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Language assessment

Sophia Y Wang, Mariam S Hamid, David C Musch, Maria A Woodward
Importance: Nearly 2 million patients visit emergency departments (EDs) because of eye concerns annually in the United States. How hospitals currently assign these patients to treatment is important for designing systems that equitably allocate resources for eye care in urgent settings. Objective: To investigate factors associated with ophthalmology consultation for eye-related adult ED encounters to assess possible disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, language preference, or residential distance from the medical center...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Amani Abu-Shaheen, Shehu Yousef, Muhammad Riaz, Abdullah Nofal, Sarfaraz Khan, Humariya Heena
Diagnosis of neuropathic pain (NP) can be challenging. The ID Pain (ID-P) questionnaire, a screening tool for NP, has been used widely both in the original version and translated forms. The aim of this study was to develop an Arabic version of ID-P and assess its validity and reliability in detecting neuropathic pain. The original ID-P was translated in Arabic language and administered to the study population. Reliability of the Arabic version was evaluated by percentage observed agreement, and Cohen's kappa; and validity by sensitivity, specificity, correctly classified, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
2018: PloS One
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Juliet Imeson, Robyn Lowe, Mark Onslow, Natalie Munro, Rob Heard, Sue O'Brian, Simone Arnott
This study was driven by the need to understand the mechanisms underlying Lidcombe Program treatment efficacy. The aim of the present study was to extend existing data exploring whether stuttering reductions observed when children successfully treated with the Lidcombe Program are associated with restricted language development. Audio recordings of 10-min parent-child conversations at home were transcribed verbatim for 11 pre-school-age children with various stuttering severities. Language samples from three assessments-pre-treatment, 9 and 18 months after beginning treatment-were analysed using SALT software for lexical diversity, utterance length and sentence complexity...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Lawrence Mj Best, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sulman Siddique, Abiram Selladurai, Akash Gandhi, Benjamin Low, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Haiyan Wang, Linyi Li, Ling Ling Qin, Yanan Song, Josep Vidal-Alaball, Tong Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, and the incidence increases with age. Most people with vitamin B12 deficiency are treated in primary care with intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 . Doctors may not be prescribing oral vitamin B12 formulations because they may be unaware of this option or have concerns regarding its effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS, as well as the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Mathilde Fort, Imme Lammertink, Sharon Peperkamp, Adriana Guevara-Rukoz, Paula Fikkert, Sho Tsuji
Adults and toddlers systematically associate pseudowords such as "bouba" and "kiki" with round and spiky shapes, respectively, a sound symbolic phenomenon known as the "bouba-kiki effect". To date, whether this sound symbolic effect is a property of the infant brain present at birth or is a learned aspect of language perception remains unknown. Yet, solving this question is fundamental for our understanding of early language acquisition. Indeed, an early sensitivity to such sound symbolic associations could provide a powerful mechanism for language learning, playing a bootstrapping role in the establishment of novel sound-meaning associations...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Jennifer Thomson, Melanie Gee, Karen Sage, Traci Walker
BACKGROUND: Aphasia assessment is traditionally divided into formal and informal approaches. Informal assessment is useful in developing a rich understanding of the person with aphasia's performance, e.g., describing performance in the context of real-world activities, and exploring the impact of environmental and/or partner supports upon communication. However, defining 'informal assessment' is problematic and can result in clinical issues including idiosyncratic practices regarding why, when and how to apply informal assessment...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Valentina Morsan, Carlo Fantoni, Maria Anna Tallandini
AIM: To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). METHOD: Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
P Heydarpour, A Manouchehrinia, O Beiki, S E Mousavi, A Abdolalizadeh, M Moradi -Lakeh, M A Sahraian
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder affecting young adults. Environmental factors and lifestyle behaviors are pivotal in MS pathophysiology. Smoking has been considered as an important risk factor in MS. Various recent studies have been conducted to measure the role of smoking on worsening disability in patients with MS, thus we intended to systematically assess effect of smoking on evolution of disability in this study. MATERIALS & METHODS: We queried MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library with following keywords "Multiple Sclerosis, Smoking, Tobacco Use, Disability" on December 1st 2016...
March 15, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Audra Sterling
Purpose: Some boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and a codiagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD) have impairments in expressive grammatical abilities. The current study compared grammatical performance in these 2 groups of school-age boys. Method: Thirty-seven boys similar on mean length of utterance participated in the current study (FXS: n = 19, ASD: n = 18). Participants completed an ASD assessment, nonverbal IQ testing, and conversation language samples...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Wimonchat Tangamornsuksan, Manupat Lohitnavy
Importance: Dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a life-threatening adverse drug reaction. Based on available epidemiologic studies, HLA genotypes may play an important role in DHS. Objective: To assess the association between HLA-B*1301 and dapsone-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs). Data Sources: Human studies investigating associations between HLA-B*1301 and dapsone-induced cADRs were systematically searched without language restriction from the inception of each database until September 12, 2017, in PubMed, the Human Genome Epidemiology Network), and the Cochrane Library...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Yi Wang, Jian-Ning Zhang, Wei Hu, Ji-Jun Li, Jia-Xuan Zhou, Jian-Ping Zhang, Guo-Feng Shi, Ping He, Zai-Wang Li, Ming Li
Introduction: Subjective chronic tinnitus is a common medical syndrome with a high frequency of cognitive impairment; however, the characteristics of cognitive impairment in chronic tinnitus are poorly understood. Investigating the scope of cognitive impairment across the severity spectrum of tinnitus patients may shed light on the issue. Methods: A consecutive series of 207 subjective chronic tinnitus patients were classified into mild tinnitus group ( n  = 95) and severe tinnitus group ( n  = 112) by THI score (the cutoff THI scores were 37/38)...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Mauro Mancuso, Nele Demeyere, Laura Abbruzzese, Alessio Damora, Valentina Varalta, Fabio Pirrotta, Gabriella Antonucci, Alessandro Matano, Marina Caputo, Maria Giovanna Caruso, Giovanna Teresa Pontiggia, Michela Coccia, Irene Ciancarelli, Pierluigi Zoccolotti
Background: The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) was recently developed with the aim of describing the cognitive deficits after stroke. The scale consists of 10 tasks encompassing five cognitive domains: attention and executive function, language, memory, number processing, and praxis. OCS was devised to be inclusive and un-confounded by aphasia and neglect. As such, it may have a greater potential to be informative on stroke cognitive deficits of widely used instruments, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, which were originally devised for demented patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Thomas M Houslay, Maddalena Vierbuchen, Andrew J Grimmer, Andrew J Young, Alastair J Wilson
Within populations, individuals can vary in stress response, a multivariate phenomenon comprising neuroendocrine, physiological and behavioural traits.Verbal models of individual stress "coping style" have proposed that the behavioural component of this variation can be described as a single axis, with each individual's coping style being consistent across time and stress contexts.Focusing on this behavioural component of stress response and combining repeated measures of multiple traits with a novel multivariate modelling framework, we test for the existence of coping style variation and assess its stability across contexts in the Trinidadian guppy ( Poecilia reticulata )...
February 2018: Functional Ecology
Jamuna Rajeswaran, Cathyln Niranjana Bennett
Substance use disorders are frequently associated with neuropsychological deficits. A comprehensive assessment of attention, memory, executive functions, language and mental speed is often warranted. Cognitive rehabilitation is a therapy programme designed as an intervention to help people with cognitive, behaviour and emotional deficits. Using systematic approaches such as cognitive retraining and EEG neurofeedback, the individuals are helped to be integrated into society.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Lozina Shoaib, Sharifullah Khan, Muhammad Azeem Abbas, Ahmad Salman
OBJECTIVE: To mitigate the communication barriers of profound hearing-impaired children by enabling their word articulation ability. METHODS: This pre-experimental pilot study was conducted from September 2016 to March 2017 at the National Special Education Centre for Hearing Impaired Children, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised deaf children of both genders aged 5-8 years. A specially designed software application for lip-reading was employed to help the subjects articulate words...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Henry Zhao, Lauren Pesavento, Skye Coote, Edrich Rodrigues, Patrick Salvaris, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard, Michael Stephenson, Leonid Churilov, Nawaf Yassi, Stephen M Davis, Bruce C V Campbell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical triage scales for prehospital recognition of large vessel occlusion (LVO) are limited by low specificity when applied by paramedics. We created the 3-step ambulance clinical triage for acute stroke treatment (ACT-FAST) as the first algorithmic LVO identification tool, designed to improve specificity by recognizing only severe clinical syndromes and optimizing paramedic usability and reliability. METHODS: The ACT-FAST algorithm consists of (1) unilateral arm drift to stretcher <10 seconds, (2) severe language deficit (if right arm is weak) or gaze deviation/hemineglect assessed by simple shoulder tap test (if left arm is weak), and (3) eligibility and stroke mimic screen...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Christian Herrmann, Penelope Vounatsou, Beat Thürlimann, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Christian Rothermundt, Silvia Ess
INTRODUCTION: In the past decades, mortality due to breast cancer has declined considerably in Switzerland and other developed countries. The reasons for this decline remain controversial as several factors occurred almost simultaneously, including important advances in treatment approaches, breast cancer awareness and the introduction of mammography screening programmes in many European countries. In Switzerland, mammography screening programmes (MSPs) have existed in some regions for over 20 years but do not yet exist in others...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
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