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Raquel B De Boni, Meridith B Peratikos, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Claudia Cortés, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
BACKGROUND: The HIV care cascade has improved in Latin America over the last decade. However, the influence of alcohol and noninjected drug use (NIDU) on cascade outcomes is mostly unknown. This study estimated the association of alcohol and NIDU with retention in care, loss to follow up (LTFU), and virologic failure (VF). METHODS: Individuals ≥18 years attending routine HIV clinic visits and completing the Rapid Screening Tool (RST; evaluating NIDU and ART adherence in 7-day recall period) during 2012-13 were followed up to 2015 in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology...
2018: PloS One
Laura Masala, Federica Ariu, Luisa Bogliolo, Emanuela Bellu, Sergio Ledda, Daniela Bebbere
Oocytes from prepubertal animals have a reduced ability to undergo embryo development and produce viable offspring. The present work used an ovine model consisting of oocytes derived from adult and prepubertal donors to assess the molecular status of oocytes and preimplantation embryos with different developmental competence. The lower potential of oocytes of young donors was confirmed in terms of in vitro developmental capabilities and kinetics. A panel of genes including maternal effect (DPPA3, GDF9, NMP2, ZAR1) and housekeeping genes (ACTB, RPL19, SDHA, YWHAZ, ATP1A1), genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B), genomic imprinting (IGF2R), pluripotency (NANOG, POU5F1) and cell cycle regulation (CCNB1, CDK1, MELK) was relatively quantified...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Vera Leo, Aleksi J Sihvonen, Tanja Linnavalli, Mari Tervaniemi, Matti Laine, Seppo Soinila, Teppo Särkämö
Coupling novel verbal material with a musical melody can potentially aid in its learning and recall in healthy subjects, but this has never been systematically studied in stroke patients with cognitive deficits. In a counterbalanced design, we presented novel verbal material (short narrative stories) in both spoken and sung formats to stroke patients at the acute poststroke stage and 6 months poststroke. The task comprised three learning trials and a delayed recall trial. Memory performance on the spoken and sung tasks did not differ at the acute stage, whereas sung stories were learned and recalled significantly better compared with spoken stories at the 6 months poststroke stage...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Lison Fanuel, Sophie Portrat, Barbara Tillmann, Gaën Plancher
Recent evidence suggests that working memory (WM) performance can be enhanced in the presence of an isochronous rhythm during the retention interval because it improves refreshing. Considering the cognitive load (CL) effect as an indicator of refreshing, the present study investigated whether an isochronous rhythm might benefit memory performance under varying cognitive load. For that goal, the presence of a regular rhythm and the cognitive load of the concurrent task (i.e., reading of digits that were either same or different within a trial) were systematically varied...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Rafał Kocyłowski, Iwona Lewicka, Mariusz Grzesiak, Zuzanna Gaj, Anna Sobańska, Joanna Poznaniak, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Joanna Suliburska
PURPOSE: To evaluate the dietary intake of pregnant women and their nutritional status of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu, as the nutritional status of pregnant women is an important factor for the proper progression of a pregnancy and the development and health of the foetus. METHODS: The study was conducted on 108 pregnant women ages 18-42, at 6-32 weeks of gestation. We used a questionnaire and a 24-h recall nutrition interview. Hair samples were taken for testing and the level of each mineral was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Britta A Larsen, Lucas J Carr, Shira Dunsiger, Bess H Marcus
Background/Objective: Providing a demonstration of a 10-minute bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) immediately prior to subjective reporting of MVPA could influence self-reported activity by calibrating both duration and intensity. We assessed the effect of a demonstration of MVPA on subsequent MVPA recall, and explored whether this improved agreement with objective measures of MVPA. Methods: A total of 846 individuals participated in four different physical activity interventions; two of which included a 10-minute moderate-intensity demonstration walk on a treadmill at baseline and 6-month visits immediately prior to reporting MVPA...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Christian Haselmair-Gosch, Silvija Miosic, Daria Nitarska, Barbara L Roth, Benjamin Walliser, Renate Paltram, Rares C Lucaciu, Lukas Eidenberger, Thomas Rattei, Klaus Olbricht, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth
A recall campaign for commercial, orange flowering petunia varieties in spring 2017 caused economic losses worldwide. The orange varieties were identified as undeclared genetically engineered (GE)-plants, harboring a maize dihydroflavonol 4-reductase ( DFR, A 1 ), which was used in former scientific transgenic breeding attempts to enable formation of orange pelargonidin derivatives from the precursor dihydrokaempferol (DHK) in petunia. How and when the A 1 cDNA entered the commercial breeding process is unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Venkata Rajesh Yella, Aditya Kumar, Manju Bansal
Transcription is an intricate mechanism and is orchestrated at the promoter region. The cognate motifs in the promoters are observed in only a subset of total genes across different domains of life. Hence, sequence-motif based promoter prediction may not be a holistic approach for whole genomes. Conversely, the DNA structural property, duplex stability is a characteristic of promoters and can be used to delineate them from other genomic sequences. In this study, we have used a DNA duplex stability based algorithm 'PromPredict' for promoter prediction in a broad range of eukaryotes, representing various species of yeast, worm, fly, fish, and mammal...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ladan Mehran, Davood Khalili, Shahin Yarahmadi, Hossein Delshad, Yadollah Mehrabi, Atieh Amouzegar, Nasrin Ajang, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the newborn screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Iran from diagnosis to management and follow-up for 3 years from 2011 to 2014. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING AND PATIENTS: Seventeen university districts were randomly selected from 30 provinces. Central data in each district were gathered and collectively analysed. Congenital hypothyroid subjects were followed for 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Programme coverage, screening and treatment age, recall rate, compliance to follow-ups...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Redhouane Abdellaoui, Pierre Foulquié, Nathalie Texier, Carole Faviez, Anita Burgun, Stéphane Schück
BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is a major impediment to the management of many health conditions. A better understanding of the factors underlying noncompliance to treatment may help health professionals to address it. Patients use peer-to-peer virtual communities and social media to share their experiences regarding their treatments and diseases. Using topic models makes it possible to model themes present in a collection of posts, thus to identify cases of noncompliance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect messages describing patients' noncompliant behaviors associated with a drug of interest...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Young-Nam Kim, Ji Hyeon Hwang, Youn-Ok Cho
Information is limited on the current vitamin B12 status of South Koreans, including the results of biochemical indices. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin B12 status with vitamin B12 intake, major food sources, and plasma vitamin B12 concentration in Korean adults. We hypothesized that vitamin B12 intake and status would be different between sex and age groups. Three consecutive 24-hour recalls and fasting blood samples were obtained from healthy 20- to 64-year-old adults (N=141). The dietary vitamin B12 intake of the men (10...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Aakriti Gupta, Umesh Kapil, Ritika Khandelwal, Preetika Khenduja, Neha Sareen, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Ashish Datt Upadhyay
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among a geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of India. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and anthropometric parameters. Weight and height measurements were utilized for calculation of BMI. Nutrient intake data were collected using 24 h dietary recall. SETTING: High-altitude region of Nainital District, Uttarakhand State, North India...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Tuyen Van Duong, Te-Chih Wong, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Tzen-Wen Chen, Tso-Hsiao Chen, Yung-Ho Hsu, Sheng-Jeng Peng, Ko-Lin Kuo, Chi-Sin Wang, I-Hsin Tseng, Yi-Wei Feng, Tai-Yue Chang, Chien-Tien Su, Shwu-Huey Yang
Dietary energy intake strongly linked to dialysis outcomes. We aimed to explore the optimal cut-off point of energy intake (EI) for identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hemodialysis patients. The cross-sectional data of 243 hemodialysis patients from multi-dialysis centers in Taiwan was used. The dietary intake was assessed by using the three-day dietary questionnaire, and a 24-hour dietary recall, clinical and biochemical data were also evaluated. The MetS was diagnosed by the Harmonized Metabolic Syndrome criteria...
2018: PloS One
Andrés Pomi
BACKGROUND: One of the central challenges of third millennium medicine is the abatement of medical errors. Among the most frequent and hardiest causes of misdiagnosis are cognitive errors produced by faulty medical reasoning. These errors have been analyzed from the perspectives of cognitive psychology and empirical medical studies. We introduce a neurocognitive model of medical diagnosis to address this issue. METHODS: We construct a connectionist model based on the associative nature of human memory to explore the non-analytical, pattern-recognition mode of diagnosis...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Pamela Jacobsen, Emmanuelle Peters, Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety, Mike Jackson, Paul Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions...
March 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Valentina Cardi, Núria Mallorqui-Bague, Gaia Albano, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Indrani Mukherjee, Ross R Large, Ross Corkrey, Leonid V Danyushevsky
The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carly Griffiths, Lisa Harnack, Mark A Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from leading nutrition tracking applications (apps). DESIGN: Nutrient intake estimates from thirty 24 h dietary recalls collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) were compared with intake calculations from these recalls entered by the researcher into five free nutrition tracking apps. Apps were selected from the Apple App Store based on consumer popularity from the list of free 'Health and Fitness' apps classified as a nutrition tracking apps...
March 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
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