not as well adapted as a diagnostic and research tool in orthopaedic surgery...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Akihiko Ozaki, Morihito Takita, Tetsuya Tanimoto
Introduction Globally, laws and guidelines for managing conflict of interest are increasingly implemented to achieve transparency in financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries, yet little information is available regarding the limitations of the current frameworks for disclosing these financial ties. Case In June 2017, the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this study, which suggested the post-surgery addition of capecitabine would improve survival of high-risk breast cancer patients, the cost of capecitabine for off-label use was illegally claimed to the Japanese public health insurance system, rather than being covered by the research budget...
March 8, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Ben McNaughten, Caroline Hart, Stephen Gallagher, Carol Junk, Patricia Coulter, Andrew Thompson, Thomas Bourke
AIM: Differences in the gaze behaviour of experts and novices are described in aviation and surgery. This study sought to describe the gaze behaviour of clinicians from different training backgrounds during a simulated paediatric emergency. METHODS: Clinicians from four clinical areas undertook a simulated emergency. Participants wore SMI (SensoMotoric Instruments) eye tracking glasses. We measured the fixation count and dwell time on predefined areas of interest and the time taken to key clinical interventions...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Ulrik Nikolaj Ascanius Felding
Isolated fractures of the orbital floor or medial wall are often referred to as blowout fractures (BOFs). Debilitating double vision and aesthetic deformity may affect the patients' quality of life and daily living skills, for instance, working or driving a car. The management of blowout fractures is, however, challenging, since not all fractures demand surgery. Some patients may have symptoms which subside, or may never develop symptoms. Due to a lack of evidence, there are still considerable differences in opinion on the criteria for surgery...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Charlotte Vaysse, Elodie Chantalat, Odile Beyne-Rauzy, Louise Morineau, Fabien Despas, Jean-Marc Bachaud, Nathalie Caunes, Muriel Poublanc, Elie Serrano, Roland Bugat, Marie-Eve Rougé Bugat, Anne-Laure Fize
BACKGROUND: Oncology involves complex care and multidisciplinary management of patients; however, misinformation and ineffective communication remain problematic. OBJECTIVE: The educational objective of our study was to develop a new teaching method to improve cancer treatment and management by emphasizing the link between hospitals (inpatients) and their surrounding communities (outpatients). METHODS: A team of 22 professionals from public and private institutions developed a small private online course (SPOC)...
March 5, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
Walter Ryan Smith, Parke William Hudson, Brent Andrew Ponce, Sakthivel Rajan Rajaram Manoharan
The utility of nanotechnology in medicine, specifically within the field of orthopedics, is a topic of extensive research. Our review provides a unique comprehensive overview of the current and potential future uses of nanotechnology with respect to orthopedic sub-specialties. Nanotechnology offers an immense assortment of novel applications, most notably the use of nanomaterials as scaffolds to induce a more favorable interaction between orthopedic implants and native bone. Nanotechnology has the capability to revolutionize the diagnostics and treatment of orthopedic surgery, however the long-term health effects of nanomaterials are poorly understood and extensive research is needed regarding clinical safety...
March 2, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Rajan Jain, Priti Arun, Ajeet Sidana, Atul Sachdev
Objective: Till date, typical antipsychotic haloperidol is the treatment of choice for delirium. But, due to higher side effects with haloperidol, newer atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine) are increasingly being used in the treatment of delirious patients. The aim of the current research was to study the efficacy and tolerability of haloperidol and olanzapine in the treatment of delirium. Materials and Methods: This was an open-label, randomized controlled study carried out in a tertiary care hospital at Chandigarh, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Guoxin Li, Xinhua Chen, Jiang Yu, Hao Liu
Laparoscopic surgery has its unique minimally invasive advantages, however, taking the complex and difficult D2 lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer into consideration, laparoscopic gastrectomy was only applied in the treatment of early gastric cancer at its preliminary stage. With the development of more than a decade, many multicenter clinical data have confirmed the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Based on high-quality evidence-based medicine evidence, laparoscopic gastrectomy has been recommended as an optional treatment for stage I( gastric cancer by the Japanese Gastric Cancer Treatment Guidelines 2014(ver...
February 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Francesco Petrella, Lorenzo Spaggiari
Two main fields of clinical applications of stem cells in thoracic surgery have been explored: (a) regenerative medicine, that is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology dealing with the replacement, engineering or regeneration of cells, tissues and organs to restore normal function; (b) drug loading and delivery, that is an emerging field proposing stem cells as vectors to deliver anti-cancer agents for targeted therapies.Bronchopleural fistula is a pathological connection between the bronchus and the pleural cavity that may develop after lung resection, thus causing pleural empyema due to colonization by resident airway bacteria; stem cells and regenerative medicine approach can effectively contribute to impaired bronchial healing, thus preventive a septic and ventilator catastrophe...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alfred Burger, Chad Miller, Bradley A Sharpe, Rachel E Thompson
BACKGROUND: Hospital Medicine has a widening scope of practice. This article provides a summary of recent highimpact publications for busy clinicians who provide care to hospitalized adults. METHODS: The authors reviewed articles published between March 2016 and March 2017 for the Update in Hospital Medicine presentations at the 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine and Society of General Internal Medicine annual meetings. Nine of the 20 articles presented were selected for this review based on the article quality and potential to influence practice...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Yair J Blumenfeld, Michael A Belfort
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine updates in fetal spina bifida surgical repair, as well as promising results emerging from translational medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the Management of Myelomeningocele Study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health helped establish the neonatal benefits of prenatal spina bifida repair via uterine hysterotomy, also known as 'open' fetal surgery, fetoscopic approaches may yield better maternal and obstetric outcomes. SUMMARY: Spina bifida is a severe congenital malformation associated with significant neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Huachan Gan, Jinxuan Lin, Zhi Jiang, Qicheng Chen, Lixing Cao, Zhiqiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Most patients who undergo abdominal surgery recover bowel movements within a week; however, some suffer prolonged intestinal paralysis or postoperative ileus (POI) leading to complications, such as infection and intestinal adhesions, which can extend hospitalization and increase readmission rates, and consequently increasing healthcare costs. Chinese medicine is effective for accelerating the recovery of gastrointestinal function after abdominal surgery. Xiangbin prescription (XBP) is the standard prescription for this purpose in our hospital; however, randomized controlled trials of it have not yet been conducted...
February 27, 2018: Trials
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