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Sirolimus vascular anomalies

Victor L Fox
Vascular anomalies are a morphologically and biologically diverse group of vascular channel abnormalities that are often congenital but may evolve or change over time in the developing child. Classification is based on a combination of physical and biological properties and clinical behavior that differentiate primarily between tumors and malformations and includes a few provisionally unclassified lesions. Anomalies of the GI tract may present clinically with GI bleeding, abdominal pain, high-output cardiac failure, and malabsorption...
February 23, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Josephine A Czechowicz, Janel R Long-Boyle, Kristina W Rosbe, Erin F Mathes, Ilona J Frieden, Kristin A Shimano
Neonates with vascular anomalies causing airway compromise and other complications require early initiation of medical therapy. Sirolimus has emerged as a safe and effective treatment, but standard recommendations for dosing start at seven months. Guidelines are needed for dosing in very young infants, who have reduced hepatic metabolism of sirolimus. We present our experience treating six neonates (mean age 14.8 days) with complicated vascular anomalies. Standard dosing caused supratherapeutic levels in this population...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jonathan Erickson, William McAuliffe, Lewis Blennerhassett, Anne Halbert
Fibroadipose vascular anomaly (FAVA) is a rare, complex mesenchymal malformation combining fibrofatty replacement of the affected muscles and slow-flow vascular malformation. The condition is characterized by localized swelling, severe pain, phlebectasia, and contracture of the affected limb. Treatment paradigms are not well established for this rare, recently recognized condition. We report two cases of FAVA in which treatment with sirolimus produced rapid, dramatic improvement in pain and quality of life.
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
Kelley K Hutchins, Robert D Ross, Daisuke Kobayashi, Alissa Martin, Madhvi Rajpurkar
Infantile hemangioma is a benign vascular neoplasm that spontaneously involutes over time. Management, when needed, consists of medications, laser treatment and surgical excision. We describe a 3-year-old girl who presented shortly after birth with diffuse cutaneous hemangiomas, hepatosplenomegaly with liver lesions, anemia, and acute heart failure. She was diagnosed with hepatic and cutaneous infantile hemangioma based on skin biopsy. She developed progressive pulmonary hypertension with numerous pulmonary nodules suspicious for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Peter J Klover, Rajesh L Thangapazham, Jiro Kato, Ji-An Wang, Stasia A Anderson, Victoria Hoffmann, Wendy K Steagall, Shaowei Li, Elizabeth McCart, Neera Nathan, Joshua D Bernstock, Matthew D Wilkerson, Clifton L Dalgard, Joel Moss, Thomas N Darling
Increased mTORC1 signaling from TSC1/TSC2 inactivation is found in cancer and causes tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The role of mesenchymal-derived cells in TSC tumorigenesis was investigated through disruption of Tsc2 in craniofacial and limb bud mesenchymal progenitors. Tsc2cKO(Prrx1-cre) mice had shortened lifespans and extensive hamartomas containing abnormal tortuous, dilated vessels prominent in the forelimbs. Abnormalities were blocked by the mTORC1 inhibitor sirolimus. A Tsc2/mTORC1 expression signature identified in Tsc2-deficient fibroblasts was also increased in bladder cancers with TSC1/TSC2 mutations in the TCGA database...
July 11, 2017: ELife
Tomoyuki Mizuno, Chie Emoto, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Adrienne M Hammill, Denise M Adams, Alexander A Vinks
Sirolimus is the first drug to show efficacy in the treatment of patients with complicated vascular anomalies. The current study expands on the evolution of a PK model-based strategy for the precision dosing of sirolimus as part of prospective concentration controlled clinical trials in pediatric patients with vascular anomalies. Twelve month follow up data collected from 52 pediatric patients participating in the Phase 2 clinical trial were analyzed. Target attainment across the age range of 3weeks to 18years after 2-3months of therapy was 94% (49 out of 52 patients)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Shi-Min Yuan
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) is a rare but fatal disease, usually having an onset from the first few hours to days after birth. Inconsistent nomenclatures were used for CPL in the past decades. Patients often present with intractable respiratory failure, hydrops fetalis and even sudden death. The etiologies of CPL remain unclear. Previous hypotheses suggested that CPL might be caused by conditions preventing normal regression of the lymphatics after the 18th-20th week of gestation. Up-to-date biological studies on lymphatic development, lymphatic valve formation and occurrence of hydrops fetalis revealed possible causative relations with mutations of genes of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), RAS/MAPK, PI3K/AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Tomoyuki Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Chie Emoto, Paula S Mobberley-Schuman, Adrienne M Hammill, Denise M Adams, Alexander A Vinks
BACKGROUND: Sirolimus has recently been shown to be efficacious and tolerable in pediatric patients with complicated vascular anomalies. Nevertheless, dosing information remains very limited especially for neonates and infants. The purpose of this study was to develop an age-appropriate sirolimus starting dosing regimen based on the developmental changes in drug elimination capacity using data collected in neonates and infants. PROCEDURE: A recently developed sirolimus maturation model [Emoto et al...
August 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Timothy D Le Cras, Paula S Mobberley-Schuman, Mary Broering, Lin Fei, Cameron C Trenor, Denise M Adams
Vascular anomalies can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in diagnosis will be improved if noninvasive biomarkers can be identified, as obtaining a tissue biopsy can worsen the disease and precipitate complications. The goal of this study was to identify biomarkers for vascular anomaly patients to aid diagnosis and potentially give insights into pathogenesis. Blood was collected at baseline and then 6 and 12 months after treatment with the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Patients groups included generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA), kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA) and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) with or without the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) coagulopathy...
February 2017: Angiogenesis
Paloma Triana, Mariela Dore, Vanesa Nuñez Cerezo, Manuel Cervantes, Alejandra Vilanova Sánchez, Miriam Miguel Ferrero, Mercedes Díaz González, Juan Carlos Lopez-Gutierrez
Aim of the Study mTOR inhibitors are showing promising results in the management of vascular anomalies. Although current controlled trials remain to be completed, many individual experiences are being published. We present our series of children with complex vascular anomalies treated with sirolimus. Patients and Methods A retrospective review of 41 patients treated with sirolimus between January 2011 and December 2015 was performed: 15% (n = 6) had vascular tumors (4 kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas, 1 PTEN) and 85% (n = 35) had malformations (13 generalized lymphatic anomalies/Gorham-Stout diseases [GSD], 1 kaposiform lymphangiomatosis [KLA], 11 large lymphatic malformations (LMs) in critical areas, 2 lymphedemas, 4 venous malformations, and 4 aggressive arteriovenous malformations [AVM])...
February 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Cameron C Trenor
We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active...
September 2016: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Stacy E Croteau, Deepti Gupta
Kasposiform hemoangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA) are classifed as vascular tumors with locally aggressive and benign growth potential, respectively, within the classification schema proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. A unique feature of these vascular tumors is the risk of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP), a severe thrombocytopenia with mild to moderate coagulopathy resulting from intralesional platelet trapping. As with many vascular anomalies, accurate description of clinical course, responses to therapy, and long-term outcomes have been hindered by lesion misidentification, imprecise nomenclature, and lack of prospective, randomized clinical trials to assess therapeutic efficacy...
September 2016: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Stuart L Cramer, Shi Wei, Arnold C Merrow, Joseph G Pressey
Gorham-Stout disease is a life-threatening disorder often manifested by lymphatic malformation and osteolysis. Unfortunately, available therapies are not uniformly effective and often carry substantial morbidity. We report an 18-year-old male with Gorham-Stout disease manifested by lytic rib lesions and an intractable pleural effusion that responded dramatically to the combination of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor sirolimus and the aminobisphosphonate zoledronic acid after failing interferon therapy...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Denise M Adams, Cameron C Trenor, Adrienne M Hammill, Alexander A Vinks, Manish N Patel, Gulraiz Chaudry, Mary Sue Wentzel, Paula S Mobberley-Schuman, Lisa M Campbell, Christine Brookbank, Anita Gupta, Carol Chute, Jennifer Eile, Jesse McKenna, Arnold C Merrow, Lin Fei, Lindsey Hornung, Michael Seid, A Roshni Dasgupta, Belinda H Dickie, Ravindhra G Elluru, Anne W Lucky, Brian Weiss, Richard G Azizkhan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Complicated vascular anomalies have limited therapeutic options and cause significant morbidity and mortality. This Phase II trial enrolled patients with complicated vascular anomalies to determine the efficacy and safety of treatment with sirolimus for 12 courses; each course was defined as 28 days. METHODS: Treatment consisted of a continuous dosing schedule of oral sirolimus starting at 0.8 mg/m(2) per dose twice daily, with pharmacokinetic-guided target serum trough levels of 10 to 15 ng/mL...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Andrew McCormick, Stacy Rosenberg, Katherine Trier, Arcangela Balest
The study of vascular anomalies is a rapidly progressing field in medicine. The development of new knowledge in the pathology and management of these disease processes are exemplified in the treatment of hemangiomas with propranolol and generalized lymphatic malformations with sirolimus. Central conducting lymphatic anomalies have traditionally been refractory to medical and surgical interventions. We report a case of a central conducting lymphatic anomaly that was responsive to sirolimus. A 14-year-old boy presented with chylothorax and chyluria with a lymphangiogram demonstrating abnormal lymphatic flow and reflux along the entire course of the central channels...
January 2016: Pediatrics
Marion Nadal, Bruno Giraudeau, Elsa Tavernier, Annie-Pierre Jonville-Bera, Gerárd Lorette, Annabel Maruani
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are a promising new treatment in vascular anomalies, but no published randomized controlled trials are available. The aim of this systematic review of all reported cases was to assess the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in all vascular anomalies, except cancers, in children and adults. In November 2014 MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and EMBASE were searched for studies of mTOR inhibitors in any vascular condition, except for malignant lesions, in humans. Fourteen publications and 9 posters, with data on 25 and 59 patients, respectively, all < 18 years old were included...
May 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Elisa Boscolo, Nisha Limaye, Lan Huang, Kyu-Tae Kang, Julie Soblet, Melanie Uebelhoer, Antonella Mendola, Marjut Natynki, Emmanuel Seront, Sophie Dupont, Jennifer Hammer, Catherine Legrand, Carlo Brugnara, Lauri Eklund, Miikka Vikkula, Joyce Bischoff, Laurence M Boon
Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
C Emoto, T Fukuda, T N Johnson, D M Adams, A A Vinks
This study describes the maturation of sirolimus clearance in a cohort of very young pediatric patients with vascular anomalies. The relationship between allometrically scaled in vivo clearance and age was described by the Emax model in patients aged 1 month to 2 years. Consistent with the observed increase, in vitro intrinsic clearance of sirolimus using pediatric liver microsomes showed a similar age-dependent increase. In children older than 2 years, allometrically scaled sirolimus clearance did not show further maturation...
February 2015: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Aleksandar M Vlahovic, Natasa S Vlahovic, Emir Q Haxhija
Management of patients with complex vascular anomalies (VAs) is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality because of the lack of effective treatment modalities that may lead to significant improvement of the disease and/or healing. Recently, reports of treatment of patients with complex VAs with sirolimus revealed encouraging results. Sirolimus inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, which acts as a master switch of numerous cellular processes. We report a successful use of sirolimus for the treatment of a patient with a complex CLVM of the trunk and the right lower extremity believed to be untreatable...
August 2015: Pediatrics
Herwig Lackner, Anna Karastaneva, Wolfgang Schwinger, Martin Benesch, Petra Sovinz, Markus Seidel, Daniela Sperl, Sofia Lanz, Emir Haxhija, Friedrich Reiterer, Erich Sorantin, Christian E Urban
UNLABELLED: Vascular anomalies include a heterogeneous group of disorders that are categorized as vascular tumors or vascular malformations. Treatment options include resection, embolization, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy or medical treatment such as propranolol, steroids, interferon, and cytostatic chemotherapy. Mammalian target of rapamycin seems to play a key role in the signal pathway of angiogenesis and subsequently in the development of vascular anomalies. Recently, the successful use of sirolimus has been reported in children with lymphatic malformations and kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas...
December 2015: European Journal of Pediatrics
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