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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319238/behavioral-and-neural-constraints-on-hierarchical-representations
#1
Odelia Schwartz, Luis Gonzalo Sanchez Giraldo
Central to behavior and cognition is the way that sensory stimuli are represented in neural systems. The distributions over such stimuli enjoy rich structure; however, how the brain captures and exploits these regularities is unclear. Here, we consider different sources of perhaps the most prevalent form of structure, namely hierarchies, in one of its most prevalent cases, namely the representation of images. We review experimental approaches across a range of subfields, spanning inference, memory recall, and visual adaptation, to investigate how these constrain hierarchical representations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319105/link-of-dietary-patterns-with-metabolic-syndrome-analysis-of-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#2
M Mazidi, S Pennathur, F Afshinnia
BACKGROUND: Population-based interventions aimed at halting the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) require thorough understanding of dietary interplays. Objective is to identify the independent dietary nutrients associated with MetS and its components using dietary pattern identification and the single-nutrient approaches in The United States. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observation. Participants are selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometrical data from 2001 to 2012...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318680/nephrogenic-systemic-fibrosis-a-15-year-retrospective-study-at-a-single-tertiary-care-center
#3
Janice Wilson, Kristyna Gleghorn, Quincy Seigel, Brent Kelly
BACKGROUND: Despite multiple therapeutic approaches for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), no single treatment has convincingly shown consistent benefit. The most successful outcomes have been associated with recovery of renal function, although evidence remains limited and past studies have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether improvement of renal function via successful transplantation or via return of renal function after acute kidney injury correlates with improvement of NSF, and to further characterize the clinical features and progression of NSF...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318518/-returning-to-work-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-when-waiting-is-wasting
#4
F Latil, M C Iliou, C Boileau, J X Pietri, C Lechien, P Ha-Vinh, C Guimond
BACKGROUND: Return to work (RTW) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an important issue for the patient's future. AIMS: The study aim was to determine whether RTW practice complies with guidelines or is delayed by failure in patient management. We analysed the factors influencing RTW beyond the 90-day period recommended by guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 216 self-employed workers admitted to the hospital for ACS using self-report questionnaires and medical examination...
March 16, 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318482/cross-sectional-analysis-of-eating-patterns-and-snacking-in-the-us-feeding-infants-and-toddlers-study-2008
#5
Denise M Deming, Kathleen C Reidy, Mary Kay Fox, Ronette R Briefel, Emma Jacquier, Alison L Eldridge
OBJECTIVE: To explore eating patterns and snacking among US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. DESIGN: The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 was a cross-sectional national survey of children aged 6-47 months, weighted to reflect US age and racial/ethnic distributions. Dietary data were collected using one multiple-pass 24h recall. Eating occasions were categorized as meals, snacks or other (comprised of all feedings of breast milk and/or infant formula)...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318456/international-outbreak-of-multiple-salmonella-serotype-infections-linked-to-sprouted-chia-seed-powder-usa-and-canada-2013-2014
#6
R R Harvey, K E Heiman Marshall, L Burnworth, M Hamel, J Tataryn, J Cutler, K Meghnath, A Wellman, K Irvin, L Isaac, K Chau, A Locas, J Kohl, P A Huth, D Nicholas, E Traphagen, K Soto, L Mank, K Holmes-Talbot, M Needham, A Barnes, B Adcock, L Honish, L Chui, M Taylor, C Gaulin, S Bekal, B Warshawsky, L Hobbs, L R Tschetter, A Surin, S Lance, M E Wise, I Williams, L Gieraltowski
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013-2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died...
March 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318415/is-the-hebb-repetition-task-a-reliable-measure-of-individual-differences-in-sequence-learning
#7
Louisa Bogaerts, Noam Siegelman, Tali Ben-Porat, Ram Frost
The Hebb repetition task, an operationalization of long-term sequence learning through repetition, is the focus of renewed interest, as it is taken to provide a laboratory analogue for naturalistic vocabulary acquisition. Indeed, recent studies have consistently related performance in the Hebb repetition task with a range of linguistic (dis)abilities. However, in spite of the growing interest in the Hebb repetition effect as a theoretical construct, no previous research has ever tested whether the task used to assess Hebb learning offers a stable and reliable measure of individual performance in sequence learning...
March 20, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317646/clinical-validity-of-delayed-recall-tests-as-a-gateway-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#8
REVIEW
Chiara Cerami, Bruno Dubois, Marina Boccardi, Andreas U Monsch, Jean Francois Demonet, Stefano F Cappa
Although Alzheimer's disease criteria promote the use of biomarkers, their maturity in clinical routine still needs to be assessed. In the light of the oncology framework, we conducted a literature review on measures used to assess delayed recall impairment due to medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e., free and cued word list recall tests). Ample evidence is available for phases 1 (rationale for use), 2 (discriminative ability), and 3 (early detection ability) for many of the tests in routine use. Evidence about phase 4 (performance in real world) and phase 5 (quantify impact and costs) is yet to come...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317003/peri-operative-inflammatory-cytokines-in-plasma-of-the-elderly-correlate-in-prospective-study-with-postoperative-changes-in-cognitive-test-scores
#9
R Kline, E Wong, M Haile, S Didehvar, S Farber, A Sacks, E Pirraglia, M J de Leon, A Bekker
Increasingly, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is recognized as a complication after surgery in the elderly; but it's etiology remains unclear. Here we examine changes in cytokine levels during both the pre-operative and postoperative period, comparing them with long term variation in cognitive test scores. Forty-one patients aged 65 and older undergoing major surgery with general anesthesia were recruited after written consent in this IRB approved study. Thirty went on to complete this prospective, non-interven-tional and non-randomized study...
August 2016: Int J Anesthesiol Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316908/exploring-childhood-obesity-prevention-among-diverse-ethnic-groups-in-schools-and-places-of-worship-recruitment-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-data-collection-and-intervention-components
#10
Maria Maynard, Graham Baker, Seeromanie Harding
Small-scale, detailed exploration of the recruitment, assessment, and evaluation processes of obesity intervention among minority ethnic children. The study took place in schools and places of worship during 2008-2010 in London, UK. Measures included 3-day food diaries, 24 h dietary recalls, the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire, accelerometry, and diet and physical activity self-efficacy questionnaires. Potential intervention components were evaluated via observation, questionnaires, and focus group discussions...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316893/contrasting-determinants-for-the-introduction-and-establishment-success-of-exotic-birds-in-taiwan-using-decision-trees-models
#11
Shih-Hsiung Liang, Bruno Andreas Walther, Bao-Sen Shieh
BACKGROUND: Biological invasions have become a major threat to biodiversity, and identifying determinants underlying success at different stages of the invasion process is essential for both prevention management and testing ecological theories. To investigate variables associated with different stages of the invasion process in a local region such as Taiwan, potential problems using traditional parametric analyses include too many variables of different data types (nominal, ordinal, and interval) and a relatively small data set with too many missing values...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316365/extracting-databases-from-dark-data-with-deepdive
#12
Ce Zhang, Jaeho Shin, Christopher Ré, Michael Cafarella, Feng Niu
DeepDive is a system for extracting relational databases from dark data: the mass of text, tables, and images that are widely collected and stored but which cannot be exploited by standard relational tools. If the information in dark data - scientific papers, Web classified ads, customer service notes, and so on - were instead in a relational database, it would give analysts a massive and valuable new set of "big data." DeepDive is distinctive when compared to previous information extraction systems in its ability to obtain very high precision and recall at reasonable engineering cost; in a number of applications, we have used DeepDive to create databases with accuracy that meets that of human annotators...
June 2016: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316271/visuospatial-declarative-learning-despite-profound-verbal-declarative-amnesia-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#13
Erik Oudman, Albert Postma, Tanja C W Nijboer, Jan W Wijnia, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content...
March 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316122/digital-workflow-for-fixed-implant-rehabilitation-of-an-extremely-atrophic-edentulous-mandible-in-three-appointments
#14
Panos Papaspyridakos, Neha Rajput, Yukio Kudara, Hans-Peter Weber
OBJECTIVE: To present a rationale to reduce treatment complexity, number of surgeries, and overall treatment time for patients with extreme mandibular ridge deficiency. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: A 67-year-old fully edentulous male presented with a chief complaint of poor retention and stability of the mandibular complete denture with consequent discomfort and inability to chew. A novel 3-appointment protocol from guided implant placement to definitive prosthesis delivery was implemented...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315777/appetite-disorders-in-cancer-patients-impact-on-nutritional-status-and-quality-of-life
#15
David E Barajas Galindo, Alfonso Vidal-Casariego, Alicia Calleja-Fernández, Ana Hernández-Moreno, Begoña Pintor de la Maza, Manuela Pedraza-Lorenzo, María Asunción Rodríguez-García, Dalia María Ávila-Turcios, Miran Alejo-Ramos, Rocío Villar-Taibo, Ana Urioste-Fondo, Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez, María D Ballesteros-Pomar
Cancer patients are at high risk of malnutrition due to several symptoms such as lack of appetite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different appetite disorders in cancer patients and their influence on dietary intake, nutritional status, and quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-hour recall, and patients were questioned about the presence of changes in appetite (none, anorexia, early satiety, or both)...
March 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315585/eye-movement-during-recall-reduces-objective-memory-performance-an-extended-replication
#16
Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard, Bert Lenaert, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Dirk Hermans
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance...
March 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315408/stemtextsearch-stem-cell-gene-database-with-evidence-from-abstracts
#17
Chou-Cheng Chen, Chung-Liang Ho
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have used many methods to find biomarkers in stem cells, including text mining, experimental data and image storage. However, no text-mining methods have yet been developed which can identify whether a gene plays a positive or negative role in stem cells. DESCRIPTION: StemTextSearch identifies the role of a gene in stem cells by using a text-mining method to find combinations of gene regulation, stem-cell regulation and cell processes in the same sentences of biomedical abstracts...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315065/do-actions-speak-louder-than-words-examining-children-s-ability-to-follow-instructions
#18
Amanda H Waterman, Amy L Atkinson, Sadia S Aslam, Joni Holmes, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Richard J Allen
The ability to encode, retain, and implement instructions within working memory is central to many behaviours, including classroom activities which underpin learning. The three experiments presented here explored how action-planned, enacted, and observed-impacted 6- to 10-year-old's ability to follow instructions. Experiment 1 (N = 81) found enacted recall was superior to verbal recall, but self-enactment at encoding had a negative effect on enacted recall and verbal recall. In contrast, observation of other-enactment (demonstration) at encoding facilitated both types of recall (Experiment 2a: N = 81)...
March 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314994/amino-acids-intake-and-physical-fitness-among-adolescents
#19
Luis Gracia-Marco, Silvia Bel-Serrat, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, Yannis Manios, Ascensión Marcos, Denes Molnar, Kurt Widhalm, Angela Polito, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maria Hagströmer, Michael Sjöström, Anthony Kafatos, Stefaan de Henauw, Ángel Gutierrez, Manuel J Castillo, Luis A Moreno
The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test...
March 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314919/interference-between-a-fast-paced-spatial-puzzle-task-and-verbal-memory-demands
#20
Samantha L Epling, Megan J Blakely, Paul N Russell, William S Helton
Research continues to provide evidence that people are poor multi-taskers. Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for the inability to efficiently perform multiple tasks at the same time. This theory proposes that one's limited supply of cognitive resources can be utilized faster than it is replenished, which results in a performance decline, particularly when these limited resources must be allocated among multiple tasks. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example, spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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