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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792776/prevalence-of-inadequate-immunity-to-measles-mumps-rubella-and-varicella-in-mlb-and-nba-athletes
#1
Justin J Conway, Brett G Toresdahl, Daphne I Ling, Nicole T Boniquit, Lisa R Callahan, James J Kinderknecht
BACKGROUND: Multiple outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have occurred in professional sports in recent years. Currently, there is no established protocol for vaccination or immunity screening for professional athletes. HYPOTHESIS: There are significant differences in the prevalence of inadequate immunity dependent on age, sport, country of birth, and participation in collegiate sports. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792555/vaccine-hesitancy-among-caregivers-and-association-with-childhood-vaccination-timeliness-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#2
Nina B Masters, Yemesrach A Tefera, Abram L Wagner, Matthew L Boulton
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are vital to reducing childhood mortality, and prevent an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths annually which disproportionately occur in the developing world. Overall vaccine coverage is typically used as a metric to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine program performance, though it does not account for untimely administration, which may unnecessarily prolong children's susceptibility to disease. This study explored a hypothesized positive association between increasing vaccine hesitancy and untimeliness of immunizations administered under the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
May 24, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791768/vaccine-immunotherapy-with-arnax-induces-tumor-specific-memory-t-cells-and-durable-anti-tumor-immunity-in-mouse-models
#3
Yohei Takeda, Sumito Yoshida, Ken Takashima, Noriko Ishii-Mugikura, Hiroaki Shime, Tsukasa Seya, Misako Matsumoto
Immunological checkpoint blockade therapies benefit a limited population of cancer patients. We have previously shown that vaccine immunotherapy with TLR3-adjuvant and tumor antigen overcomes anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) resistance in mouse tumor models. In this study, four different OVA-expressing tumor cell lines were implanted into syngeneic mice and subjected to antitumor immunotherapy using ARNAX and whole OVA protein. ARNAX is a Toll-like receptor 3-specific agonist that does not activate the MAVS pathway, and thus does not induce systemic inflammation...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791256/nlrp6-induces-pyroptosis-by-activation-of-caspase-1-in-gingival-fibroblasts
#4
W Liu, J Liu, W Wang, Y Wang, X Ouyang
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, has been reported to participate in inflammasome formation. Activation of inflammasome triggers a caspase-1-dependent programming cell death called pyroptosis. However, whether NLRP6 induces pyroptosis has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that NLRP6 overexpression activated caspase-1 and gasdermin-D and then induced pyroptosis of human gingival fibroblasts, resulting in release of proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790974/crisprcasfinder-an-update-of-crisrfinder-includes-a-portable-version-enhanced-performance-and-integrates-search-for-cas-proteins
#5
David Couvin, Aude Bernheim, Claire Toffano-Nioche, Marie Touchon, Juraj Michalik, Bertrand Néron, Eduardo P C Rocha, Gilles Vergnaud, Daniel Gautheret, Christine Pourcel
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) arrays and their associated (Cas) proteins confer bacteria and archaea adaptive immunity against exogenous mobile genetic elements, such as phages or plasmids. CRISPRCasFinder allows the identification of both CRISPR arrays and Cas proteins. The program includes: (i) an improved CRISPR array detection tool facilitating expert validation based on a rating system, (ii) prediction of CRISPR orientation and (iii) a Cas protein detection and typing tool updated to match the latest classification scheme of these systems...
May 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790966/tcrmodel-high-resolution-modeling-of-t-cell-receptors-from-sequence
#6
Ragul Gowthaman, Brian G Pierce
T cell receptors (TCRs), along with antibodies, are responsible for specific antigen recognition in the adaptive immune response, and millions of unique TCRs are estimated to be present in each individual. Understanding the structural basis of TCR targeting has implications in vaccine design, autoimmunity, as well as T cell therapies for cancer. Given advances in deep sequencing leading to immune repertoire-level TCR sequence data, fast and accurate modeling methods are needed to elucidate shared and unique 3D structural features of these molecules which lead to their antigen targeting and cross-reactivity...
May 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790933/the-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccines-on-genotype-diversity-a-comprehensive-analysis-of-2-decades-of-australian-surveillance-data
#7
Susie Roczo-Farkas, Carl D Kirkwood, Daniel Cowley, Graeme L Barnes, Ruth F Bishop, Nada Bogdanovic-Sakran, Karen Boniface, Celeste M Donato, Julie E Bines
Background: Introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs (NIPs) could result in strain selection due to vaccine-induced selective pressure. This study describes the distribution and diversity of rotavirus genotypes before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction into the Australian NIP. State-based vaccine selection facilitated a unique comparison of diversity in RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccine states. Methods: From 1995 to 2015, the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program conducted genotypic analysis on 13051 rotavirus-positive samples from children <5 years of age, hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790925/effectiveness-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-hospitalization-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-older-us-adults-a-test-negative-design
#8
John M McLaughlin, Qin Jiang, Raul E Isturiz, Heather L Sings, David L Swerdlow, Bradford D Gessner, Ruth M Carrico, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L Wiemken, William A Mattingly, Julio A Ramirez, Luis Jodar
Background: Following universal recommendation for use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in US adults aged ≥65 years in September 2014, we conducted the first real-world evaluation of PCV13 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against hospitalized vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in this population. Methods: Using a test-negative design, we identified cases and controls from a population-based surveillance study of adults in Louisville, Kentucky, who were hospitalized with CAP...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790686/the-expression-of-selected-molecular-markers-of-immune-tolerance-in-psoriatic-patients
#9
Joanna Bartosińska, Joanna Purkot, Małgorzata Kowal, Anna Michalak-Stoma, Dorota Krasowska, Grażyna Chodorowska, Krzysztof Giannopoulos
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic autoinflammatory disease whose underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The disease is mediated by the cells and molecules of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Some T cell surface molecules, including neuropilin-1 (NRP1), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and the human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), are known to play a role in the maintenance of immune tolerance. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate HLA-G, NRP1 and programmed cell death gene (PDCD1) mRNA expression in psoriatic patients...
April 24, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790143/-managing-the-adverse-effects-related-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
Hsiao-Hsuan Kuo, Wei-Wu Chen
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become the new posterchild of cancer treatment in recent years largely due to their impressive clinical efficacy. Drugs targeting cytotoxic T- lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies, e.g., ipilimumab (Yervoy®), pembrolizumab (Keytruda®), and nivolumab (Opdivo®), reinvigorate cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer cells in patients. Despite the impressive clinical benefits, ICIs may induce immune-related adverse events (irAE) of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, endocrine, and lung with a wide spectrum of severity...
June 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789993/the-role-of-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt-in-diseases-of-the-salivary-glands
#11
REVIEW
Margherita Sisto, Sabrina Lisi, Domenico Ribatti
The link between inflammatory microenvironment and cancer emerged in the last years as a decisive factor in the induction of the pathological epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT induces changes of cell states converting the epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells when this program is fully executed and EMT has emerged as a central driver of tumor malignancy. Cellular pathways activated by chronic inflammation brought about by chronic infections, by immune-mediated diseases, or by dysregulated wound healing at sites of repetitive tissue injury, constitute risk factors or initial cell transformation and for cancer progression...
May 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789521/triad3a-induces-the-degradation-of-early-necrosome-to-limit-ripk1-dependent-cytokine-production-and-necroptosis
#12
Norah A Alturki, Scott McComb, Ardeshir Ariana, Dikchha Rijal, Robert G Korneluk, Shao-Cong Sun, Emad Alnemri, Subash Sad
Understanding the molecular signaling in programmed cell death is vital to a practical understanding of inflammation and immune cell function. Here we identify a previously unrecognized mechanism that functions to downregulate the necrosome, a central signaling complex involved in inflammation and necroptosis. We show that RipK1 associates with RipK3 in an early necrosome, independent of RipK3 phosphorylation and MLKL-induced necroptotic death. We find that formation of the early necrosome activates K48-ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of RipK1, Caspase-8, and other necrosomal proteins...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789418/juxtacrine-signaling-inhibits-antitumor-immunity-by-upregulating-pd-l1-expression
#13
Wen-Hao Yang, Jong-Ho Cha, Weiya Xia, Heng-Huan Lee, Li-Chuan Chan, Ying-Nai Wang, Jennifer L Hsu, Guoxin Ren, Mien-Chie Hung
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a well-known immune checkpoint protein that helps cancer cells evade immune response. Anti-PD-L1 immune therapy has been approved for the treatment of several advanced human cancers. Therefore, further understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of PD-L1 is critical to improve PD-L1-targeting immunotherapy. Recent studies indicated that contact-dependent pathways may regulate anticancer immunity, highlighting the importance of cell contact-induced signaling in cancer immunity...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789368/the-case-for-an-expanded-concept-of-trained-immunity
#14
Antonio Cassone
Trained immunity was originally proposed as a program of innate immunity memory by innate immunity cells of hematopoietic origin such as the monocytes/macrophages and the NK cells. Here I discuss some old and new data justifying this program and some specific, still unanswered, questions it raises regarding the model fungus Candida albicans and the chronic, inflammatory vulvovaginal disease it causes. Building upon this well-established program, the recent reports that epithelial cells of mammals can also acquire memory from previous stimulations, and the apparent intrinsic ability of many living cells from bacteria to mammals to learn from experience, I suggest an expansion of the concept of trained immunity to include all cells of different lineages with the potential of memorizing previous microbial encounters...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789013/prognostic-significance-of-pd-l1-expression-and-cd8-t-cell-infiltration-in-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors
#15
Haiyue Wang, Zhongwu Li, Bin Dong, Wei Sun, Xin Yang, Ruping Liu, Lixin Zhou, Xiaozheng Huang, Ling Jia, Dongmei Lin
BACKGROUND: Recent research supports a significant role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of solid tumors. However, relevant reports for programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) have not been fully studied. Therefore, we investigated PNETs for the expression of PD-L1 and infiltration by CD8+ TILs as well as the prognostic value of both factors. METHODS: In total, 159 specimens of PNETs (35 TC, 2 AC, 28 LCNEC, 94 SCLC) were included in this study...
May 22, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787423/autoimmune-granulomatous-inflammation-of-lacrimal-glands-and-axonal-neuritis-following-treatment-with-ipilimumab-and-radiation-therapy
#16
Ecaterina Ileana Dumbrava, Veronica Smith, Rasha Alfattal, Adel K El-Naggar, Marta Penas-Prado, Apostolia M Tsimberidou
Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), anti PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) and PD-L1 (programmed cell death protein-ligand 1) monoclonal antibodies are emerging as standard oncology treatments in various tumor types. The indications will expand as immunotherapies are being investigated in various tumors with promising results. Currently, there is inadequate identification of predictive biomarkers of response or toxicity. Unique response patterns include pseudoprogression and delayed response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787334/global-rotavirus-vaccine-introductions-and-coverage-2006-2016
#17
Alice Abou-Nader, Molly Sauer, A Duncan Steele, Jacqueline E Tate, Deborah Atherly, Umesh D Parashar, Mathuram Santosham, E Anthony S Nelson
An estimated 215,000 children died of rotavirus infections in 2013, accounting for 37% of diarrhea-related deaths worldwide, 92% of which occurred in low and lower-middle income countries. Since 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of rotavirus vaccines in all national immunization programs. This review compares rotavirus vaccine (RV) introductions and vaccine coverage by region, country income status and Gavi-eligibility from 2006-2016. Gross National Income data from the World Bank and surviving infant population from United Nations Population Division was obtained for 2016...
May 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786888/injectable-bioresponsive-gel-depot-for-enhanced-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#18
Shuangjiang Yu, Chao Wang, Jicheng Yu, Jinqiang Wang, Yue Lu, Yuqi Zhang, Xudong Zhang, Quanyin Hu, Wujin Sun, Chaoliang He, Xuesi Chen, Zhen Gu
Although cancer immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors holds great promise toward many types of cancers, several challenges still remain, associated with low objective response of patient rate as well as systemic side effects. Here, a combination immunotherapy strategy is developed based on a thermogelling reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive polypeptide gel for sustained release of anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 antibody and dextro-1-methyl tryptophan, inhibitor of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase with leveraging the ROS level in the tumor microenvironment...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786078/targeting-the-upstream-transcriptional-activator-of-pd-l1-as-an-alternative-strategy-in-melanoma-therapy
#19
Bo Zhu, Liming Tang, Shuyang Chen, Chengqian Yin, Shiguang Peng, Xin Li, Tongzheng Liu, Wei Liu, Changpeng Han, Lukasz Stawski, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Guangbiao Zhou, Xiang Chen, Xiumei Gao, Colin R Goding, Nan Xu, Rutao Cui, Peng Cao
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) interacts with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) as an immune checkpoint. Reactivating the immune response by inhibiting PD-L1 using therapeutic antibodies provides substantial clinical benefits in many, though not all, melanoma patients. However, transcriptional suppression of PD-L1 expression as an alternative therapeutic anti-melanoma strategy has not been exploited. Here we provide biochemical evidence demonstrating that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induction of PD-L1 in skin is directly controlled by nuclear factor E2-related transcription factor 2 (NRF2)...
May 22, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785672/aberrant-t-cell-subsets-and-cytokines-expression-profile-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#20
Haiyan Zhou, Bailong Hu, Niwen Huang, Xiangang Mo, Wei Li, Bei Zhang, Bo Wei, Mingzhu Gao, Yiming Wang, Xingde Liu, Joshua Liao
To assess T cell subsets and levels of chemokines and cytokines in patients with SLE and determine their relationships between disease activity and organ involvement. Blood samples from SLE patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 36) were analyzed. Frequency of circulating follicular help T cells (Tfh), central memory T cells (Tcm), effector memory T cells (Tem), and naïve T cell subsets was enumerated and their surface markers expression of inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) and programmed death 1(PD-1) protein was examined by flow cytometry...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
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