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Dorsal horn nuclei

Di Wu, Michelle C Klaw, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke, Megan R Detloff, Marie-Pascale Côté, Veronica J Tom
While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Beatriz Godínez-Chaparro, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Javier Rodríguez-Jiménez, Alfredo Manzano-García, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Miguel Condés-Lara, Abimael González-Hernández
The role of oxytocin (OXT) in pain modulation has been suggested. Indeed, hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) electrical stimuli reduce the nociceptive neuronal activity (i.e., neuronal discharge associated with activation of Aδ- and C-fibers) of the spinal dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) cells and nociceptive behavior. Furthermore, raphe magnus nuclei lesion reduces the PVN-induced antinociception, suggesting a functional interaction between the OXT and the serotoninergic system. The present study investigated in Wistar rats the potential role of spinal serotonergic mechanisms in the OXT- and PVN-induced antinociception...
July 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
Ragini G Gupta, Claire Schafer, Yolande Ramaroson, Michael G Sciullo, Charles C Horn
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be as high as 80% in patients with risk factors (e.g., females, history of motion sickness). PONV delays postoperative recovery and costs several hundred million dollars annually. Cell-based assays show that halogenated ethers (e.g., isoflurane) activate 5-HT3 receptors, which are found on gastrointestinal vagal afferents and in the hindbrain - key pathways for producing nausea and vomiting. This project evaluated the role of the vagus and activation of the hindbrain in isoflurane-induced emesis in musk shrews, a small animal model with a vomiting reflex, which is lacking in rats and mice...
July 2, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Sunil Bhattarai, Alicja Sochacka-Marlowe, Gerald Crutchfield, Ramisha Khan, Richard Londraville, Qin Liu
Krüpple-like factors (KLFs) are transcription factors with zinc finger DNA binding domains known to play important roles in brain development and central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. There is little information on KLFs expression in adult vertebrate CNS. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to examine Klf7 mRNA (klf7) and Klf6a mRNA (klf6a) expression in adult zebrafish CNS. Both klfs exhibit wide and similar expression in the zebrafish CNS. Brain areas containing strongly labeled cells include the ventricular regions of the dorsomedial telencephalon, the ventromedial telencephalon, periventricular regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus, torus longitudinalis, stratum periventriculare of the optic tectum, granular regions of the cerebellar body and valvula, and superficial layers of the facial and vagal lobes...
May 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Naoya Hashimoto, Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Masatoshi Fujita, Ayumi Sato, Yoshinaka Shimizu, Yusuke Shimada, Noriaki Shoji, Takashi Sasano, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is a member of the osteonectin family of proteins. In this study, immunohistochemistry for SPARCL1 was performed to obtain its distribution in the human brainstem, cervical spinal cord, and sensory ganglion. SPARCL1-immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal cell bodies including perikarya and proximal dendrites, and the neuropil. The motor nuclei of the IIIrd, Vth, VIth, VIIth, IXth, Xth, XIth, and XIIth cranial nerves and spinal nerves contained many SPARCL1-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons with medium-sized to large cell bodies...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Paul F McCulloch, Erik A Warren, Karyn M DiNovo
This research was designed to investigate the role of the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN) during repetitive trained diving in rats, with specific attention to activation of afferent and efferent brainstem nuclei that are part of this reflexive response. The AEN innervates the nose and nasal passages and is thought to be an important component of the afferent limb of the diving response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 24) were trained to swim and dive through a 5 m underwater maze. Some rats (N = 12) had bilateral sectioning of the AEN, others a Sham surgery (N = 12)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Katsuya Kami, Satoru Taguchi Ms, Fumihiro Tajima, Emiko Senba
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise effectively attenuates neuropathic pain, and multiple events including the inhibition of activated glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn, activation of the descending pain inhibitory system, and reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines in injured peripheral nerves may contribute to exercise-induced hypoalgesia. Since fewer GABAergic hypoalgesic interneurons exist in the dorsal horn in neuropathic pain model animals, the recovery of impaired GABAergic inhibition in the dorsal horn may improve pain behavior...
2016: Molecular Pain
Xu Zhai, Chunli Sun, Peijing Rong, Shaoyuan Li, Michael F McCabe, Xing Wang, Jianren Mao, Shuxing Wang
UNLABELLED: Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between chronic pain and abnormalities in glucose metabolism, but the exact relationship between chronic pain and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unknown. Using a model of neuropathic thermal and tactile hypersensitivity induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) and Zucker Lean (ZL) littermates, we compared the recovery period of hypersensitivity and the progression of T2D and studied the possible involvement of insulin receptors (IRs) in the comorbidity of these 2 conditions...
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Shaoping Hou, David M Carson, Di Wu, Michelle C Klaw, John D Houlé, Veronica J Tom
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the mammalian central nervous system are thought to be restricted to the brain. DA-mediated regulation of urinary activity is considered to occur through an interaction between midbrain DA neurons and the pontine micturition center. Here we show that DA is produced in the rat spinal cord and modulates the bladder reflex. We observed numerous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+) neurons in the autonomic nuclei and superficial dorsal horn in L6-S3 spinal segments. These neurons are dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)(-) and some contain detectable dopamine decarboxylase (DDC), suggesting their capacity to produce DA...
December 2, 2015: Experimental Neurology
Tianjiao Xia, Yin Cui, Yue Qian, Shuaishuai Chu, Jia Song, Xiaoping Gu, Zhengliang Ma
BACKGROUND: Numerous clinical investigations have revealed the circadian rhythm changes in the perception of chronic pain, and most clinical chronic pain types peak in the night. However, it is still undiscovered whether circadian rhythm of pain exists in rodents and the specific mechanism that may underlie it. Our study was conducted to investigate the rhythmic changes of hyperalgesia behavior in a chronic constrictive injury (CCI) model of rodents and to explore the role of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B)-cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) signaling pathway in this pain rhythm...
February 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Huazheng Liang, Shaoshi Wang, Richard Francis, Renee Whan, Charles Watson, George Paxinos
BACKGROUND: Serotonergic raphespinal neurons and their fibers have been mapped in large mammals, but the non-serotonergic ones have not been studied, especially in the mouse. The present study aimed to investigate the termination pattern of fibers arising from the hindbrain raphe and reticular nuclei which also have serotonergic neurons by injecting the anterograde tracer BDA into them. RESULTS: We found that raphespinal fibers terminate in both the dorsal and ventral horns in addition to lamina 10...
2015: Molecular Pain
Enji Zhang, Min-Hee Yi, Nara Shin, Hyunjung Baek, Sena Kim, Eunjee Kim, Kisang Kwon, Sunyeul Lee, Hyun-Woo Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Yonghyun Kim, O-Yu Kwon, Won Hyung Lee, Dong Woon Kim
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we examined the ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced rat neuropathic pain model. SNL-induced neuropathic pain was assessed behaviorally using the CatWalk system, and histologically with microglial activation in the dorsal spinal horn. L5 SNL induced BIP upregulation in the neuron of superficial laminae of dorsal spinal horn...
2015: Scientific Reports
Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus, Janka Held-Feindt
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in complex posttraumatic sequelae affecting the whole neuraxis. Due to its involvement in varied neuromodulatory processes, the chemokine-ligand/receptor-network is a key element of secondary lesion cascades induced by SCI. This review will provide a synopsis of chemokine-ligand/receptor-expression along the whole neuraxis after traumatic spinal cord (sc) insults on basis of recent in vivo and in vitro findings in a SCI paradigm of thoracic force-defined impact lesions (Infinite Horizon Impactor) in adult rats...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
David E Koser, Emad Moeendarbary, Janina Hanne, Stefanie Kuerten, Kristian Franze
Mechanical signaling plays an important role in cell physiology and pathology. Many cell types, including neurons and glial cells, respond to the mechanical properties of their environment. Yet, for spinal cord tissue, data on tissue stiffness are sparse. To investigate the regional and direction-dependent mechanical properties of spinal cord tissue at a spatial resolution relevant to individual cells, we conducted atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation and tensile measurements on acutely isolated mouse spinal cord tissue sectioned along the three major anatomical planes, and correlated local mechanical properties with the underlying cellular structures...
May 5, 2015: Biophysical Journal
T Matsuura, M Kawasaki, H Hashimoto, T Ishikura, M Yoshimura, J-I Ohkubo, T Maruyama, Y Motojima, K Sabanai, T Mori, H Ohnishi, A Sakai, Y Ueta
Oxytocin (OXT) is a well-known neurohypophysial hormone that is synthesised in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus. The projection of magnocellular neurosecretory cells, which synthesise OXT and arginine vasopressin in the PVN and SON, to the posterior pituitary plays an essential role in mammalian labour and lactation through its peripheral action. However, previous studies have shown that parvocellular OXTergic cells in the PVN, which project to the medulla and spinal cord, are involved in various physiological functions (e...
July 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Miguel Condés-Lara, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Eloísa Rubio-Beltrán, Javier Rodríguez-Jiménez, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Abimael González-Hernández
The hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) inhibits spinal nociception. Furthermore, projections from the PVN to other structures related to pain modulation exist, but a functional interaction has not yet been fully demonstrated. As an initial approach, we show here that PVN electric stimulation with the same parameters used to induce analgesia in rats enhances c-Fos expression not only in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord but also in the nucleus raphe magnus, locus coeruleus and the periaqueductal gray area...
September 2015: Neuroscience Research
Khaled Abdallah, Lénaic Monconduit, Alain Artola, Philippe Luccarini, Radhouane Dallel
Descending pain-modulatory systems, either inhibitory or facilitatory, play a critical role in both acute and chronic pain. Compared with serotonin and norepinephrine, little is known about the function of dopamine (DA). We characterized the anatomical organization of descending DA pathways from hypothalamic A11 nuclei to the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) and investigated their role in trigeminal pain. Immunochemistry analysis reveals that A11 is a heterogeneous nucleus that contains at least 3 neuronal phenotypes, DA, GABA, and alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (α-CGRP) neurons, exhibiting different distribution patterns, with a large proportion of GABA relative to DA neurons...
April 2015: Pain
E Uchytilova, D Spicarova, J Palecek
BACKGROUND: Allodynia and hyperalgesia present after surgical interventions are often a major complain of surgical patients. It is thought that both peripheral and central mechanisms contribute to these symptoms. In this study, the role of peripheral nerve fibres that express transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the activation of spinothalamic tract (STT) and postsynaptic dorsal column (PSDC) neurons was assessed in a model of surgical pain. METHODS: Spinothalamic tract and PSDC neurons retrogradely labelled from the thalamus and nucleus gracilis were used...
November 2015: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Xiaofang Tang, Jean A Büttner-Ennever, Michael J Mustari, Anja K E Horn
Mammalian extraocular muscles contain singly innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and multiply innervated nontwitch muscle fibers (MIF). In monkey, MIF motoneurons lie around the periphery of oculomotor nuclei and have premotor inputs different from those of the motoneurons inside the nuclei. The most prominent MIF motoneuron group is the C group, which innervates the medial rectus (MR) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle. To explore the organization of both cell groups within the C group, we performed small injections of choleratoxin subunit B into the myotendinous junction of MR or IR in monkeys...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Masayoshi Tada, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Osamu Onodera
Recent advances in our understanding of neurophysiological functions in the cerebellar system have revealed that each region involved in degenerative ataxias contributes differently. To regulate voluntary movements, the cerebellum forms internal models within its neural circuits that mimic the behaviour of the sensorimotor system and objects in the external environment. The cerebellum forms two different internal models: forward and inverse. The forward model is formed by efference copy signals conveyed by the corticopontocerebellar system, and it derives the estimated consequences for action...
August 2015: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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