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Dorsal horn nuclei

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477655/the-hdac1-c-jun-complex-is-essential-in-the-promotion-of-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-through-jnk-signaling
#1
Maria Domenica Sanna, Nicoletta Galeotti
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) interfere with the epigenetic process of histone acetylation and are known to have analgesic properties in models of chronic inflammatory pain. Administration of a selective HDAC1 inhibitor (LG325) in SNI-subjected mice significantly attenuated behavior related to injury-induced pain. Understanding the HDAC1 pathway in epigenetic regulation of pathological pain is of great medical relevance. Spared nerve injury (SNI) mice showed a significant increase in the HDAC1 protein levels within spinal cord in coincidence with the nociceptive phenotype at 1 and 3 weeks after nerve injury...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428215/spinal-pkc-activation-induced-neuronal-hmgb1-translocation-contributes-to-hyperalgesia-in-a-bone-cancer-pain-model-in-rats
#2
Kang An, Hui Rong, Huadong Ni, Chunyan Zhu, Longsheng Xu, Qianying Liu, Yajing Chen, Ying Zheng, Bing Huang, Ming Yao
Bone cancer pain (BCP) remains a serious complication of malignancy, which is an intractable clinical problem due to the gap in knowledge of its underlying mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that the major involvement of neuroinflammation, particularly high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which was identified as a late mediator of inflammation, in a number of pain conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms and functions of HMGB1 release in spinal cord, and its contributions to the development of BCP as well, are poorly understood...
February 8, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427106/the-neuropathology-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-machado-joseph-disease
#3
Arnulf H Koeppen
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3)/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), the most common autosomal dominant ataxia, affects many regions of the brain and spinal cord. Similar to SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-6, SCA-7, and SCA-17, the mutation consists of a pathogenic translated cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion. Almost invariably, the substantia nigra and the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum bear the brunt of the disease, and these lesions account for the Parkinsonian and ataxic phenotypes. Lesions of motor nuclei in the brain stem cause the complex disturbance of ocular motility and weakness of the tongue...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421432/dc-evoked-modulation-of-excitability-of-myelinated-nerve-fibres-and-their-terminal-branches-differences-in-sustained-effects-of-dc
#4
Dominik Kaczmarek, Elzbieta Jankowska
Direct current (DC) evokes long-lasting changes in neuronal networks both presynaptically and postsynaptically and different mechanisms were proposed to be involved in them. Different mechanisms were also suggested to account for the different dynamics of presynaptic DC actions on myelinated nerve fibres stimulated before they entered the spinal grey matter and on their terminal branches. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these different dynamics might be related to differences in the involvement of K+ channels...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392233/regular-physical-activity-prevents-development-of-chronic-muscle-pain-through-modulation-of-supraspinal-opioid-and-serotonergic-mechanisms
#5
Renan G Brito, Lynn A Rasmussen, Kathleen A Sluka
Introduction: It is generally believed that exercise produces its effects by activating central opioid receptors; there are little data that support this claim. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are key nuclei in opioid-induced analgesia, and opioids interact with serotonin to produce analgesia. Objectives: The purpose was to examine central inhibitory mechanisms involved in analgesia produced by wheel running. Methods: C57/Black6 mice were given access to running wheels in their home cages before induction of chronic muscle hyperalgesia and compared with those without running wheels...
September 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229559/axons-of-individual-dorsal-horn-neurons-bifurcated-to-project-in-both-the-anterolateral-and-the-postsynaptic-dorsal-column-systems
#6
M Condés-Lara, G Martínez-Lorenzana, G Rojas-Piloni, I A Tello-García, A Manzano-García, E Rubio-Beltran, A González-Hernández
Sensory information stimulates receptors of somatosensory system neurons generating a signal that codifies the characteristics of peripheral stimulation. This information reaches the spinal cord and is relayed to supra-spinal structures through two main systems: the postsynaptic dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DC-ML) and the anterolateral (AL) systems. From the classical point of view, the DC-ML has an ipsilateral ascending pathway to the Gracilis (GRA) or Cuneate (CUN) nuclei and the AL has a contralateral ascending pathway to the ventral posterolateral (VPL) thalamic nucleus...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024431/the-cytoarchitecture-of-the-telencephalon-of-betta-splendens-regan-1910-perciformes-anabantoidei-with-a-stereological-approach-to-the-supracommissural-and-postcommissural-nuclei
#7
Ângelo Cássio Magalhães Horn, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
Teleostean fish brains are useful models to study cellular and functional specializations along the phylogenesis. The Betta splendens Regan 1910 (Siamese fighting fish; Perciformes:Anabantoidei) is known for its aggressive display, courtship behavior, nest building, and offspring care. Here, we present novel and detailed data about the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb and the telencephalic hemispheres of this fish. The hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl techniques served to identify brain nuclei (n = 19 males and n = 21 females) and for the stereological evaluation of the numerical density of cells and the proportion of neurons and glial cells in the ventral telencephalon supracommissural (Vs) and postcommissural (Vp) nuclei of adult males and females...
January 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542900/the-sensory-trigeminal-complex-and-the-organization-of-its-primary-afferents-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#8
Macarena Faunes, J Martin Wild
Our knowledge of the avian sensory trigeminal system has been largely restricted to the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV) and its ascending projections to the forebrain. Studies addressing the cytoarchitecture and organization of afferent input to the sensory trigeminal complex, which includes both the PrV and the nuclei of the descending trigeminal tract (nTTD), have only been performed in pigeons and ducks. Here we extend such an analysis to a songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We describe the cytoarchitecture of the sensory trigeminal complex, the patterns of calbindin-like and substance P-like immunoreactivity, and the organization of afferents from the three branches of the trigeminal nerve and from the lingual branch of the hypoglossal nerve...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533557/the-developmental-emergence-of-differential-brainstem-serotonergic-control-of-the-sensory-spinal-cord
#9
F Schwaller, A H Kanellopoulos, M Fitzgerald
Descending connections from brainstem nuclei are known to exert powerful control of spinal nociception and pain behaviours in adult mammals. Here we present evidence that descending serotonergic fibres not only inhibit nociceptive activity, but also facilitate non-noxious tactile activity in the healthy adult rat spinal dorsal horn via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs). We further show that this differential serotonergic control in the adult emerges from a non-modality selective system in young rats...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444833/chronic-stress-induced-mechanical-hyperalgesia-is-controlled-by-capsaicin-sensitive-neurones-in-the-mouse
#10
B Scheich, P Vincze, É Szőke, É Borbély, Á Hunyady, J Szolcsányi, Á Dénes, Zs Környei, B Gaszner, Zs Helyes
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies demonstrated peripheral nociceptor deficit in stress-related chronic pain states, such as fibromyalgia. The interactions of stress and nociceptive systems have special relevance in chronic pain, but the underlying mechanisms including the role of specific nociceptor populations remain unknown. We investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in chronic stress-related nociceptive changes. METHOD: Capsaicin-sensitive neurones were desensitized by the capsaicin analogue resiniferatoxin (RTX) in CD1 mice...
September 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428485/pathological-lesions-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-peripheral-tissues-of-ddy-mice-with-street-rabies-virus-1088-strain
#11
Kazunori Kimitsuki, Kentaro Yamada, Nozomi Shiwa, Satoshi Inoue, Akira Nishizono, Chun-Ho Park
Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10(6) focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319259/label-free-identification-of-the-microstructure-of-rat-spinal-cords-based-on-nonlinear-optical-microscopy
#12
C X Liao, Z Y Wang, Y Zhou, L Q Zhou, X Q Zhu, W G Liu, J X Chen
The spinal cord is a vital link between the brain and the body and mainly comprises neurons, glial cells and nerve fibres. In this work, nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy based on intrinsic tissue properties was employed to label-freely analyze the cells and matrix in spinal cords at a molecular level. The high-resolution and high-contrast NLO images of unstained spinal cords demonstrate that NLO microscopy has the ability to show the microstructure of white and grey matter including ventral horn, intermediate area, dorsal horns, ventral column, lateral column and dorsal column...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181190/distribution-of-alox15-in-the-rat-brain-and-its-role-in-prefrontal-cortical-resolvin-d1-formation-and-spatial-working-memory
#13
Suku-Maran Shalini, Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Yee-Kong Ng, Jie-Xin Tong, Eng-Shi Ong, Deron R Herr, Gavin S Dawe, Wei-Yi Ong
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in membrane phospholipids of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a role in aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA is metabolized by the enzyme Alox15 to 17S-hydroxy-DHA, which is then converted to 7S-hydroperoxy,17S-hydroxy-DHA by a 5-lipoxygenase, and thence via epoxy intermediates to the anti-inflammatory molecule, resolvin D1 (RvD1 or 7S,8R,17S-trihydroxy-docosa-Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid). In this study, we investigated the distribution and function of Alox15 in the CNS...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458339/expressing-constitutively-active-rheb-in-adult-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-enhances-the-integration-of-sensory-axons-that-regenerate-across-a-chondroitinase-treated-dorsal-root-entry-zone-following-dorsal-root-crush
#14
Di Wu, Michelle C Klaw, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke, Megan R Detloff, Marie-Pascale Côté, Veronica J Tom
While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449278/the-potential-role-of-serotonergic-mechanisms-in-the-spinal-oxytocin-induced-antinociception
#15
Beatriz Godínez-Chaparro, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Javier Rodríguez-Jiménez, Alfredo Manzano-García, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Miguel Condés-Lara, Abimael González-Hernández
The role of oxytocin (OXT) in pain modulation has been suggested. Indeed, hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) electrical stimuli reduce the nociceptive neuronal activity (i.e., neuronal discharge associated with activation of Aδ- and C-fibers) of the spinal dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) cells and nociceptive behavior. Furthermore, raphe magnus nuclei lesion reduces the PVN-induced antinociception, suggesting a functional interaction between the OXT and the serotoninergic system. The present study investigated in Wistar rats the potential role of spinal serotonergic mechanisms in the OXT- and PVN-induced antinociception...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396693/role-of-the-abdominal-vagus-and-hindbrain-in-inhalational-anesthesia-induced-vomiting
#16
Ragini G Gupta, Claire Schafer, Yolande Ramaroson, Michael G Sciullo, Charles C Horn
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be as high as 80% in patients with risk factors (e.g., females, history of motion sickness). PONV delays postoperative recovery and costs several hundred million dollars annually. Cell-based assays show that halogenated ethers (e.g., isoflurane) activate 5-HT3 receptors, which are found on gastrointestinal vagal afferents and in the hindbrain - key pathways for producing nausea and vomiting. This project evaluated the role of the vagus and activation of the hindbrain in isoflurane-induced emesis in musk shrews, a small animal model with a vomiting reflex, which is lacking in rats and mice...
January 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364471/kr%C3%A3-pple-like-factors-7-and-6a-mrna-expression-in-adult-zebrafish-central-nervous-system
#17
Sunil Bhattarai, Alicja Sochacka-Marlowe, Gerald Crutchfield, Ramisha Khan, Richard Londraville, Qin Liu
Krüpple-like factors (KLFs) are transcription factors with zinc finger DNA binding domains known to play important roles in brain development and central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. There is little information on KLFs expression in adult vertebrate CNS. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to examine Klf7 mRNA (klf7) and Klf6a mRNA (klf6a) expression in adult zebrafish CNS. Both klfs exhibit wide and similar expression in the zebrafish CNS. Brain areas containing strongly labeled cells include the ventricular regions of the dorsomedial telencephalon, the ventromedial telencephalon, periventricular regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus, torus longitudinalis, stratum periventriculare of the optic tectum, granular regions of the cerebellar body and valvula, and superficial layers of the facial and vagal lobes...
May 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357901/sparcl1-containing-neurons-in-the-human-brainstem-and-sensory-ganglion
#18
Naoya Hashimoto, Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Masatoshi Fujita, Ayumi Sato, Yoshinaka Shimizu, Yusuke Shimada, Noriaki Shoji, Takashi Sasano, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is a member of the osteonectin family of proteins. In this study, immunohistochemistry for SPARCL1 was performed to obtain its distribution in the human brainstem, cervical spinal cord, and sensory ganglion. SPARCL1-immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal cell bodies including perikarya and proximal dendrites, and the neuropil. The motor nuclei of the IIIrd, Vth, VIth, VIIth, IXth, Xth, XIth, and XIIth cranial nerves and spinal nerves contained many SPARCL1-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons with medium-sized to large cell bodies...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148082/repetitive-diving-in-trained-rats-still-increases-fos-production-in-brainstem-neurons-after-bilateral-sectioning-of-the-anterior-ethmoidal-nerve
#19
Paul F McCulloch, Erik A Warren, Karyn M DiNovo
This research was designed to investigate the role of the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN) during repetitive trained diving in rats, with specific attention to activation of afferent and efferent brainstem nuclei that are part of this reflexive response. The AEN innervates the nose and nasal passages and is thought to be an important component of the afferent limb of the diving response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 24) were trained to swim and dive through a 5 m underwater maze. Some rats (N = 12) had bilateral sectioning of the AEN, others a Sham surgery (N = 12)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030712/improvements-in-impaired-gaba-and-gad65-67-production-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn-contribute-to-exercise-induced-hypoalgesia-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#20
Katsuya Kami, Satoru Taguchi Ms, Fumihiro Tajima, Emiko Senba
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise effectively attenuates neuropathic pain, and multiple events including the inhibition of activated glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn, activation of the descending pain inhibitory system, and reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines in injured peripheral nerves may contribute to exercise-induced hypoalgesia. Since fewer GABAergic hypoalgesic interneurons exist in the dorsal horn in neuropathic pain model animals, the recovery of impaired GABAergic inhibition in the dorsal horn may improve pain behavior...
2016: Molecular Pain
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