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Immune programming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341899/accurate-prediction-of-vaccine-stability-under-real-storage-conditions-and-during-temperature-excursions
#1
Didier Clénet
Due to their thermosensitivity, most vaccines must be kept refrigerated from production to use. To successfully carry out global immunization programs, ensuring the stability of vaccines is crucial. In this context, two important issues are critical, namely: (i) predicting vaccine stability and (ii) preventing product damage due to excessive temperature excursions outside of the recommended storage conditions (cold chain break). We applied a combination of advanced kinetics and statistical analyses on vaccine forced degradation data to accurately describe the loss of antigenicity for a multivalent freeze-dried inactivated virus vaccine containing three variants...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341339/immunomodulation-by-therapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-is-triggered-through-phagocytosis-of-msc-by-monocytic-cells
#2
Samantha F H de Witte, Franka Luk, Jesus M Sierra Parraga, Madhu Gargesha, Ana Merino, Sander S Korevaar, Anusha S Shankar, Lisa O'Flynn, Steve J Elliman, Debashish Roy, Michiel G H Betjes, Philip N Newsome, Carla C Baan, Martin J Hoogduijn
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341192/population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-guselkumab-a-human-igg1%C3%AE-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-il-23-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis
#3
Zhenling Yao, Chuanpu Hu, Yaowei Zhu, Zhenhua Xu, Bruce Randazzo, Yasmine Wasfi, Yang Chen, Amarnath Sharma, Honghui Zhou
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disorder that requires chronic treatment and is associated with multiple comorbidities. Guselkumab, a human immunoglobulin-G1-lambda monoclonal antibody, binds to interleukin-23 with high specificity and affinity and is effective in treating moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. As part of the guselkumab psoriasis clinical trial program, using a confirmatory approach, a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) model was established using 13 014 PK samples from 1454 guselkumab-treated patients across 3 phase 2/3 trials...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340837/exacerbation-of-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-induced-by-the-first-dose-of-programmed-death-1-inhibitor-pembrolizumab-a-case-report
#4
Kenta Ogawa, Jiro Ito, Daichi Fujimoto, Mari Morita, Yuko Yoshizumi, Koichi Ariyoshi, Keisuke Tomii, Nobuyuki Katakami
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated efficacy against various types of cancers. In addition to immune-related adverse events (irAEs) induced by ICIs, exacerbation of baseline autoimmune disease has been occasionally reported. This is the first report of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) exacerbated by pembrolizumab. An 82-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma 2 years ago. The patient had chronic anemia with positive direct and indirect Coombs test prior to initiating pembrolizumab therapy at a nearby hospital...
January 16, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340212/40-years-without-smallpox
#5
G A Shchelkunova, S N Shchelkunov
The last case of natural smallpox was recorded in October, 1977. It took humanity almost 20 years to achieve that feat after the World Health Organization had approved the global smallpox eradication program. Vaccination against smallpox was abolished, and, during the past 40 years, the human population has managed to lose immunity not only to smallpox, but to other zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections as well. As a result, multiple outbreaks of orthopoxvirus infections in humans in several continents have been reported over the past decades...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340037/systemic-bioinformatics-analysis-of-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-gene-expression-profiles
#6
Jian Wu, Zheng-Ping Chen, An-Quan Shang, Wei-Wei Wang, Zong-Ning Chen, Yun-Juan Tao, Yue Zhou, Wan-Xiang Wang
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) represents the most common chronic oral diseases with the prevalence ranges from 5% to 25% for different populations. Its pathogenesis remains poorly understood, which limits the development of effective drugs and treatment methods. In this study, we conducted systemic bioinformatics analysis of gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) to identify potential drug targets for RAS. We firstly downloaded the gene microarray datasets with the accession number of GSE37265 from GEO and performed robust multi-array (RMA) normalization with affy R programming package...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338844/sfe-sfedp-adrenal-insufficiency-french-consensus-introduction-and-handbook
#7
Yves Reznik, Pascal Barat, Jérôme Bertherat, Claire Bouvattier, Frédéric Castinetti, Olivier Chabre, Philippe Chanson, Christine Cortet, Brigitte Delemer, Bernard Goichot, Damien Gruson, Laurence Guignat, Emmanuelle Proust-Lemoine, Marie-Laure Raffin Sanson, Rachel Reynaud, Dinane Samara Boustani, Dominique Simon, Antoine Tabarin, Delphine Zenaty
The French endocrinology society (SFE) and the French pediatric endocrinology society (DFSDP) have drawn up recommendations for the management of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency in the adult and child, based on an analysis of the literature by 19 experts in 6 work-groups. A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in the presence of a number of non-specific symptoms except hyperpigmentation which is observed in primary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis rely on plasma cortisol and ACTH measurement at 8am and/or the cortisol increase after synacthen administration...
January 12, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338717/risk-factors-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in%C3%A2-children-under-five-years-attending-the-bamenda-regional-hospital-in-cameroon
#8
Alexis A Tazinya, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Lawrence T Mbuagbaw, Martin Abanda, Julius Atashili, Marie Therese Obama
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. This study aimed at determining the proportion of acute respiratory infections and the associated risk factors in children under 5 years visiting the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 512 children under 5 years was carried out from December 2014 to February 2015...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338438/challenges-in-adult-vaccination
#9
Eduardo de Gomensoro, Giuseppe Del Giudice, T Mark Doherty
Life-long primary prevention interventions beginning and continuing throughout an individual's lifetime are increasingly seen as key to meeting the global healthcare challenges that accompany demographic changes - a concept referred to as "Healthy aging". In this perspective, vaccination is seen as part of a triad, together with healthy diet and exercise. Current adult vaccine coverage is lower than target vaccination rates in most developed countries, and so vaccine preventable diseases continue to present a substantial burden on health and healthcare resources, especially in older individuals...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337640/molecular-determinants-of-response-to-anti-programmed-cell-death-pd-1-and-anti-programmed-death-ligand-pd-l-ligand-1-blockade-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-profiled-with-targeted-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Hira Rizvi, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Konnor La, Walid Chatila, Philip Jonsson, Darragh Halpenny, Andrew Plodkowski, Niamh Long, Jennifer L Sauter, Natasha Rekhtman, Travis Hollmann, Kurt A Schalper, Justin F Gainor, Ronglai Shen, Ai Ni, Kathryn C Arbour, Taha Merghoub, Jedd Wolchok, Alexandra Snyder, Jamie E Chaft, Mark G Kris, Charles M Rudin, Nicholas D Socci, Michael F Berger, Barry S Taylor, Ahmet Zehir, David B Solit, Maria E Arcila, Marc Ladanyi, Gregory J Riely, Nikolaus Schultz, Matthew D Hellmann
Purpose Treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is characterized by durable responses and improved survival in a subset of patients. Clinically available tools to optimize use of ICIs and understand the molecular determinants of response are needed. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly routine, but its role in identifying predictors of response to ICIs is not known. Methods Detailed clinical annotation and response data were collected for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with anti-programmed death-1 or anti-programmed death-ligand 1 [anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1] therapy and profiled by targeted NGS (MSK-IMPACT; n = 240)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337311/dinaciclib-induces-immunogenic-cell-death-and-enhances-anti-pd-1-mediated-tumor-suppression
#11
Dewan Md Sakib Hossain, Sarah Javaid, Mingmei Cai, Chunsheng Zhang, Anandi Sawant, Marlene Hinton, Manjiri Sathe, Jeff Grein, Wendy Blumenschein, Elaine M Pinheiro, Alissa Chackerian
Blockade of the checkpoint inhibitor programmed death 1 (PD1) has demonstrated remarkable success in the clinic for the treatment of cancer; however, a majority of tumors are resistant to anti-PD1 monotherapy. Numerous ongoing clinical combination therapy studies will likely reveal additional therapeutics that complement anti-PD1 blockade. Recent studies found that immunogenic cell death (ICD) improves T cell responses against different tumors, thus indicating that ICD may further augment antitumor immunity elicited by anti-PD1...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337304/the-host-protecting-the-tumor-from-the-host-targeting-pd%C3%A2-l1-expressed-by-host-cells
#12
David H Munn
Tumors frequently escape from immune surveillance by hijacking the natural control mechanisms that regulate normal immune responses. The programmed death-1 receptor (PD‑1) on T cells normally helps limit excessive immune activation, but it can also suppress beneficial antitumor immunity. In the clinic, blocking either PD‑1 or one of its principal counterligands, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD‑L1), can lead to dramatic responses in certain patients. Because PD‑L1 can be expressed by both the tumor cells themselves and also the host cells, including host immune cells, the actual mechanistic target of therapy has remained unclear...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337303/pd-l1-on-host-cells-is-essential-for-pd-l1-blockade-mediated-tumor-regression
#13
Haidong Tang, Yong Liang, Robert A Anders, Janis M Taube, Xiangyan Qiu, Aditi Mulgaonkar, Xin Liu, Susan M Harrington, Jingya Guo, Yangchun Xin, Yahong Xiong, Kien Nham, William Silvers, Guiyang Hao, Xiankai Sun, Mingyi Chen, Raquibul Hannan, Jian Qiao, Haidong Dong, Hua Peng, Yang-Xin Fu
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells is essential for T cell impairment, and PD-L1 blockade therapy has shown unprecedented durable responses in several clinical studies. Although higher expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells is associated with a better immune response after Ab blockade, some PD-L1-negative patients also respond to this therapy. In the current study, we explored whether PD-L1 on tumor or host cells was essential for anti-PD-L1-mediated therapy in 2 different murine tumor models...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336923/report-on-who-meeting-on-immunization-in-older-adults-geneva-switzerland-22-23-march-2017
#14
M Teresa Aguado, Jane Barratt, John R Beard, Bonnie B Blomberg, Wilbur H Chen, Julian Hickling, Terri B Hyde, Mark Jit, Rebecca Jones, Gregory A Poland, Martin Friede, Justin R Ortiz
Many industrialized countries have implemented routine immunization policies for older adults, but similar strategies have not been widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In March 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify policies and activities to promote access to vaccination of older adults, specifically in LMICs. Participants included academic and industry researchers, funders, civil society organizations, implementers of global health interventions, and stakeholders from developing countries with adult immunization needs...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335381/the-fetal-programming-of-telomere-biology-hypothesis-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Sonja Entringer, Karin de Punder, Claudia Buss, Pathik D Wadhwa
Research on mechanisms underlying fetal programming of health and disease risk has focused primarily on processes that are specific to cell types, organs or phenotypes of interest. However, the observation that developmental conditions concomitantly influence a diverse set of phenotypes, the majority of which are implicated in age-related disorders, raises the possibility that such developmental conditions may additionally exert effects via a common underlying mechanism that involves cellular/molecular ageing-related processes...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335088/-role-of-programmed-death-1-in-viral-infectious-diseases
#16
Fu-Ce Lu, Guang-Min Nong
The research on the immunoregulatory effect of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in infectious diseases mainly focuses on chronic viral infection, but there are few studies on acute viral infection. In chronic viral infection, PD-1 is highly expressed on the surface of CD8+ T cells, which is a sign of CD8+ T cell depletion. Recent studies have shown that in chronic viral infection, PD-1 is also highly expressed on the surface of regulatory T cells and binds to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on the surface of exhausted CD8+ T cells, resulting in a stronger inhibitory effect on CD8+ T cell immunity...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333980/percentages-of-pd-1-cd4-t-cells-and-pd-l1-dcs-are-increased-and-spd-1-level-is-elevated-in-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia
#17
Yingying Wang, Nannan Pang, Xinyou Wang, Ying Liu, Xiujuan Wang, Lei Wang, Mingling Sun, Halida Yasen, Fang Zhao, Wenxia Fan, Jianbing Ding, Xinhong Guo
The present study is to measure the expression of programmed death (PD)-1 / programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) negative costimulatory molecules, soluble format sPD-1 in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and to investigate their correlation with the secretion of cytokines. A total of 35 patients with ITP were included in the present study. Twenty healthy subjects who received physical examination at our hospital were included as control group. Peripheral blood was collected from all ITP patients and healthy subjects...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333939/parents-attitude-awareness-and-behaviour-towards-influenza-vaccination-in-pakistan
#18
Allah Bukhsh, Habib-Ur Rehman, Inayat Ur Rehman, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
National immunization program of Pakistan does not include Influenza vaccines. The low rate of immunization might be attributed to the poor knowledge of influenza vaccination in Pakistan. Current study was aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of influenza vaccination among parents. A questionnaire-based cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected parents with at least one child aged >6 months. The responses were recorded against 27 items questionnaire assessing knowledge, perception, attitude and behaviours of parents...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333023/nivolumab-pearls-of-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Pratishtha B Chaudhari
Purpose: Nivolumab is one of the most extensively studied immune checkpoint inhibitors across various tumor types. In this narrative review, the current clinical efficacy and safety data of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) nivolumab for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are elucidated. Methods: Systematic search was done on Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central through September 2016 for controlled prospective interventional studies of nivolumab across two indications - NSCLC and RCC...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332341/association-of-the-combined-parameters-including-the-frequency-of-primary-cilia-cd8-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-and-pd-1-expression-with-the-outcome-in-intestinal-cancer
#20
Josef Dvorak, Dimitar Hadzi Nikolov, Ladislav Dusek, Alzbeta Filipova, Igor Richter, David Buka, Ales Ryska, Jaroslav Mokry, Stanislav Filip, Bohuslav Melichar, Tomas Buchler, Jitka Abrahamova
PURPOSE: Primary cilium (PC) is considered to be a functional homologue of the immune synapse. Microtubule structures, PC of cancer associated fibroblasts and immune synapses between cytotoxic CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cancer cells, are regularly found in varying amounts in the microenvironment of solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to find out the potential association and combined prognostic significance of the frequency of PC, PD-1 and CD8+ TILs in patients with intestinal cancer...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
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