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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108626/a-new-role-for-er%C3%AE-silencing-via-dna-methylation-of-basal-stem-cell-and-emt-genes
#1
Eric A Ariazi, John C Taylor, Michael A Black, Emmanuelle Nicolas, Michael J Slifker, Diana J Azzam, Jeff Boyd
: Resistance to hormonal therapies is a major clinical problem in the treatment of estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα(+)) breast cancers. Epigenetic marks, namely DNA methylation of cytosine at specific CpG sites (5mCpG), are frequently associated with ERα(+) status in human breast cancers. Therefore, ERα may regulate gene expression in part via DNA methylation. This hypothesis was evaluated using a panel of breast cancer cell line models of antiestrogen resistance. Microarray gene expression profiling was used to identify genes normally silenced in ERα(+) cells but derepressed upon exposure to the demethylating agent decitabine, derepressed upon long-term loss of ERα expression, and resuppressed by gain of ERα activity/expression...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108474/the-human-initiator-is-a-distinct-and-abundant-element-that-is-precisely-positioned-in-focused-core-promoters
#2
Long Vo Ngoc, California Jack Cassidy, Cassidy Yunjing Huang, Sascha H C Duttke, James T Kadonaga
DNA sequence signals in the core promoter, such as the initiator (Inr), direct transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. Here we show that the human Inr has the consensus of BBCA+1BW at focused promoters in which transcription initiates at a single site or a narrow cluster of sites. The analysis of 7678 focused transcription start sites revealed 40% with a perfect match to the Inr and 16% with a single mismatch outside of the CA+1 core. TATA-like sequences are underrepresented in Inr promoters. This consensus is a key component of the DNA sequence rules that specify transcription initiation in humans...
January 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108361/development-and-characterization-of-new-functionalized-polyurethanes-for-sustained-and-site-specific-drug-release-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
María Dolores Campiñez, Elena Benito, Lucía Romero-Azogil, Ángela Aguilar-de-Leyva, María de Gracia García-Martín, Juan Antonio Galbis, Isidoro Caraballo
The main objective of the present paper has been the development and study of two new biodegradable polyurethanes, PU(dithiodiethanol-DTDI) and PU[((i)Pr)Man-DTDI], to be used as sustained matrix forming excipients. Furthermore, their capacity to act as excipient for colon drug delivery systems has been evaluated. Thus, SeDeM diagrams have been obtained to investigate their suitability to be processed through a direct compression process. Matrices containing 10-30% w/w of the polymers and theophylline anhydrous as model drug have been manufactured...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108301/pfkfb3-a-direct-target-of-p63-is-required-for-proliferation-and-inhibits-differentiation-in-epidermal-keratinocytes
#4
Robert B Hamanaka, Gökhan M Mutlu
p63 is a transcription factor essential for epidermal development and homeostasis. p63 is a member of the p53 family of transcription factors, which are increasingly understood to be regulators of cellular metabolism. How p63 regulates metabolism in epidermal keratinocytes is incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether glycolytic regulation is essential to maintain the balance between proliferation and differentiation within the epidermis. We found that p63 promotes glycolytic metabolism in epidermal keratinocytes...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108300/transforming-growth-factor-beta-inducible-early-gene-1-tieg1-represses-smad7-mediated-activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-in-keloid-pathogenesis
#5
Zhi-Cheng Hu, Fen Shi, Peng Liu, Jian Zhang, Dong Guo, Xiao-Ling Cao, Chu-Fen Chen, Shanqiang Qu, Jia-Yuan Zhu, Bing Tang
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays a key role in excessive fibrosis and keloid formations. Smad7 is a negative feedback regulator that prevents activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling. However, the regulatory mechanism for Smad7 in the keloid pathogenic process remains elusive. Here, we show that expression of TGF-β inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) is markedly higher in keloid fibroblasts (KFs), while protein, mRNA, and promoter activity levels of Smad7 are decreased. When TIEG1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), both the promoter activity and protein expression of Smad7 were increased, while collagen production and the proliferation, migration, and invasion of KFs were decreased...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108135/designing-autonomy-opportunities-for-new-wildness-in-the-anthropocene
#6
REVIEW
Bradley Cantrell, Laura J Martin, Erle C Ellis
Maintaining wild places involves increasingly intensive human interventions. Several recent projects use semi-automated mediating technologies to enact conservation and restoration actions, including re-seeding and invasive species eradication. Could a deep-learning system sustain the autonomy of nonhuman ecological processes at designated sites without direct human interventions? We explore here the prospects for automated curation of wild places, as well as the technical and ethical questions that such co-creation poses for ecologists, conservationists, and designers...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108115/a-reappraisal-of-the-surgical-planning-of-the-superficial-circumflex-iliac-artery-perforator-flap
#7
Shaoqing Feng, Wenjing Xi, Zheng Zhang, Mathias Tremp, Dirk J Schaefer, Parviz L Sadigh, Wenjie Zhang, Yi Xin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The popularity of the superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap has been limited by factors such as variable vascular anatomy and short arterial pedicle. This article aimed to delineate flap design and harvest strategies based around either the proximal or distal perforators of the superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) and propose a set of strategies that can help deal with the limitations of the flap. METHOD: From August 2011 to June 2015, the SCIP flap was used in 80 patients for soft tissue defects at our institution...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107776/activity-based-probes-for-the-multicatalytic-proteasome
#8
REVIEW
David S Hewings, John A Flygare, Ingrid E Wertz, Matthew Bogyo
Proteasomes are multisubunit protease complexes responsible for degrading most intracellular proteins. In addition to removing damaged proteins, they regulate many important cellular processes through the controlled degradation of transcription factors, cell cycle regulators and enzymes. Eukaryotic proteasomes have three catalytic subunits, β1, β2 and β5, that each have different substrate specificities. Additionally, although we know that diverse cell types express proteasome variants with distinct activity and specificity profiles, the functions of these different pools of proteasomes are not fully understood...
January 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107768/arabidopsis-protein-s-acyl-transferase4-mediates-root-hair-growth
#9
Zhi-Yuan Wan, Sen Chai, Fu-Rong Ge, Qiang-Nan Feng, Yan Zhang, Sha Li
Polar growth of root hairs is critical for plant survival and necessitates fine-tuned ROP signaling. Multiple ROP regulators participate in root hair growth. However, protein S-acyl transferases (PATs), mediating the S-acylation and membrane partitioning of ROPs, are yet to be found. By using a reverse genetic approach, combining fluorescence probes, pharmacological drugs, site-directed mutagenesis, and genetic analysis with related root-hair mutants, we have identified and characterized an Arabidopsis PAT, which may be responsible for ROP2 S-acylation in root hairs...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107684/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-targeting-the-right-fusiform-gyrus-selectively-increases-working-memory-for-faces
#10
Tad T Brunyé, Joseph M Moran, Amanda Holmes, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor
The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0...
January 17, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107671/recent-sequence-variation-in-probe-binding-site-affected-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-group-b-by-real-time-rt-pcr
#11
Everlyn Kamau, Charles N Agoti, Clement S Lewa, John Oketch, Betty E Owor, Grieven P Otieno, Anne Bett, Patricia A Cane, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Direct immuno-fluorescence test (IFAT) and multiplex real-time RT-PCR have been central to RSV diagnosis in Kilifi, Kenya. Recently, these two methods showed discrepancies with an increasing number of PCR undetectable RSV-B viruses. OBJECTIVES: Establish if mismatches in the primer and probe binding sites could have reduced real-time RT-PCR sensitivity. STUDY DESIGN: Nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes were sequenced for real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107644/synergism-of-dam-muth-and-muts-in-methylation-directed-mismatch-repair-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Changkun Hu, Yunqi Zhao, Huiyun Sun, Yixin Yang
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a critical mutation surveillance system for recognizing and repairing erroneous insertion, deletion, and disincorporation of base. Major components of mismatch repair system consist of MutH, MutL, and MutS. Dam methylates adenine to distinguish newly synthesized daughter strands from the parent strands. Employing a tyrosine-auxotrophic E. coli FX-11 strain, the mutation frequency can be determined by the number of tyrosine revertants and the cell viability of FX-11 with deficiencies in dam and mismatch repair proteins...
January 6, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107437/hyperventilation-with-maintenance-of-isocapnia-an-old-new-method-in-carbon-monoxide-intoxication
#13
Jacek Sein Anand, Daria Schetz, Wojciech Waldman, Marek Wiśniewski
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) is among the most common causes of acute and chronic poisonings worldwide. The crucial point of treatment of such acute poisonings is to eliminate CO from the body as fast as possible. There are currently two approaches to the management of the CO intoxication: hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT) and normobaric oxygen therapy (NOT). HOT is highly effective and capable of achieving the CO elimination half-time (T½) as low as 15 minutes. Unfortunately this method is expensive and not always readily available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107418/nf-kappab-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-emt-genes-in-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Bruno R B Pires, Andre L Mencalha, Gerson M Ferreira, Waldemir F de Souza, José A Morgado-Díaz, Amanda M Maia, Stephany Corrêa, Eliana S F W Abdelhay
The metastatic process in breast cancer is related to the expression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition transcription factors (EMT-TFs) SNAIL, SLUG, SIP1 and TWIST1. EMT-TFs and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation have been associated with aggressiveness and metastatic potential in carcinomas. Here, we sought to examine the role of NF-κB in the aggressive properties and regulation of EMT-TFs in human breast cancer cells. Blocking NF-κB/p65 activity by reducing its transcript and protein levels (through siRNA-strategy and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin [DHMEQ] treatment) in the aggressive MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1954 cell lines resulted in decreased invasiveness and migration, a downregulation of SLUG, SIP1, TWIST1, MMP11 and N-cadherin transcripts and an upregulation of E-cadherin transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107221/cash-vs-food-assistance-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-tanzania-a-randomized-trial
#15
Sandra I McCoy, Prosper F Njau, Carolyn Fahey, Ntuli Kapologwe, Suneetha Kadiyala, Nicholas P Jewell, William H Dow, Nancy S Padian
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of short-term cash and food assistance to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in care among people living with HIV in Tanzania. METHODS: At three clinics, 805 participants were randomized to three groups in a 3 : 3 : 1 ratio, stratified by site : nutrition assessment and counseling (NAC) and cash transfers (∼$11/month, n = 347), NAC and food baskets (n = 345), and NAC-only (comparison group, n = 113, clinicaltrials...
January 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107130/the-use-of-miniscrews-in-orthodontics-a-review-of-selected-clinical-applications
#16
Eliakim Mizrahi
This paper provides a brief review of the history and development of mini screws and presents its structural features, with particular reference to the screw sizes relevant to clinical orthodontics, site selection and the different placement techniques. It covers the clinical applications of miniscrews, incorporating the principle of direct and indirect anchorage as well as the use of intraoral auxiliaries for distal movement of molars. The role of palatal miniscrews for retraction of anterior teeth, and when used in combination with buccal miniscrews for intrusion of buccal teeth is also covered along with the possible causes of miniscrew failure...
November 1, 2016: Primary Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107034/automated-measurement-of-magnesium-calcium-ratios-in-gastropod-shells-using-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-for-paleoclimatic-applications
#17
Adolfo Cobo, Asier García-Escárzaga, Igor Gutiérrez-Zugasti, Jesús Setién, Manuel R González-Morales, José Miguel López-Higuera
The chemical composition of mollusk shells offers information about environmental conditions present during the lifespan of the organism. Shells found in geological deposits and in many archeological sites can help to reconstruct past climatic conditions. For example, a correlation has been found between seawater temperature and the amount of some substituent elements (e.g., magnesium, strontium) in the biogenerated calcium carbonate matrix of the shell, although it is very species-specific. Here we propose the use laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate Mg/Ca ratios in modern specimens of the common limpet Patella vulgata...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106985/transparent-window-vibrational-probes-for-the-characterization-of-proteins-with-high-structural-and-temporal-resolution
#18
Ramkrishna Adhikary, Jörg Zimmermann, Floyd E Romesberg
Vibrational spectroscopy provides a direct route to the physicochemical characterization of molecules. While both IR and Raman spectroscopy have been used for decades to provide detailed characterizations of small molecules, similar studies with proteins are largely precluded due to spectral congestion. However, the vibrational spectra of proteins do include a "transparent window", between ∼1800 and ∼2500 cm(-1), and progress is now being made to develop site-specifically incorporated carbon-deuterium (C-D), cyano (CN), thiocyanate (SCN), and azide (N3) "transparent window vibrational probes" that absorb within this window and report on their environment to facilitate the characterization of proteins with small molecule-like detail...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106744/oligonucleotide-therapy-for-obstructive-and-restrictive-respiratory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Wupeng Liao, Jinrui Dong, Hong Yong Peh, Lay Hong Tan, Kah Suan Lim, Li Li, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106715/seasonal-effects-on-the-population-morphology-and-reproductive-behavior-of-narnia-femorata-hemiptera-coreidae
#20
Lauren A Cirino, Christine W Miller
Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior...
January 17, 2017: Insects
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