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vasomotor dysfunction

V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Weifeng Luo, Christy M Guth, Olukemi Jolayemi, Craig L Duvall, Colleen Marie Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint, where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Salima Qamruddin
BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography is an integral test in the cardiac diagnostic laboratory and has high sensitivity and specificity. Despite the excellent specificity of stress echocardiography, we continue to see a subset of patients with false-positive tests (defined as <50% diameter stenosis on subsequent coronary angiography). These false-positive findings present a management challenge because it remains unclear if and how to treat these patients. METHODS: This article reviews relevant clinical studies and their outcomes...
2016: Ochsner Journal
M F Garrido-Oyarzún, C Castelo-Branco
The increase in cancer incidence in younger people and the significant improvement in long and permanent remission have brought concern about their reproductive future and quality of life. Up to two-thirds of adult female patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignancies eventually develop premature ovarian failure. This condition is related to many complaints including vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, sexual dysfunction, and infertility. Therefore, protection against iatrogenic infertility and loss of endocrine ovarian function caused by chemotherapy is currently of high priority...
September 17, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fiorentina Roviezzo, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Valentina Mattera Iacono, Antonio Bertolino, Giovanna De Cunto, Valentina Vellecco, Giuseppe Lungarella, Monica Lucattelli, Giuseppe Cirino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of the severe vascular complications in fibrosis are a consequence of a deregulated activity of mediators controlling vasomotor tone. One of the most important of these mediators is endothelin-1 (ET-1). Here, we have investigated the role of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in the vascular dysfunction in a model of fibrosis, using tight-skin (Tsk) mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Aortas were collected from Tsk, transgenic over-expressing PAR2 (TgPAR2), PAR2 deficient (PAR2(-/-) ) or the corresponding WT mice...
September 14, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Michael R Pinsky
The primary role of the right ventricle (RV) is to deliver all the blood it receives per beat into the pulmonary circulation without causing right atrial pressure to rise. To the extent that it also does not impede left ventricular (LV) filling, cardiac output responsiveness to increased metabolic demand is optimized. Since cardiac output is a function of metabolic demand of the body, during stress and exercise states the flow to the RV can vary widely. Also, instantaneous venous return varies widely for a constant cardiac output as ventilatory efforts alter the dynamic pressure gradient for venous return...
September 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Daniel Vest Christophersen, Nicklas Raun Jacobsen, Ditte Marie Jensen, Ali Kermanizadeh, Majid Sheykhzade, Steffen Loft, Ulla Vogel, Håkan Wallin, Peter Møller
Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered the main drivers of vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis after inhalation of particulate matter. In addition, new studies have shown that particle exposure can induce the level of bioactive mediators in serum, driving vascular- and systemic toxicity. We aimed to investigate if pulmonary inflammation would accelerate nanoparticle-induced atherosclerotic plaque progression in Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. ApoE -/- mice were exposed to vehicle, 8...
2016: PloS One
Na-Na Ping, Yan-Ni Mi, Dong-Zheng Liu, Sai Zhang, Jing-Guo Chen, Yong-Xiao Cao
Cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hypertension after transplantation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was found to have hypotensive/vasoprotective effects in the cardiovascular system. The present study aims to investigate the role of H2S on CsA-induced vascular function disorder in rats. Rats were subcutaneously injected with CsA 25 mg/kg for 21 days. Blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. Vasomotion was determined using a sensitive myograph. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify the protein expression of endothelin type A (ETA) receptor and essential MAPK pathway molecules...
August 27, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Łukasz Smoliński, Anna Członkowska
Small-caliber cerebral vessels change their diameters in response to alterations of key metabolite concentrations such as carbon dioxide or oxygen. This phenomenon, termed the cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR), is the basis for blood flow regulation in the brain in accordance with its metabolic status. Typically, CVMR is determined as the amount of change in cerebral blood flow in response to a vasodilating stimulus, which can be measured by various neuroimaging methods or by transcranial Doppler. It has been shown that CVMR is impaired in cerebrovascular diseases, but there is also evidence of a similar dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders...
August 5, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Dahima Cintron, Melissa Lipford, Laura Larrea-Mantilla, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Robin Lloyd, Michael R Gionfriddo, Shalak Gunjal, Ann M Farrell, Virginia M Miller, Mohammad Hassan Murad
Sleep complaints are reported by 40-60 % of menopausal women. Poor sleep is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The effect of menopausal hormone therapy on sleep quality is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the efficacy of menopausal hormone therapy on self-reported sleep quality. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews CENTRAL, and PsycInfo) were searched from 2002 to October 2015. Randomized trials assessing the effect of menopausal hormone therapy with a minimum follow up of 8 weeks were included...
August 11, 2016: Endocrine
Seiji Hokimoto, Noriaki Tabata, Kenshi Yamanaga, Daisuke Sueta, Tomonori Akasaka, Kenichi Tsujita, Kenji Sakamoto, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Megumi Yamamuro, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Sunao Kojima, Kunihiko Matsui, Hisao Ogawa
BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of epicardial vasomotor abnormality (EVA) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) including endothelium-dependent (EDCMD) or -independent (EICMD) in patients following a second-generation drug-eluting stent (second DES) implantation without in-stent restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 105 patients who underwent second DES implantation in the left anterior descending coronary artery (74 men; mean age, 67...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Stephanie S Faubion, Charles L Loprinzi, Kathryn J Ruddy
Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer...
August 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Camila Manrique, Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, James R Sowers, Guanghong Jia, Melvin R Hayden, Mona Garro, Luis A Martinez-Lemus, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Thomas Klein, Gerald A Meininger, Vincent G DeMarco
BACKGROUND: Vascular stiffening, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accelerated, particularly in women with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Preclinical evidence suggests that dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may have cardiovascular benefits independent of glycemic lowering effects. Recent studies show that consumption of a western diet (WD) high in fat and simple sugars induces aortic stiffening in female C57BL/6J mice in advance of increasing blood pressure. The aims of this study were to determine whether administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (LGT), prevents the development of aortic and endothelial stiffness induced by a WD in female mice...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
P Moog, O Eren, M Witt, V Rauschel, S Kossegg, A Straube, M Grünke, H Schulze-Koops
OBJECTIVE: To assess symptoms and objective parameters of autonomic dysfunction (AD) in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides. METHODS: Symptoms and objective parameters of AD were assessed in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and in age-matched healthy controls. Autonomic symptoms were explored by COMPASS31, a validated questionnaire addressing symptoms of six autonomic domains (orthostatic, vasomotor, secretomotor, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, and bladder dysfunction)...
August 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
S Caruso, S Cianci, M Cariola, V Fava, A Rapisarda, A Cianci
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of nutraceuticals containing Equol, Resveratrol, Quecitine and Passiflora (Zemiar(®), Avantgarde, Pomezia, Rome, Italy) on quality of life (QoL) and sexual function in perimenopausal women. METHODS: Sixty perimenopausal women having vasomotor symptoms and being in the -1, +1a of the STRAW system (amenorrhea for longer than 60 days and FSH < 20 UI/L) were enrolled. The modified Kupperman Index (KI) was used to evaluate menopause symptoms...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Mathias Hohl, Dominik Linz, Peter Fries, Andreas Müller, Jonas Stroeder, Daniel Urban, Thimoteus Speer, Jürgen Geisel, Björn Hummel, Ulrich Laufs, Stephan H Schirmer, Michael Böhm, Felix Mahfoud
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) rodents spontaneously develop severe hypercholesterolemia and increased aortic stiffness, both accepted risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans. In patients with resistant hypertension renal denervation (RDN) may improve arterial stiffness, however the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study investigates the impact of RDN on aortic compliance in a novel atherosclerosis prone ApoE(-/-)-rat model...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
P Ong, U Sechtem
Just as in epicardial coronary stenosis, coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) also leads to an imbalance of myocardial oxygen supply and demand. The dysfunction is located at the level of the coronary microcirculation with vessel diameters < 500 µm and structural as well as functional alterations have been described. The underlying mechanisms are diverse, frequently overlap and are still incompletely understood. Among others, conditions such as chronic inflammation, estrogen deficiency and a genetic familial predisposition have been reported...
June 2016: Herz
A R Fetoni, S L M Eramo, F Paciello, R Rolesi, D Samengo, G Paludetti, D Troiani, G Pani
p66(shc), a member of the ShcA protein family, is essential for cellular response to oxidative stress, and elicits the formation of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), thus promoting vasomotor dysfunction and inflammation. Accordingly, mice lacking the p66 isoform display increased resistance to oxidative tissue damage and to cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress also contributes to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL); we found that p66(shc) expression and serine phosphorylation were induced following noise exposure in the rat cochlea, together with markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and ischemia as indicated by the levels of the hypoxic inducible factor (HIF) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the highly vascularised cochlear lateral region and spiral ganglion...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maurizio Rizzi, Fabiola Atzeni, Andrea Airoldi, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Francesca Frassanito, Fausto Salaffi, Claudio Macaluso, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pulmonary diffusing capacity is impaired in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) as it is in those with other diseases characterised by autonomic nerve system (ANS) dysfunction such as type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Forty-five consecutive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)-negative female Caucasian patients aged 50.1± 5.6 years with FM and compared with 45 healthy female control volunteers matched in terms of age and body mass index (BMI)...
March 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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