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Ablation or modulation of the dorsal root ganglion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#1
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049756/a-role-for-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-phosphorylation-dependent-modulation-of-prrxl1-function
#2
Ricardo Soares-Dos-Reis, Ana Sofia Pessoa, Ana Filipa Dias, Miguel Falcão, Mariana Raimundo Matos, Rui Vitorino, Filipe Almeida Monteiro, Deolinda Lima, Carlos Reguenga
Prrxl1 encodes for a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor essential for the correct establishment of the dorsal root ganglion - spinal cord nociceptive circuitry during development. Prrxl1 -null mice display gross anatomical disruption of this circuitry, which translates to a markedly diminished sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Here, by the use of an Immunoprecipitation-Mass Spectrometry approach, we identify 5 highly conserved phosphorylation sites (T110, S119, S231, S233, S251) in PRRXL1 primary structure...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046293/su-f-t-631-linear-accelerator-based-frameless-extracranial-radiosurgery-for-treatment-of-occipital-neuralgia-for-non-surgical-candidates
#3
T Denton, J Howe, A Spalding
PURPOSE: Occipital neuralgia is a condition wherein pain is transmitted by the occipital nerves. Non-invasive therapies generally alleviate symptoms; however, persistent or recurring pain may require invasive procedures. Repeated invasive procedures upon failure are considered higher risk and are often contraindicated due to compounding inherent risk. SRS has not been explored as a treatment option largely due to the extracranial nature of the target (as opposed to the similar, more established trigeminal neuralgia), but advances in linear-accelerator frameless-based SRS now present an opportunity to evaluate the novel potential of this modality for this application...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030470/dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-yielded-higher-treatment-success-rate-for-crps-and-causalgia-at-3-and-12-months-randomized-comparative-trial
#4
Timothy R Deer, Robert M Levy, Jeffrey Kramer, Lawrence Poree, Kasra Amirdelfan, Eric Grigsby, Peter Staats, Allen W Burton, Abram H Burgher, Jon Obray, James Scowcroft, Stan Golovac, Leonardo Kapural, Richard Paicius, Christopher Kim, Jason Pope, Thomas Yearwood, Sam Samuel, W Porter McRoberts, Hazmer Cassim, Mark Netherton, Nathan Miller, Michael Schaufele, Edward Tavel, Timothy Davis, Kristina Davis, Linda Johnson, Nagy Mekhail
Animal and human studies indicate that electrical stimulation of DRG neurons may modulate neuropathic pain signals.ACCURATE, a pivotal, prospective, multi-center, randomized-comparative effectiveness trial, was conducted in 152 subjects diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or causalgia in the lower extremities. Subjects received neurostimulation of the DRG or dorsal column (SCS). The primary endpoint was a composite of safety and efficacy at 3 months and subjects were assessed through 12 months for long term outcomes and adverse events...
December 23, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025412/effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-leptin-signaling-in-anterior-pituitary-of-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Chunhua Yin, Lumei Kang, Cong Lai, Jing Zhou, Bin Shi, Lei Zhang, Hongping Chen
Leptin is secreted predominantly by adipocytes and exerts its role mainly by interaction with the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR_V2). It has been identified that LEPR_V2 is widely distributed in various tissues, including the anterior pituitary. Cross-talk between leptin and estrogens has been indentified. Estrogen is known to modulate the tissue-specific expression of LEPR_V2 and leptin in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a model of postmenopausal condition. Our previous data showed that 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulated the expression of LEPR_V2 protein and mRNA in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent manner...
December 26, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012171/mir-15b-mediates-oxaliplatin-induced-chronic-neuropathic-pain-through-bace1-downregulation
#6
Naomi Ito, Atsushi Sakai, Noriko Miyake, Motoyo Maruyama, Hirotoshi Iwasaki, Koichi Miyake, Takashi Okada, Atsuhiro Sakamoto, Hidenori Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although oxaliplatin is an effective anti-cancer platinum compound, it can cause painful chronic neuropathy, and its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Although microRNAs have been increasingly recognised as important modulators in a variety of pain conditions, their involvement in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Oxaliplatin-induced chronic neuropathic pain was induced in rats by intraperitoneal oxaliplatin injections (2 mg kg(-1) ) for 5 consecutive days...
December 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003412/dicer-maintains-the-identity-and-function-of-proprioceptive-sensory-neurons
#7
Sean Michael O'Toole, Monica M Ferrer, Jennifer Mekonnen, Haihan Zhang, Yasuyuki Shima, David R Ladle, Sacha B Nelson
Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell and Heintz 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris and Hobert 2014). Post-transcriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian and Sun 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established. To better understand how post-transcriptional regulation might contribute to cell identity, we examined the proprioceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a highly specialized sensory neuron class, with well established properties that distinguish them from other neurons in the ganglion...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999940/fhf2-isoforms-differentially-regulate-nav1-6-mediated-resurgent-sodium-currents-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#8
Cindy Barbosa, Yucheng Xiao, Andrew J Johnson, Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang, Theodore R Cummins
Nav1.6 and Nav1.6-mediated resurgent currents have been implicated in several pain pathologies. However, our knowledge of how fast resurgent currents are modulated in neurons is limited. Our study explored the potential regulation of Nav1.6-mediated resurgent currents by isoforms of fibroblast growth factor homologous factor 2 (FHF2) in an effort to address the gap in our knowledge. FHF2 isoforms colocalize with Nav1.6 in peripheral sensory neurons. Cell line studies suggest that these proteins differentially regulate inactivation...
December 20, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979883/publisher-s-note-modulation-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-development-by-erbb-signaling-and-the-scaffold-protein-sorbs3-by-malmquist-et-al-development-doi-10-1242-dev-084640
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935216/modulation-of-diet-induced-mechanical-allodynia-by-metabolic-parameters-and-inflammation
#10
Michael A Cooper, Janelle M Ryals, Pau Yen Wu, Kellen D Wright, Katherine R Walter, Douglas E Wright
Dietary-associated diseases have increased tremendously in our current population, yet key molecular changes associated with high-fat diets that cause clinical prediabetes, obesity, hyperglycemia, and peripheral neuropathy remain unclear. This study examines molecular and metabolic aspects altered by voluntary exercise and a high-fat diet in the mouse dorsal root ganglion. Mice were examined for changes in mRNA and proteins encoding anti-inflammatory mediators, metabolic-associated molecules, and pain associated ion channels...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913310/targeted-disruption-of-the-orphan-receptor-gpr151-does-not-alter-pain-related-behaviour-despite-a-strong-induction-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-expression-in-a-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#11
Fiona E Holmes, Niall Kerr, Ying-Ju Chen, Penny Vanderplank, Craig A McArdle, David Wynick
BACKGROUND: Gpr151 is an orphan GPCR whose function is unknown. The restricted pattern of neuronal expression in the habenula, dorsal horn of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion plus homology with the galanin family of receptors imply a role in nociception. RESULTS: Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a 49.9±2.9 fold highly significant (P<0.001) increase in Gpr151 mRNA expression in the dorsal root ganglion 7days after the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain...
January 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898492/growth-hormone-regulates-the-sensitization-of-developing-peripheral-nociceptors-during-cutaneous-inflammation
#12
Xiaohua Liu, Kathryn J Green, Zachary K Ford, Luis F Queme, Peilin Lu, Jessica L Ross, Frank B Lee, Aaron T Shank, Renita C Hudgins, Michael P Jankowski
Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. GH modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH effects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine if GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyper-responsiveness during skin inflammation in young mice, we examined behavioral hypersensitivity and the response properties of cutaneous afferents using an ex vivo hairy skin-saphenous nerve-dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-spinal cord preparation...
November 18, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864646/low-level-laser-irradiation-modulates-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mrna-transcription-through-calcium-dependent-activation-of-the-erk-creb-pathway
#13
Xiaodong Yan, Juanfang Liu, Zhengping Zhang, Wenhao Li, Siguo Sun, Jian Zhao, Xin Dong, Jixian Qian, Honghui Sun
Low-level laser (LLL) irradiation has been reported to promote neuronal differentiation, but the mechanism remains unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been confirmed to be one of the most important neurotrophic factors because it is critical for the differentiation and survival of neurons during development. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of LLL irradiation on Bdnf messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription and the molecular pathway involved in LLL-induced Bdnf mRNA transcription in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) using Ca(2+) imaging, pharmacological detections, RNA interference, immunocytochemistry assay, Western blot, and qPCR analysis...
January 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858292/cisplatin-toxicity-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-is-relieved-by-meclizine-via-diminution-of-mitochondrial-compromise-and-improved-clearance-of-dna-damage
#14
Murat F Gorgun, Ming Zhuo, Ella W Englander
Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity of peripheral nervous system (PNS) hinders efficacy of cancer treatments. Mechanisms initiating PNS injury by anticancer drugs are incompletely understood delaying development of effective management strategies. To understand events triggered in PNS by cancer drugs, we exposed dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to cisplatin, a drug from platinum-based class of chemotherapeutics frequently implicated in peripheral neuropathies. While cisplatin enters cancer cells and forms cisplatin/DNA crosslinks that block cell proliferation, circulating cisplatin can also reach the PNS and produce crosslinks that impede critical DNA transactions in postmitotic neurons...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832523/ovariectomy-induced-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-calcium-ion-influx-through-trpa1-trpm2-and-trpv1-are-prevented-by-17%C3%AE-estradiol-tamoxifen-and-raloxifene-in-the-hippocampus-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-of-rats
#15
Yener Yazğan, Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Relative 17β-estradiol (E2) deprivation and excessive production of mitochondrial oxygen free radicals (OFRs) with a high amount of Ca(2+) influx TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 activity is one of the main causes of neurodegenerative disease in postmenopausal women. In addition to the roles of tamoxifen (TMX) and raloxifene (RLX) in cancer and bone loss treatments, regulator roles in Ca(2+) influx and mitochondrial oxidative stress in neurons have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMX and RLX interactions with TRPA1, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in primary hippocampal (HPC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron cultures of ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
November 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827430/lactate-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-the-capsaicin-receptor-trpv1
#16
Jeanne de la Roche, Isabella Walther, Waleria Leonow, Axel Hage, Mirjam Eberhardt, Martin Fischer, Peter W Reeh, Susanne Sauer, Andreas Leffler
Tissue ischemia results in an accumulation of lactate and local or systemic lactic acidosis. In nociceptive sensory neurons, lactate was reported to sensitize or activate the transient receptor potential ion channel TRPA1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). However, it is unclear how lactate modulates the TRPV1 regarded as the main sensor for acidosis in sensory neurons. In this study we investigated the effects of lactate (LA) on recombinant and native TRPV1 channels and on TRPV1-mediated release of neuropeptides from mouse nerves...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803687/emerging-putative-associations-between-non-coding-rnas-and-protein-coding-genes-in-neuropathic-pain-added-value-from-reusing-microarray-data
#17
Hemalatha B Raju, Nicholas F Tsinoremas, Enrico Capobianco
Regeneration of injured nerves is likely occurring in the peripheral nervous system, but not in the central nervous system. Although protein-coding gene expression has been assessed during nerve regeneration, little is currently known about the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This leaves open questions about the potential effects of ncRNAs at transcriptome level. Due to the limited availability of human neuropathic pain (NP) data, we have identified the most comprehensive time-course gene expression profile referred to sciatic nerve (SN) injury and studied in a rat model using two neuronal tissues, namely dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and SN...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802438/bradykinin-contributes-to-sympathetic-and-pressor-responses-evoked-by-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-afferents-p2x-in-heart-failure
#18
Jihong Xing, Jianhua Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Published data suggest that purinergic P2X receptors of muscle afferent nerves contribute to the enhanced sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP) responses during static exercise in heart failure (HF). In this study, we examined engagement of bradykinin (BK) in regulating responses of SNA and BP evoked by P2X stimulation in rats with HF. We further examined cellular mechanisms responsible for BK. We hypothesized that BK potentiates P2X currents of muscle dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and this effect is greater in HF due to upregulation of BK kinin B2 and P2X3 receptor...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777138/effects-of-4-phenyl-butyric-acid-on-high-glucose-induced-alterations-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#19
Dilip Sharma, Jitendra Narain Singh, Shyam S Sharma
Mechanisms and pathways involving in diabetic neuropathy are still not fully understood but can be unified by the process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, downstream intracellular signaling pathways and their modulation. Susceptibility of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to internal/external hyperglycemic environment stress contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic neuropathy. ER stress leads to abnormal ion channel function, gene expression, transcriptional regulation, metabolism and protein folding...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755539/hypersensitivity-induced-by-activation-of-spinal-cord-par2-receptors-is-partially-mediated-by-trpv1-receptors
#20
Petra Mrozkova, Diana Spicarova, Jiri Palecek
Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear...
2016: PloS One
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