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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545264/reduction-of-dose-to-the-contralateral-breast-by-superflab-use-in-radiation-therapy-for-mammary-carcinomas
#1
Akanksha Solanki, Athiyaman M, Hemalatha A, H S Kumar
Background: Radiation therapy is an integral part of multimodality treatment for locally advanced carcinoma of breast. Radiation doses to nearby critical normal structures like heart, lungs, and contralateral breast (CLB increases risk of second malignancies. In this study, we measured doses to the CLB and studied effects of a 1 cm thickness superflap. Materials and Methods: Fifty post-mastectomy carcinoma breast patients were included in the study.Radiation therapy of 50 Gy was planned in 25 fractions, 5 days a week, using the Eclipse Treatment Planning System version 8...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545054/an-optimized-small-animal-tumour-model-for-experimentation-with-low-energy-protons
#2
Elke Beyreuther, Kerstin Brüchner, Mechthild Krause, Margret Schmidt, Rita Szabo, Jörg Pawelke
BACKGROUND: The long-term aim of developing laser based particle acceleration towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short and ultra-intensive particle beam pulses. After comprehensive cell studies a mouse ear tumour model was established allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~20 MeV) currently available at laser driven accelerators. The model was successfully applied for a first tumour growth delay study with laser driven electrons, whereby the need of improvements crop out...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544955/associations-of-anxiety-sensitivity-and-emotional-symptoms-with-the-subjective-effects-of-alcohol-cigarettes-and-cannabis-in-adolescents
#3
Raina D Pang, Casey R Guillot, Michael J Zvolensky, Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Adam M Leventhal
Maladaptive emotional traits (anxiety sensitivity [AS], fear of anxiety-related sensations and consequences) and symptoms (major depressive disorder [MDD] and generalized anxiety disorder [GAD] symptoms) could play a role in altering sensitivity to the subjective effects of drugs of abuse in adolescents. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of high school students in Los Angeles, CA, USA who completed surveys and reported past six-month use of alcohol (n=1054), cigarettes (n=297), or cannabis (n=706). At each of the four semi-annual waves during mid-adolescence (14-16years old), students reported positive and negative subjective drug effects experienced in the prior six-months...
May 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544912/parallel-gene-selection-and-dynamic-ensemble-pruning-based-on-affinity-propagation
#4
Jun Meng, Jing Zhang, Yu-Shi Luan, Xin-Yu He, Li-Shuang Li, Yuan-Feng Zhu
Gene selection and sample classification based on gene expression data are important research areas in bioinformatics. Selecting important genes closely related to classification is a challenging task due to high dimensionality and small sample size of microarray data. Extended rough set based on neighborhood has been successfully applied to gene selection, as it can select attributes without redundancy and deal with numerical attributes directly. However, the computation of approximations in rough set is extremely time consuming...
May 17, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544890/hybrid-neuro-heuristic-methodology-for-simulation-and-control-of-dynamic-systems-over-time-interval
#5
Marcin Woźniak, Dawid Połap
Simulation and positioning are very important aspects of computer aided engineering. To process these two, we can apply traditional methods or intelligent techniques. The difference between them is in the way they process information. In the first case, to simulate an object in a particular state of action, we need to perform an entire process to read values of parameters. It is not very convenient for objects for which simulation takes a long time, i.e. when mathematical calculations are complicated. In the second case, an intelligent solution can efficiently help on devoted way of simulation, which enables us to simulate the object only in a situation that is necessary for a development process...
May 5, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544881/mammalian-systems-biotechnology-reveals-global-cellular-adaptations-in-a-recombinant-cho-cell-line
#6
Faraaz Noor Khan Yusufi, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Ying Swan Ho, Bernard Liat Wen Loo, Pramila Ariyaratne, Yuansheng Yang, Say Kong Ng, Tessa Rui Min Tan, Hock Chuan Yeo, Hsueh Lee Lim, Sze Wai Ng, Ai Ping Hiu, Chung Ping Chow, Corrine Wan, Shuwen Chen, Gavin Teo, Gao Song, Ju Xin Chin, Xiaoan Ruan, Ken Wing Kin Sung, Wei-Shou Hu, Miranda Gek Sim Yap, Muriel Bardor, Niranjan Nagarajan, Dong-Yup Lee
Effective development of host cells for therapeutic protein production is hampered by the poor characterization of cellular transfection. Here, we employed a multi-omics-based systems biotechnology approach to elucidate the genotypic and phenotypic differences between a wild-type and recombinant antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. At the genomic level, we observed extensive rearrangements in specific targeted loci linked to transgene integration sites. Transcriptional re-wiring of DNA damage repair and cellular metabolism in the antibody producer, via changes in gene copy numbers, was also detected...
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544727/ultraviolet-radiation-accelerates-nras-mutant-melanomagenesis-a-cooperative-effect-blocked-by-sunscreen
#7
Rebecca C Hennessey, Andrea M Holderbaum, Anamaria Bonilla, Conor Delaney, James E Gillahan, Kathleen L Tober, Tatiana M Oberyszyn, Jonathan H Zippin, Christin E Burd
To mitigate melanoma risk, sunscreen use is widely advocated; yet, the ability of sunscreens to prevent melanoma remains controversial. Here, we test the tenet that sunscreens limit melanoma risk by blocking ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage using murine models that recapitulate the genetics and spontaneous evolution of human melanoma. We find that a single, non-erythematous dose of UV dramatically accelerates melanoma onset and increases tumor multiplicity in mice carrying an endogenous, melanocyte-specific NRas(61R) allele...
May 24, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544704/a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-a-behavioral-intervention-to-incorporate-a-treat-to-target-approach-to-care-of-us-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Leslie R Harrold, George W Reed, Ani John, Christine J Barr, Kevin Soe, Robert Magner, Katherine C Saunders, Eric M Ruderman, Tmirah Haselkorn, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Allan Gibofsky, J Timothy Harrington, Joel M Kremer
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of implementing a treat-to-target (T2T) approach vs usual care (UC) in a US-based cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: In this behavioral intervention trial, rheumatology practices were cluster-randomized to provide T2T care or UC. Eligible patients with moderate/high disease activity (Clinical Disease Activity Index [CDAI] > 10) were followed for 12 months. Both T2T and UC patients were seen every 3 months...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544680/multiscale-modulation-of-nanocrystalline-cellulose-hydrogel-via-nanocarbon-hybridization-for-3d-neuronal-bilayer-formation
#9
Dongyoon Kim, Subeom Park, Insu Jo, Seong-Min Kim, Dong Hee Kang, Sung-Pyo Cho, Jong Bo Park, Byung Hee Hong, Myung-Han Yoon
Bacterial biopolymers have drawn much attention owing to their unconventional three-dimensional structures and interesting functions, which are closely integrated with bacterial physiology. The nongenetic modulation of bacterial (Acetobacter xylinum) cellulose synthesis via nanocarbon hybridization, and its application to the emulation of layered neuronal tissue, is reported. The controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes into bacterial cellulose (BC) culture media not only induces structural changes within a crystalline cellulose nanofibril, but also modulates their 3D collective association, leading to substantial reduction in Young's modulus (≈50%) and clear definition of water-hydrogel interfaces...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544656/the-cellular-ceramide-transport-protein-cert-promotes-chlamydia-psittaci-infection-and-controls-bacterial-sphingolipid-uptake
#10
Sophia Koch-Edelmann, Sebastian Banhart, Essa M Saied, Laura Rose, Lukas Aeberhard, Michael Laue, Joerg Doellinger, Christoph Arenz, Dagmar Heuer
Chlamydiaceae are bacterial pathogens that cause diverse diseases in humans and animals. Despite their broad host and tissue tropism, all Chlamydia species share an obligate intracellular cycle of development and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with their eukaryotic host cells. Here, we have analyzed interactions of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia psittaci with a human epithelial cell line. We found that C. psittaci recruits the ceramide transport protein CERT to its inclusion. Chemical inhibition and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of CERT showed that CERT is a crucial factor for C...
May 19, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544650/diverse-application-of-mri-for-mouse-phenotyping
#11
REVIEW
Yijen L Wu, Cecilia W Lo
Small animal models, particularly mouse models, of human diseases are becoming an indispensable tool for biomedical research. Studies in animal models have provided important insights into the etiology of diseases and accelerated the development of therapeutic strategies. Detailed phenotypic characterization is essential, both for the development of such animal models and mechanistic studies into disease pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of experimental therapeutics. MRI is a versatile and noninvasive imaging modality with excellent penetration depth, tissue coverage, and soft tissue contrast...
May 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544620/phenotyping-cardiac-and-structural-birth-defects-in-fetal-and-newborn-mice
#12
REVIEW
Xiaoqin Liu, Andrew J Kim, William Reynolds, Yijen Wu, Cecilia W Lo
Mouse models are invaluable for investigating the developmental etiology and molecular pathogenesis of structural birth defects. While this has been deployed for studying a wide spectrum of birth defects, mice are particularly valuable for modeling congenital heart disease, given they have the same four-chamber cardiac anatomy as in humans. We have developed the use of noninvasive fetal ultrasound together with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging for high throughput phenotyping of mice for congenital heart defects (CHD) and other developmental anomalies...
May 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544425/free-standing-holey-ni-oh-2-nanosheets-with-enhanced-activity-for-water-oxidation
#13
Xiangkai Kong, Changlin Zhang, Sang Youp Hwang, Qianwang Chen, Zhenmeng Peng
Electrochemical water oxidation is the key technology in water-splitting reactions and rechargeable metal-air batteries, which is very attractive for renewable energy conversion and storage. Replacement of precious catalysts with cost-effective and highly active alternatives is still a great challenge. Herein, based on theoretical predictions, holey structures are designed and fabricated on the free-standing conventional 2D OER catalyst. By well-controlled defects engineering, uniform tiny holes are created on the free-standing Ni(OH)2 nanosheets via a sol-gel method, with the embedded Zn components as the template for holes production...
May 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544264/ampk-%C3%AE-1-reduces-tumor-progression-and-improves-survival-in-p53-null-mice
#14
Vanessa P Houde, Sara Donzelli, Andrea Sacconi, Sandra Galic, Joanne A Hammill, Jonathan L Bramson, Robert A Foster, Theodoros Tsakiridis, Bruce E Kemp, Giuseppe Grasso, Giovanni Blandino, Paola Muti, Gregory R Steinberg
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is an important sensor of cellular energy status. Reduced expression of the AMPK β1 isoform has been linked to reduced survival in different cancers but whether this accelerates tumor progression and the potential mechanism mediating these effects is not known. Further, it is unknown whether AMPK β1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and if so what tissues may be most sensitive. In the current study we find that in the absence of the tumor suppressor p53, germline genetic deletion of AMPK β1 accelerates the appearance of a T cell lymphoma that reduces lifespan compared to p53 deficiency alone...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544158/molecular-and-physiological-manifestations-and-measurement-of-aging-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
Sadiya S Khan, Benjamin D Singer, Douglas E Vaughan
Biological aging is associated with a reduction in the reparative and regenerative potential in tissues and organs. This reduction manifests as a decreased physiological reserve in response to stress (termed homeostenosis) and a time-dependent failure of complex molecular mechanisms that cumulatively create disorder. Aging inevitably occurs with time in all organisms and emerges on a molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal level with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental modulators. Individuals with the same chronological age exhibit differential trajectories of age-related decline, and it follows that we should assess biological age distinctly from chronological age...
May 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543821/synthesis-of-a-single-crystalline-macroporous-layered-silicate-from-macroporous-utl-type-zeolite-and-its-accelerated-intercalation
#16
Yusuke Asakura, Naoki Kawaura, Yoshiyuki Kuroda, Masakazu Koike, Hiroaki Wada, Atsushi Shimojima, Kazuyuki Kuroda
A single-crystalline macroporous layered silicate was obtained for the first time. Firstly, UTL-type zeolite with macropores was prepared hydrothermally under the presence of acetylene black as a macropore template and the subsequent calcination to remove the template. Double four-membered ring (d4r) units in the UTL framework were selectively dissolved to yield a layered silicate with macropores. Intercalation of tetrabutylammonium ions into the macroporous layered silicate is accelerated if compared with that into the same silicate without macropores, indicating the effectiveness of macropores due to easy diffusion...
May 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543819/classifying-trunk-strength-impairment-according-to-the-activity-limitation-caused-in-wheelchair-rugby-performance
#17
Viola C Altmann, Brenda E Groen, Anne L Hart, Yves C Vanlandewijck, Noël L W Keijsers
International Federations in Paralympic sport should develop evidence based classification, based on the relative strength of association between impairment and activities that determine sport specific performance. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between trunk strength impairment and three activities that determine performance in Wheelchair Rugby, and to determine whether this relationship supports the concept of "natural classes". Trunk muscle strength and three determinants of performance were assessed in 27 athletes The correlations between lateral trunk muscle strength and the determinant tilting the chair, and between forward trunk muscle strength and the determinants 1 m acceleration and sprint momentum were calculated...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543303/effects-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-on-telomere-length
#18
Ada S Cheung, Bu B Yeap, Rudolf Hoermann, Jennie Hui, John P Beilby, Mathis Grossmann
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that androgens either directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol may regulate telomere length, hence providing a mechanism whereby reproductive steroids are linked to biological aging in men. Using men with prostate cancer initiating androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), we tested the hypothesis that severe sex steroid deprivation would accelerate telomere shortening. DESIGN: We conducted a secondary analysis of a 2-year prospective controlled study among 65 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer newly commencing adjuvant ADT (n=40) and age- and radiotherapy-matched prostate cancer controls (n=25)...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543273/differential-dispersal-and-the-allee-effect-create-power-law-behavior-distribution-of-spot-infestations-during-mountain-pine-beetle-outbreaks
#19
James A Powell, Martha J Garlick, Barbara J Bentz, Nicholas Friedenberg
Mountain pine beetles (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) are aggressive insects attacking Pinus host trees. Pines use defensive resin to overwhelm attackers, creating an Allee effect requiring beetles to attack en masse to successfully reproduce. MPB kill hosts, leaving observable, dying trees with red needles. Landscape patterns of infestation depend on MPB dispersal, which decreases with host density. Away from contiguously impacted patches (low beetle densities), infestations are characterized by apparently random spots (of 1-10 trees)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543069/real-time-dynamic-mr-image-reconstruction-using-compressed-sensing-and-principal-component-analysis-cs-pca-demonstration-in-lung-tumor-tracking
#20
Bryson Dietz, Eugene Yip, Jihyun Yun, B Gino Fallone, Keith Wachowicz
PURPOSE: This work presents a real-time dynamic image reconstruction technique, that combines compressed sensing and principal component analysis (CS-PCA), to achieve real-time adaptive radiotherapy with the use of a linac-magnetic resonance imaging system. METHODS: Six retrospective fully sampled dynamic data sets of patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer were used to investigate the CS-PCA algorithm. Using a database of fully sampled k-space, principal components (PC's) were calculated to aid in the reconstruction of undersampled images...
May 19, 2017: Medical Physics
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