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Gram positive

Makoto Chiba, Takanori Itabashi, Koujiro Hirai, Mitsuo Sakamoto, Moriya Ohkuma, Taichiro Ishige, Shinji Kawasaki
A strain (Hime 5-1T ) of lactic acid bacterium was isolated from the gut of the grasshopper Metrioptera engelhardti from a mountainous area of Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Strain Hime 5-1T had a low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known lactic acid bacteria, with the closest recognized relatives being Lactobacillus tucceti (96.7 %), Lactobacillus furfuricola (96.5 %), Lactobacillus versmoldensis (96.3 %) and Lactobacillus nodensis (96.1 %). Comparative analyses of the rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that Hime 5-1T is not closely related to other Lactobacillus species...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
P Ioannou, M Stavroulaki, V Mavrikaki, I Papakitsou, S Panagiotakis
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the main cause of euvolemic hyponatremia and is often associated with medications or underlying diseases. Linezolid is a potent antibiotic against resistant Gram-positive microorganisms that has been associated with mild hyponatremia, yet with a mechanism different from SIADH. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a patient who developed severe hyponatremia during treatment with linezolid for an ampicillin-resistant E...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Sheta M Sheta, Said M El-Sheikh, Mohkles M Abd-Elzaher
Novel copper metal organic framework nanoparticles Cu-MOF-NPs (C1) were prepared via two simple alternative methods and confirmed by analytical characterization using mass, IR, Raman, XRD spectrum, HR-TEM and TGA-DSC. Mass spectroscopy revealed the molecular ion peak at 647 m/z for the monomeric unit structure n[Cu(AIP)2 (PIY)(H2 O)2 ]·4H2 O, the presence of which was further supported by mass fragmentation. The Raman spectrum revealed two separate peaks corresponding to D and G bands of carbon in the structure of C1...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Katherine D Hills, Daniela A Oliveira, Nicholas D Cavallaro, Carmen L Gomes, Eric S McLamore
We demonstrate a sensing mechanism for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples using the actuation of chitosan-aptamer nanobrush borders. The bio-inspired soft material and sensing strategy mimic natural symbiotic systems, where low levels of bacteria are selectively captured from complex matrices. To engineer this biomimetic system, we first develop reduced graphene oxide/nanoplatinum (rGO-nPt) electrodes, and characterize the fundamental electrochemical behavior in the presence and absence of chitosan nanobrushes during actuation (pH-stimulated osmotic swelling)...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Truong Thi Tuong Vi, Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar, Bishakh Rout, Chi-Hsien Liu, Chak-Bor Wong, Chia-Wei Chang, Chien-Hao Chen, Dave W Chen, Shingjiang Jessie Lue
In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were decorated on thiol (-SH) grafted graphene oxide (GO) layers to investigate the antibacterial activities in Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus ) and Gram-negative bacteria ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa ). The quasi-spherical, nano-sized Ag NPs were attached to the GO surface layers, as confirmed by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The average size of GO-Ag nanocomposites was significantly reduced (327 nm) from those of pristine GO (962 nm) while the average size of loaded Ag NPs was significantly smaller than the Ag NPs without GO...
March 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kasandra R Dassoulas, Jessica Wang, Jenna Thuman, Idorenyin Ndem, Christine Schaeffer, Madeline Stovall, Alexandra Tilt, Andy Lee, Kant Y Lin, Christopher A Campbell
BACKGROUND: Infection is the most significant complication in implant-based breast reconstruction, potentially leading to reconstructive failure. We hypothesized that implementation of an evidence-based protocol marked by preoperative decolonization and sterility optimization would result in a decline in postoperative infection rates. METHODS: Informed by a literature review, we developed an evidence-based, perioperative infection prevention protocol implemented in 2015...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Pramod Gavel, Dharm Dev, Hamendra Singh Parmar, Sheetal Bhasin, Apurba K Das
Here, we report the self-assembly of Amoc (9-anthracenemethoxycarbonyl)-capped dipeptides, which self-assemble to form injectable, self-healable and shape-memory hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties. Amoc-capped dipeptides self-assemble to form nanofibrillar networks, which are established by several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The inherent antibacterial properties of hydrogels are evaluated using two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi bacteria...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nicolas Danylec, Andrea Göbl, Dominic A Stoll, Birgit Hetzer, Sabine E Kulling, Melanie Huch
Two novel, anaerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterial strains, ResAG-85T and ResAG-96T , were isolated from a faecal sample of a male human. 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses indicated that these strains represent a distinct lineage within the family Eggerthellaceae. Strain ResAG-85T showed 92.3 % similarity to the type strains of the genera Eggerthella and Gordonibacter. Strain ResAG-96T clustered together with Paraeggerthella hongkongensis and the newly (but not validly) published genus 'Arabia massiliensis' (94...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
A novel α-proteobacterium, designated strain S-54T , was isolated from forest soil sampled at Kyonggi University and subjected to polyphasic study. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Strain S-54T assimilated lactic acid, d-glucose and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Strain S-54T tolerated 4 % NaCl (w/v), and grew optimally at 45 °C and pH 10.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data revealed that strain S-54T formed a lineage within the class Alphaproteobacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria that was distinct from various members of the genus Altererythrobacter, including Altererythrobacter troitsensis JCM 17037T (96...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Julia Koehler Leman, Richard Bonneau, Martin B Ulmschneider
Modeling membrane protein (MP) folding, insertion, association and their interactions with other proteins, lipids, and drugs requires accurate transfer free energies (TFEs). Various TFE scales have been derived to quantify the energy required or released to insert an amino acid or protein into the membrane. Experimental measurement of TFEs is challenging, and only few scales were extended to depth-dependent energetic profiles. Statistical approaches can be used to derive such potentials; however, this requires a sufficient number of MP structures...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam J Pelzek, Bo Shopsin, Emily E Radke, Kayan Tam, Beatrix M Ueberheide, David Fenyö, Stuart M Brown, Qianhao Li, Ada Rubin, Yi Fulmer, William K Chiang, David N Hernandez, Hanane El Bannoudi, William E Sause, Alexis Sommerfield, Isaac P Thomsen, Andy O Miller, Victor J Torres, Gregg J Silverman
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and invasive infections in the hospital and community. High mortality from infection emphasizes the need for improved methods for prevention and treatment. Although S. aureus possesses an arsenal of virulence factors that contribute to evasion of host defenses, few studies have examined long-term humoral and B-cell responses. Adults with acute-phase skin and soft tissue infections were recruited; blood samples were obtained; and S...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Shui Liu, Yonglin Zhou, Xiaodi Niu, Tingting Wang, Jiyun Li, Zhongjie Liu, Jianfeng Wang, Shusheng Tang, Yang Wang, Xuming Deng
The emergence of plasmid-mediated New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is an increasing clinical threat. Here we report the discovery of an NDM-1 inhibitor, magnolol, through enzyme inhibition screening. We showed that magnolol significantly inhibited NDM enzyme activity (IC50  = 6.47 µg/mL), and it restored the activity of meropenem against Escherichia coli ZC-YN3, an NDM-1-producing E. coli isolate, in in vitro antibacterial activity assays. Magnolol lacked direct antibacterial activity, but compared with meropenem alone, it reduced the MICs of meropenem against E...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Tuna Demirdal, Pinar Sen, Salih Atakan Nemli
Background and Aims: Several biomarkers are used in the diagnosis of bacteremia. Procalcitonin (PCT) is more specific than other biomarkers in differentiating bacterial and nonbacterial inflammation. It was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in bacteremic patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: A total of 156 patients diagnosed with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and severe sepsis/septic shock in ICU between December 2014 and July 2015 were evaluated in this prospective cohort study...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Brice Felden, Vincent Cattoir
The extensive use of antibiotics has resulted in a situation where multidrug-resistant pathogens have become a severe menace to human health worldwide. A deeper understanding of the principles used by pathogens to adapt, respond and resist against antibiotics will pave the road to drugs with novel mechanisms. For bacteria, antibiotics are clinically-relevant stresses that induce protective responses. The recent implication of regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) into antibiotic response and resistance in many bacterial pathogens suggests that they should be considered as innovative drug targets...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Thomas L Holland, William O'Riordan, Alison McManus, Elliot Shin, Ali Borghei, Thomas M File, Mark H Wilcox, Antoni Torres, Matthew Dryden, Thomas Lodise, Toyoko Oguri, G Ralph Corey, Patrick McLeroth, Rajesh Shukla, David B Huang
Iclaprim is a novel diaminopyrimidine antibiotic that may be an effective and safe treatment for serious skin infections. The safety and effectiveness of iclaprim were assessed in a global Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial. Six-hundred thirteen adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) suspected or confirmed to be due to Gram-positive pathogens were randomized to iclaprim (80 mg) or vancomycin (15mg/kg), both administered intravenously every 12 hours for 5 - 14 days...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Palida Emmanoch, Nanthawat Kosa, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc
Four isoforms of calcium binding proteins containing 2 EF hand motifs and a dynein light chain-like domain in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini , namely OvCaBP1, 2, 3, and 4, were characterized. They had molecular weights of 22.7, 21.6, 23.7, and 22.5 kDa, respectively and showed 37.2-42.1% sequence identity to CaBP22.8 of O. viverrini . All were detected in 2- and 4-week-old immature and mature parasites. Additionally, OvCaBP4 was found in newly excysted juveniles. Polyclonal antibodies against each isoform were generated to detect the native proteins in parasite extracts by Western blot analysis...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Gautam Achar, C R Shahini, Siddappa A Patil, Jan Grzegorz Małecki, Szu-Hua Pan, Albert Lan, Xuan-Ren Chen, Srinivasa Budagumpi
In this contribution, a series of sterically-encumbered coumarin substituted benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors (1-12) and their silver(I)-NHC complexes (13-24) are reported. Molecular structure of NHC precursors 8 and 12 and cationic complexes 15 and 16 was established by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The silver(I) complexes demonstrated various significant intramolecular agostic-like interactions operating between the metal center and the hydrogen atoms of the substituents alongside a variety of feeble π-π stacking interactions...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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