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Lucas M Morrison, Kirk A Unger, James H Watterson
Analysis of dextromethorphan (DXM) and its metabolite dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletal remains of rats following acute (ACU, 75 mg/kg, IP, n = 10) or three repeated (REP, 25 mg/kg, IP, n = 10, 40-min interval) doses of DXM is described. Following dosing and euthanasia, rats decomposed outdoors to skeleton in two different microclimate environments (n = 5 ACU and n = 5 REP at each site): Site A (shaded forest microenvironment) and Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Two drug-free rats at each site served as negative controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lang Sun, Yi Luo, Ming Li, Guanghui Hu, Yongjie Xu, Tao Tang, Jianfeng Wen, Xinyu Li, Liang Wang
Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) exhibit exciting properties in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for ample electrocatalytic edging and N-doped active sites. However, low yield and high dispersity of N-GQDs prohibit their direct application as the electrocatalyst. In this paper, two facile hydrothermal progress were developed to synthesize the high-yield N-GQDs with the diameter of ca. 2-6nm and the hybrid of N-GQDs/Reduced Graphene Oxide (N-GQDs/r-GO). The results demonstrated that the N-GQDs/r-GO display remarkable electrocatalytic activity...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Naseem Cassim, Lindi Marie Coetzee, Kathryn Schnippel, Deborah Kim Glencross
INTRODUCTION: During 2016, the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) introduced laboratory-based reflexed Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening to detect early Cryptococcal disease in immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with a confirmed CD4 count of 100 cells/μl or less. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess cost-per-result of a national screening program across different tiers of laboratory service, with variable daily CrAg test volumes. The impact of potential ART treatment guideline and treatment target changes on CrAg volumes, platform choice and laboratory workflow are considered...
2017: PloS One
Layla Al-Awadi
Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3-C6), aromatic (C6-C9), halogenated (C1-C6), and oxygenated (C2-C9) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Alison Michels, Laura L Swystun, Jeffrey Mewburn, Silvia Albánez, David Lillicrap
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a multimeric glycoprotein coagulation factor that mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation at sites of endothelial damage and that carries factor VIII in the circulation. VWF is synthesized by endothelial cells and is either released constitutively into the plasma or is stored in specialized organelles, called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), for on-demand release in response to hemostatic challenge. Procoagulant and proinflammatory stimuli can rapidly induce WPB exocytosis and VWF release...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Francisca S O Ramos, Heloise O Pastore
Al(3+) heteroions have been incorporated into the silicate layers of Na-RUB-18 in three different molar ratios Si/AlICP (22, 40 and 42) through a post-synthesis procedure under hydrothermal conditions. Systematic characterization (XRD, (29)Si NMR, (27)Al NMR and SEM) showed that these Na-[Al]-RUB-18 layered aluminosilicates are free from impurities, and the aluminum did not affect the crystallinity of the material, and also did not change its morphology. (27)Al NMR showed that aluminum was incorporated in the tetrahedral position and the layered sample with molar ratio Si/AlICP = 22 has also displayed octahedral coordination...
August 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Cassandra L Ettinger, Susan L Williams, Jessica M Abbott, John J Stachowicz, Jonathan A Eisen
BACKGROUND: Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is a marine angiosperm and foundation species that plays an important ecological role in primary production, food web support, and elemental cycling in coastal ecosystems. As with other plants, the microbial communities living in, on, and near eelgrass are thought to be intimately connected to the ecology and biology of eelgrass. Here we characterized the microbial communities in eelgrass sediments throughout an experiment to quantify the rate of ammonification, the first step in early remineralization of organic matter, also known as diagenesis, from plots at a field site in Bodega Bay, CA...
2017: PeerJ
Natalia A Kruglova, Tatiana D Meshkova, Arthur T Kopylov, Dmitriy V Mazurov, Alexander V Filatov
Lymphocyte phosphatase-associated phosphoprotein (LPAP) is a small transmembrane protein expressed exclusively in lymphocytes. LPAP is a component of a supramolecular complex composed of the phosphatase CD45, the co-receptor CD4, and the kinase Lck. In contrast to its immunologically important partners, the function of LPAP is unknown. We hypothesized that the biological role of LPAP may be determined by analyzing LPAP phosphorylation. In the present study, we identified LPAP phosphorylation sites by site-directed mutagenesis, phospho-specific antibodies, and protein immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry analysis...
2017: PloS One
A S Kallimanis, M Panitsa, P Dimopoulos
EU biodiversity conservation policy is based on the Habitats Directive (92/43/EC), which aims that habitat types and species of Community interest should reach 'favourable conservation status'. To this end, Member States are obliged to perform periodic assessment of species and habitat conservation status through biodiversity monitoring, which, in almost all cases, was performed by experts implementing standardized field protocols. Here, we examine the quality of data collected in the field by non-experts (citizen scientists) for the conservation status assessment of habitat types, and specifically for the criteria 'typical species', 'specific structures and functions', and 'pressures and threats'...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rebecca Tsai, Ivan R Corrêa, Michael Y Xu, Shuang-Yong Xu
E. coli phage 9 g contains the modified base deoxyarchaeosine (dG(+)) in its genome. The phage encodes its own primase, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, and enzymes necessary to synthesize and incorporate dG(+). Here we report phage 9 g DNA sensitivity to >200 Type II restriction endonucleases (REases). Among the REases tested approximately 29% generated complete or partial digestions, while the remaining 71% displayed resistance to restriction. Phage 9 g restriction fragments can be degraded by DNA exonucleases or ligated by T3 and T4 DNA ligases...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Arnaud Goepfert, Sylvie Lehmann, Emmanuelle Wirth, Jean-Michel Rondeau
IL-17A and IL-17F are prominent members of the IL-17 family of cytokines that regulates both innate and adaptive immunity. IL-17A has been implicated in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and anti-IL-17A antibodies have shown remarkable clinical efficacy in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients. IL-17A and IL-17F are homodimeric cytokines that can also form the IL-17A/F heterodimer whose precise role in health and disease remains elusive. All three cytokines signal through the assembly of a ternary complex with the IL-17RA and IL-17RC receptors...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Pérez-Mendoza, Daniela Bertinetti, Robin Lorenz, María-Trinidad Gallegos, Friedrich W Herberg, Juan Sanjuán
BgsA is the glycosyltransferase (GT) involved in the synthesis of a linear mixed-linkage β-glucan (MLG), a recently described exopolysaccharide activated by c-di-GMP in Sinorhizobium meliloti and other Rhizobiales. Although BgsA displays sequence and structural homology with bacterial cellulose synthases (CS), it does not contain any predictable c-di-GMP binding domain. In this work we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of BgsA (C-BgsA) binds c-di-GMP with both high affinity (KD = 0.23 μM) and specificity...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Douglas C Wu, Alan M Lambowitz
High-throughput single-stranded DNA sequencing (ssDNA-seq) of cell-free DNA from plasma and other bodily fluids is a powerful method for non-invasive prenatal testing, and diagnosis of cancers and other diseases. Here, we developed a facile ssDNA-seq method, which exploits a novel template-switching activity of thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs) for DNA-seq library construction. This activity enables TGIRT enzymes to initiate DNA synthesis directly at the 3' end of a DNA strand while simultaneously attaching a DNA-seq adapter without end repair, tailing, or ligation...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alessia Loffreda, Emanuela Jacchetti, Sofia Antunes, Paolo Rainone, Tiziana Daniele, Tatsuya Morisaki, Marco E Bianchi, Carlo Tacchetti, Davide Mazza
Live-cell microscopy has highlighted that transcription factors bind transiently to chromatin but it is not clear if the duration of these binding interactions can be modulated in response to an activation stimulus, and if such modulation can be controlled by post-translational modifications of the transcription factor. We address this question for the tumor suppressor p53 by combining live-cell single-molecule microscopy and single cell in situ measurements of transcription and we show that p53-binding kinetics are modulated following genotoxic stress...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Liduan Zheng, Yajun Chen, Lin Ye, Wanju Jiao, Huajie Song, Hong Mei, Dan Li, Feng Yang, Huanhuan Li, Kai Huang, Qiangsong Tong
Recent evidence shows the emerging roles of promoter-targeting endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating gene transcription. However, miRNAs affecting the transcription of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) in gastric cancer remain unknown. Herein, through integrative mining of public datasets, we identified the adjacent targeting sites of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and miRNA-584-3p (miR-584-3p) within MMP-14 promoter. We demonstrated that YY1 directly targeted the MMP-14 promoter to facilitate its expression in gastric cancer cells...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Pavithran Sridharan Iyer, Jean-Pierre Perreault
It is well established that viroid derived small RNA (vd-sRNA) induces RNA silencing of endogenous mRNA. However, it remains not clear how exactly viroid infections can lead to severe symptom induction given the fact that fewer vd-sRNAs binding the specific target mRNAs were recovered from the infected plants. To answer this question, the two least expressed (+) and (-) strand vd-sRNAs of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) binding to both the 3' UTR and the coding region of tomato mRNAs were analyzed by infecting tomato plants with two variants of PSTVd...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiangmei Li, Zhen Gao, Dan Zhao, Lunfeng Zhang, Xinhua Qiao, Yingying Zhao, Hong Ding, Panpan Zhang, Junyan Lu, Jia Liu, Hualiang Jiang, Cheng Luo, Chang Chen
While phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4KIIα has been identified as a potential target for antitumor therapy, the clinical applications of PI4KIIα are limited by a lack of specific inhibitors. Here we report the first small-molecule inhibitor (SMI) of human PI4KIIα. Docking-based and ligand-based virtual screening strategies were first employed to identify promising hits, followed by two rounds of kinase activity inhibition validation. 2-(3-(4-Chlorobenzoyl)thioureido)-4-ethyl-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxamide (PI-273) exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on PI4KIIα kinase activity (IC50 = 0...
August 21, 2017: Cancer Research
Brian C Avanzino, Gabriele Fuchs, Christopher S Fraser
Picornaviruses use internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) to translate their genomes into protein. A typical feature of these IRESs is their ability to bind directly to the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G component of the eIF4F cap-binding complex. Remarkably, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES requires eIF4E for its translation, but no mechanism has been proposed to explain this. Here we demonstrate that eIF4E regulates HAV IRES-mediated translation by two distinct mechanisms. First, eIF4E binding to eIF4G generates a high-affinity binding conformation of the eIF4F complex for the IRES...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Blerta Shtylla
We examine the localization patterns of ParA, ParB, PopZ, and MipZ, which are key division proteins in C. crescentus bacteria. While Par and PopZ proteins have been implicated in the physical segregation of the replicated chromosome, MipZ dimers control the placement of the cell division plane by preventing FtsZ proteins from assembling into a Z-ring. MipZ proteins generate bipolar gradients that are sensitive to Par protein localization, however, it is not understood how the MipZ gradient is shaped so as to allow for the correct Z-ring placement during asymmetric cell division in C...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Maurizio Pacifici
The majority of skeletal elements develop via endochondral ossification. This process starts with formation of mesenchymal cell condensations at prescribed sites and times in the early embryo and is followed by chondrogenesis, growth plate cartilage maturation and hypertrophy, and replacement of cartilage with bone and marrow. This complex stepwise process is reactivated and recapitulated in physiologic conditions such as fracture repair, but can occur extraskeletally in pathologies including heterotopic ossification (HO), Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) and Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME)...
August 18, 2017: Bone
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